Name: Global 10 Section Global Regents Pack #9 Leaders (Individuals that changed history)

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1 Name: Global 10 Section Global Regents Pack #9 Leaders (Individuals that changed history) 1

2 Theme: Leaders/Individuals that changed history King Hammurabi (Cultural/Intellectual Life) Siddhartha Gautama (Buddha) (Belief Systems) Confucius (Belief Systems, Philosopher) Muhammad (Belief Systems) Mansa Musa (Movement, Belief Systems) Martin Luther (Reformation, Enlightenment) Louis XIV (Political Systems) Montesquieu (Cultural/Intellectual Life) Adam Smith capitalism, industrialization) Robespierre (French Revolution) Napoleon Bonaparte (Nationalism) Simon Bolivar (Nationalism) Toussaint L Ouverture (Nationalism) Wilson United Mesopotamia under Babylon Created first law code Code of Hammurabi an eye for an eye Based on social classes, but standards of justice established Founder of Buddhism Born Brahmin caste in India Root of all suffering in world = desire; solution eliminate all desire Confucianism (Chinese belief system) 5 relationships The Analects Founder of Islam Prophet of Allah Qu ran/koran writer Was from Mali (capital is Timbuktu) Went to Mecca Brought back Muslims Responsible for cultural diffusion of Islam belief system Protested and brought down the Catholic church 95 Thesis Reformation Lutheranism Sun King Built palace at Versailles Enlightenment thinker Spirit of the Laws Checks and Balances/Separation of powers English philosopher father of capitalism Laissez-faire (invisible hand theory) government hands off! Wealth of Nations Leader of socialists in France after the revolution Responsible for Reign of Terror Liberty, Equality and fraternity (brotherhood) French people turned to Napoleon for stability after the French Revolution Became an absolute monarch; ruled an empire (that fell because of nationalism/revolutions and his invasion of Russia lost because of climate) Had strong economic, education, and legal codes Latin American independence leader Got Spain out of much of Latin America. Leader of Haitian revolt President of US during WWI Proposed 14 Points ( League of Nations) Signed Treaty of Versailles 2

3 Mussolini (Fascism, Totalitarianism) Hitler (Conflict, Human Rights) Marx (Economic systems communism, Revolutions) Lenin (Communism, Russian Revolution) Stalin communism, Dictators, Human Rights) Mao communism, Dictators, Human Rights) Deng Xiaoping communism, Human Rights) Gandhi (Imperialism, Nationalism, Belief Systems) Ho Chi Minh communism, Human Rights) Nelson Mandela (Nationalism) Mikhail Gorbachev (Turning Points, Economic Systems communism) Established totalitarian state in Italy after WWI Used nationalism and propaganda to gain support Chancellor of Germany starting in 1933 Nazi/Fascist leader of a totalitarian state Invaded Poland Responsible for Holocaust Communist Manifesto; wrote with Frederich Engels Believed there would be a worker revolution Inspired Lenin/Bolsheviks Socialist ideas put into communist practice Helped lead Bolshevik Revolution First leader of communist Russia Peace, Land and Bread Took over Russia after Lenin Totalitarian leader 5-year economic plans Farm collectivization where peasants lived on large government owned farms Caused widespread famine and economic inefficiency Chinese communist leader Took power after battling Chiang Kai-shek (Chinese nationalist) Long March Great Leap Forward economic plan increase output Communes Resulted in famine and economic inefficiency Four Modernizations; limited privatization, foreign investment Led government willing to grant economic reforms, but no political Tiananmen Square: thousands of protesters killed/wounded human rights violations Indian nationalist leader Fought for rights of women and untouchables Fought for Indian independence Non-violence (hunger strikes) Fought out the French then the US from Vietnam Communist Supported by USSR and communist China South African ANC leader First black president of South Africa 27 years in jail Nobel Peach Price with DeKlerk for dismantling the apartheid state Wanted to end Cold War tensions Restructured failing command economy: perestroika o goal: stimulate economic growth, make industry efficient BUT some negative effects inflation increased, shortages of food and medicine Called for glasnost openness; policy ended censorship SOVIET UNION CEASED TO EXIST COMMUNISM COLLAPSED 3

