ENERGY BALANCE AND GREENHOUSE EFFECT. D. Stahle, Global Change (ENDY/GEOG 5113)

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "ENERGY BALANCE AND GREENHOUSE EFFECT. D. Stahle, Global Change (ENDY/GEOG 5113)"

Transcription

1 ENERGY BALANCE AND GREENHOUSE EFFECT D. Stahle, Global Change (ENDY/GEOG 5113) Gedzelman, S.D., The Science and Wonders of the Atmosphere. Wiley, NY. Huschke, R.E., Glossary of Meteorology. American Meteorological Society, Boston. IPCC, Climate Change 2007: the Physical Science Basis. 4 th Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (Susan Solomon et al., editors). Cambridge University Press, 996 pp. Peterson, T.C. and M.O. Baringer, eds., State of the climate in Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 90, S1-S196. The ENERGY BALANCE of Earth is achieved through an equalization of incoming solar radiation and outgoing terrestrial radiation. Solar radiation is also referred to as shortwave electromagnetic radiation (EMR), and has an emission spectrum that peaks in the so-called visible range of EMR (i.e., the bulk of the solar radiation entering the top of the atmosphere is concentrated at wavelengths between 0.4 and 0.7 microns and is visible to the naked eye). The Earth s emission of terrestrial radiation back into space peaks at wavelengths near 10 microns (terrestrial radiation is also referred to as longwave or infrared radiation). But the atmosphere of this planet behaves very differently in response to these two massive streams of radiation. The atmosphere is largely transparent to shortwave solar radiation, but it is mostly opaque to longwave terrestrial radiation. This difference in opacity explains how the much lower flux of less energetic terrestrial radiation can actually come into balance with the powerful input of solar radiation within the Earth s climate system. The GREENHOUSE EFFECT is the heat trapping effect of the atmosphere. The atmosphere is mostly transparent to shortwave radiation from the sun, half of which (roughly 45%) reaches the surface to heat the planet. The Earth then radiates longwave radiation upward, but gases and water vapor in the atmosphere are quite effective at absorbing radiation in the infrared range so they trap much of this infrared EMR in the lower atmosphere. This is one of the important mechanisms whereby the atmosphere acquires heat, and the air then radiates in 360, including much of it backward to the Earth surface to further heat the land and sea. This is the greenhouse effect, an entirely natural process that increases the heating efficiency of the solar radiation actually intercepted by Earth. Today, the CO2 concentration in the global atmosphere is rising primarily due to anthropogenic fossil fuel combustion and deforestation and will result in an enhanced greenhouse effect, warmer temperatures, and global climate change. Water vapor is by far the most important heat trapping substance in the atmosphere, but CO2 (carbon dioxide) is the next most important, then methane (CH4), then chloroflourocarbons (CFC's), then nitrous oxide (NO2), then a host of miscellaneous gases. The gas composition of the atmosphere is: 78% nitrogen, 21% oxygen, and 1% trace gases (this excludes water vapor, which is not evenly mixed in the atmosphere). Of the 1% trace gases, there is 0.93% argon, 0.03% CO2 (and rising), and then everything 1

2 else is at even lower concentration, including ozone which is only % of the gaseous composition of the atmosphere. To identify the major components of the Earth s energy balance, we will examine a schematic representation of the major radiation exchanges. We will compare the "clean signal" of solar radiation that intercepts the top of Earth's atmosphere with the solar radiation that is actually transmitted through the atmosphere to the surface of Earth. The Earth climate system initially acquires heat from this transmitted solar radiation, and the atmosphere then regulates the re-transmission of heat in the form of infrared radiation back to space via the greenhouse effect. Without an atmosphere, the Earth would be much hotter in the day (because of the greater solar radiation load that would occur), and much colder at night (because she would lose more radiation in the absence of a greenhouse effect). Under these 'no atmosphere' conditions, life as we know it could not exist on Earth. There would be too much ultraviolet radiation and the diurnal temperature range would be much too incompatible for life. The GLOBAL ENERGY BALANCE concept concerns how solar radiation is received, used, and returned to space by the Earth's atmospheric system, which is the strongly coupled air-sea-land system. The term coupled refers to the very strong dynamic links or interactions between the air, sea, and land. The global energy budget is a balance between the incoming solar radiation (shortwave) and the outgoing terrestrial radiation (longwave). It must balance or the Earth would progressively cool or warm (depending on the sign of the imbalance), with potentially catastrophic consequences for life. Consider for example the strong greenhouse effects that occur on both Venus and Mars. Venus has an atmosphere of 96.5% carbon dioxide, a runaway greenhouse effect, and surface temperatures of about 900 degrees F. The Martian atmosphere is only about 1/150 th the density of Earth s atmosphere, but like Venus it too is mostly CO2 (95%). Mars is very cold and subject to a diurnal temperature range of 180 F. But Mars would be much colder without the CO2-rich atmosphere. How is the global energy balance on Earth achieved? If we represent all incoming solar radiation as 100%, we can follow these 100 units of incoming energy through the Earth atmospheric system to identify the major components. First, 31% of the incoming radiation is immediately reflected off the atmosphere and surface of Earth back to space without heating the Earth or its atmosphere. This is the albedo effect, the reflectivity of Earth. Dust particles, clouds, and other small particulate debris in the sky (i.e., aerosols) tend to reflect some sunlight and thus contribute to the planetary albedo. Bright surfaces on the planet itself are also reflective and contribute to albedo (notably new fallen snow on flat ground and ice shelves). Albedo is strongly affected by the color and texture of the surface, and by the angle of incoming sunlight (so albedo is always higher near the poles, or early in the morning or late in the evening). Note also that there is some controversy regarding the exact albedo of Earth (it is about 31%). However, there is no doubt that if albedo were to rise significantly, the Earth would cool. If albedo were to decrease, Earth would warm. 2

3 Consider this albedo feedback example which illustrates how a relatively subtle component of the coupled air-sea-land system might change, only to have the albedo effect magnify the climatic impact of that small change: 1. A cataclysmic volcanic eruption fills the global atmosphere with sulphate aerosols that increase the planetary albedo, reflect more sunlight, and attenuate the transmission of solar radiation to the Earth surface; 2. The higher albedo leads to a transient cooling of the global mean temperature; 3. Cooler temperatures would favor the persistence of snow cover in high latitudes and delay the spring thaw (or hasten the onset of winter snow cover in autumn); 4. The persistent snow cover would also raise the albedo, which could enhance the cooling trend and contribute to further persistence of the snow cover, thus initiating a positive self-enhancing cooling trend. The Earth's climate system is governed by a complicated set of dynamic interrelationships, and a significant change any component could potentially trigger a cascade of subsequent changes in the coupled system to finally result in a changed climate. Ironically, just 24% of the incoming solar radiation is absorbed by gases, clouds, and dust to directly warm the atmosphere. Some 3% of that direct atmospheric absorption takes place in the stratosphere, and it is ozone, the three-atom molecule of oxygen that is doing much of this 3% direct atmospheric absorption. The other 21% of this direct atmospheric heating occurs mostly high above Earth's surface, and all 24% is lost back to outer space as longwave radiation from the upper atmosphere. So that leaves 45% of the incoming solar radiation to actually make it down to the land or sea to warm the surface of Earth (100% - 31% - 24% = 45%), to provide the bulk of the heat source for the land, ocean, and atmosphere, the heat source which in fact drives the ocean-atmospheric circulation of Earth. Most of the initial force behind ocean-atmospheric circulation comes from the direct heating of land and the surface ocean by solar radiation. Heat stored in the near-surface ground or ocean is then transferred into the air by longwave radiation, conduction, convection, and latent heat transfer. Longwave radiation emission from the land and sea surface up into the atmosphere is the largest exchange. A radiation quantity equivalent to approximately 110% of the solar radiation that entered the atmosphere in the first place is radiated from the surface of the planet to the atmosphere (this can happen in part because the sun can illuminate only half of the globe, but the Earth radiates from fully 360 of its surface, day and night). But most of that 110% is absorbed by the atmosphere, and this is one very important way that the sky acquires heat and itself begins to radiate longwave radiation in all directions, up, sideways and down. The net result of this longwave radiation absorption is that atmosphere re-radiates the equivalent of 96% of the original incoming solar radiation back to the surface of Earth (referred to as counter radiation ). It is a recycling effect if you will: 110% radiates up, 14% of that is lost to space off the top of the atmosphere, but 96% is returned to Earth to further heat the planet. So longwave radiation exchange is a major component of the global energy balance, and the recycling of longwave radiation is essentially the greenhouse effect. It is water vapor, clouds, carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases in the sky 3