4 Boris Yeltsin (Turning Points) Helped end communism throughout Eastern Europe President of Russia after Gorbachev struggled to make transition from communism to democracy; privatized industries and farms Multiple Choice If a man has destroyed the eye of a free man, his own eye shall be destroyed. If a man has knocked out the teeth of a man of the same rank, his own teeth shall be knocked out. 1. These rules are based on the (1) Analects of Confucius (2) Code of Hammurabi (3) Ten Commandments (4) Koran (Qur an) Mansa Musa commissioned great mosques to be built in Timbuktu, Mali s capital, and in other Mali cities. Under Musa s patronage, Muslim scholarship flourished, and Timbuktu began its tenure as an important center of learning. This public display of wealth and power enhanced Mali s reputation and prestige throughout the world. 2. Which phrase best describes Mali under the rule of Mansa Musa? (1) a golden age (2) a poverty-stricken era (3) a decade of colonial unrest (4) a period of political chaos Sale of indulgences authorized by Pope Leo X to raise money to build St. Peter s Basilica in Rome (1515) Ninety-five Theses posted (1517) Hearing held at Worms, Germany (1521) 3. These events are most closely associated with (1) Charles V and absolutism (2) Martin Luther and the Protestant Reformation (3) John Locke and the Enlightenment (4) Karl Marx and scientific socialism 4. Which list of French leaders is in the correct chronological order? (1) Louis XVI Napoleon Robespierre (2) Robespierre Napoleon Louis XVI (3) Louis XVI Robespierre Napoleon (4) Napoleon Louis XVI Robespierre 5. The political ideas of Ho Chi Minh, Fidel Castro, and Pol Pot were strongly influenced by the writings of (1) Confucius (3) Desmond Tutu (2) Mohandas Gandhi (4) Karl Marx 4

5 6. One similarity in the actions of Simón Bolívar and Napoleon Bonaparte is that both leaders (1) encouraged nationalism (2) relied on diplomatic negotiations (3) established a representative form of government (4) rebelled against imperialism 7. Joseph Stalin s rule in the Soviet Union was characterized by the (1) introduction of democratic political institutions (2) encouragement of religious beliefs (3) development of a market economy (4) establishment of a totalitarian dictatorship 8. One similarity between Mikhail Gorbachev s perestroika and Deng Xiaoping s Four Modernizations is that each (1) allowed elements of capitalism (2) maintained the democratic process (3) strengthened communism (4) increased global tensions 9. Mikhail Gorbachev instituted the policies of glasnost and perestroika to (1) reinforce the basic economic principles of communism (2) bring the Soviet Union into the European Economic Community (3) reform the Soviet Union politically and economically (4) gain acceptance for free political elections 10. One way in which Lech Walesa, Mikhail Gorbachev, and Nelson Mandela are similar is that each (1) led the people of his nation toward a more democratic government (2) fought for power for the black majority over the white minority (3) worked to end communism in his country (4) refused to participate in the United Nation 5

6 Theme: Change/Leaders Task: Throughout history, the actions of leaders have changed the society in which they lived. Identify two leaders who changed the society in which they lived and for each Describe one situation the leader attempted to change Describe one action the leader took to change this situation Discuss the impact of that action on the society in which the leader lived You may use any leader from your study of global history and geography except Johann Gutenberg and James Watt. Some suggestions you might wish to consider include Martin Luther, Queen Elizabeth I, Toussaint L Ouverture, Napoleon Bonaparte, Simón Bolívar, Otto von Bismarck, Mohandas Gandhi, Mao Zedong, Ho Chi Minh, Fidel Castro, and Nelson Mandela. 6

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