4 that are crucial to the greenhouse effect because they absorb the longwave radiation to warm the atmosphere and more effectively warm the planet surface. Alter those constituents in the atmosphere and you run the risk of altering the energy balance of Earth. This is the fundamental reason for the scientific concern about the rise in atmospheric carbon dioxide and other heat trapping gases due to human activities (i.e., the enhanced greenhouse effect). Returning to the global energy balance: we have 100% of the solar radiation coming in, then -31% due to albedo, -24% due to direct solar heating of the upper atmosphere (most of which is lost back to space), -14% due to longwave emission from the heated atmosphere itself, and now another -8% lost due to direct longwave radiation through the atmosphere into outer space (no absorption by the air, especially common on clear dry nights). Then we also lose another 19% of the incoming solar through latent heat transfer into the sky and then on to space. And finally another 4% is lost due to sensible heat transfer (convection) from the surface to the sky and then to space. So this should balance: = 0. The most significant potential positive feedback in the enhanced CO2/global warming issue: If we increase CO2 concentrations in the global atmosphere, then 1. More longwave radiation that would otherwise escape to space will be trapped in Earth's atmosphere (this is not controversial, CO2 is definitely a heat trapping gas); 2. If more longwave radiation is trapped then global temperature will rise; 3. If global temperature rises, then there will be more evaporation of water vapor into the atmosphere; 4. Since water vapor is by far the most important heat trapping substances in the atmosphere, that would lead to even more longwave radiation trapping in the atmosphere, higher temperature, even more evaporation, even more water vapor, even more longwave trapping, etc., etc. The end result would eventually be a new equilibrium temperature of Earth in balance with the higher CO2 concentration (equilibration would likely require decades to centuries). There is some evidence that water vapor has been rising along with the global mean temperature over the last 20 or 30 years. But there are many other possible positive and negative feedbacks involved in the atmosphere. For example, more water vapor should mean more clouds, and depending on what type of clouds form, they could reflect more sunlight (raising the global albedo), which would tend to cool the Earth. POINTS TO REMEMBER ABOUT THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT: 1. The greenhouse effect is the heat trapping effect of the atmosphere. Longwave radiation is absorbed by the atmosphere and warms the troposphere. It is a natural process and but has been enhanced with the accumulation of anthropogenic greenhouse gases. 2. Shortwave radiation from the sun largely penetrates the atmosphere and is absorbed by the Earth. The Earth thereby acquires heat and radiates longwave radiation. Water vapor, CO2 and other greenhouse gases then trap longwave radiation in the atmosphere to warm the atmosphere. 3. The cause of the CO2 increase is fossil fuel combustion and deforestation. 4

5 4. The problems associated with the human enhanced greenhouse effect and the anthropogenic destruction of stratospheric ozone are connected, but the connections tend to be second-order effects. Enhanced greenhouse warming of the troposphere will lead inevitably to cooling of the stratosphere, and colder conditions in the stratosphere contribute to the catalytic destruction of ozone. Ozone is a pollution byproduct in the lower troposphere. Tropospheric ozone is a potent greenhouse gas and is contributing to warming. However, these connections between ozone and the enhanced greenhouse effect are relatively subtle compared to the larger issues involved with each problem. 5

The Earth s Atmosphere

The Earth s Atmosphere THE SUN-EARTH SYSTEM III The Earth s Atmosphere Composition and Distribution of the Atmosphere The composition of the atmosphere and the way its gases interact with electromagnetic radiation determine

More information

FACTS ABOUT CLIMATE CHANGE

FACTS ABOUT CLIMATE CHANGE FACTS ABOUT CLIMATE CHANGE 1. What is climate change? Climate change is a long-term shift in the climate of a specific location, region or planet. The shift is measured by changes in features associated

More information

Energy Pathways in Earth s Atmosphere

Energy Pathways in Earth s Atmosphere BRSP - 10 Page 1 Solar radiation reaching Earth s atmosphere includes a wide spectrum of wavelengths. In addition to visible light there is radiation of higher energy and shorter wavelength called ultraviolet

More information

Solar Flux and Flux Density. Lecture 3: Global Energy Cycle. Solar Energy Incident On the Earth. Solar Flux Density Reaching Earth

Solar Flux and Flux Density. Lecture 3: Global Energy Cycle. Solar Energy Incident On the Earth. Solar Flux Density Reaching Earth Lecture 3: Global Energy Cycle Solar Flux and Flux Density Planetary energy balance Greenhouse Effect Vertical energy balance Latitudinal energy balance Seasonal and diurnal cycles Solar Luminosity (L)

More information

ATM S 111: Global Warming Greenhouse Gases. Jennifer Fletcher Day 4: June

ATM S 111: Global Warming Greenhouse Gases. Jennifer Fletcher Day 4: June ATM S 111: Global Warming Greenhouse Gases Jennifer Fletcher Day 4: June 24 2010 What are the Major Greenhouse Gases? Our atmosphere is mostly nitrogen (N 2, 78%), oxygen (O 2, 21%), and argon (Ar, 0.9%)

More information

ESCI 107/109 The Atmosphere Lesson 2 Solar and Terrestrial Radiation

ESCI 107/109 The Atmosphere Lesson 2 Solar and Terrestrial Radiation ESCI 107/109 The Atmosphere Lesson 2 Solar and Terrestrial Radiation Reading: Meteorology Today, Chapters 2 and 3 EARTH-SUN GEOMETRY The Earth has an elliptical orbit around the sun The average Earth-Sun

More information

Grantham Briefing Note 6 (Version 2) September 2013 Climate change, greenhouse gases and radiative forcing

Grantham Briefing Note 6 (Version 2) September 2013 Climate change, greenhouse gases and radiative forcing Grantham Briefing Note 6 (Version 2) September 2013 Climate change, greenhouse gases and radiative forcing DR FLORA MACTAVISH AND DR SIMON BUCKLE Overview Human emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and

More information

Planetary Energy Balance

Planetary Energy Balance Planetary Energy Balance Electromagnetic Spectrum Different types of radiation enter the Earth s atmosphere and they re all a part of the electromagnetic spectrum. One end of the electromagnetic (EM) spectrum

More information

Heating the Atmosphere. Dr. Michael J Passow

Heating the Atmosphere. Dr. Michael J Passow Heating the Atmosphere Dr. Michael J Passow Heat vs. Temperature Heat refers to energy transferred from one object to another Temperature measures the average kinetic energy in a substance. When heat energy

More information

ATM S 111, Global Warming: Understanding the Forecast

ATM S 111, Global Warming: Understanding the Forecast ATM S 111, Global Warming: Understanding the Forecast DARGAN M. W. FRIERSON DEPARTMENT OF ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES DAY 1: OCTOBER 1, 2015 Outline How exactly the Sun heats the Earth How strong? Important concept

More information

CHAPTER 3 Heat and energy in the atmosphere

CHAPTER 3 Heat and energy in the atmosphere CHAPTER 3 Heat and energy in the atmosphere In Chapter 2 we examined the nature of energy and its interactions with Earth. Here we concentrate initially on the way in which energy interacts with the atmosphere

More information

Understanding weather and climate

Understanding weather and climate Understanding weather and climate Weather can have a big impact on our day-to-day lives. On longer timescales, climate influences where and how people live and the lifecycles of plants and animals. Evidence

More information

ATM S 111, Global Warming: Understanding the Forecast

ATM S 111, Global Warming: Understanding the Forecast ATM S 111, Global Warming: Understanding the Forecast DARGAN M. W. FRIERSON DEPARTMENT OF ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES DAY 2: OCTOBER 6, 2015 In the News India submits climate action plan Will have 40% renewable

More information

Name Class Date STUDY GUIDE FOR CONTENT MASTERY

Name Class Date STUDY GUIDE FOR CONTENT MASTERY Atmosphere SECTION 11.1 Atmospheric Basics In your textbook, read about the composition of the atmosphere. Circle the letter of the choice that best completes the statement. 1. Most of Earth s atmosphere

More information

The Atmosphere. Introduction Greenhouse Effect/Climate Change/Global Warming

The Atmosphere. Introduction Greenhouse Effect/Climate Change/Global Warming Introduction Greenhouse Effect/Climate Change/Global Warming The Atmosphere The terms Greenhouse Effect, Climate Change, and Global Warming are often used interchangeably, yet they really refer to three

More information

Clouds and the Energy Cycle

Clouds and the Energy Cycle August 1999 NF-207 The Earth Science Enterprise Series These articles discuss Earth's many dynamic processes and their interactions Clouds and the Energy Cycle he study of clouds, where they occur, and

More information

The weather effects everyday life. On a daily basis it can affect choices we make about whether to walk or take the car, what clothes we wear and

The weather effects everyday life. On a daily basis it can affect choices we make about whether to walk or take the car, what clothes we wear and Weather can have a big impact on our day-to-day lives. On longer timescales, climate influences where and how people live and the lifecycles of plants and animals. Evidence shows us that our climate is

More information

Review 1. Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.

Review 1. Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. Review 1 Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. When hydrogen nuclei fuse into helium nuclei a. the nuclei die. c. particles collide. b. energy

More information

CHAPTER 2 Energy and Earth

CHAPTER 2 Energy and Earth CHAPTER 2 Energy and Earth This chapter is concerned with the nature of energy and how it interacts with Earth. At this stage we are looking at energy in an abstract form though relate it to how it affect

More information

ATMOSPHERIC STRUCTURE. The vertical distribution of temperature, pressure,

ATMOSPHERIC STRUCTURE. The vertical distribution of temperature, pressure, ATMOSPHERIC STRUCTURE. The vertical distribution of temperature, pressure, density, and composition of the atmosphere constitutes atmospheric structure. These quantities also vary with season and location

More information

Fundamentals of Climate Change (PCC 587): Water Vapor

Fundamentals of Climate Change (PCC 587): Water Vapor Fundamentals of Climate Change (PCC 587): Water Vapor DARGAN M. W. FRIERSON UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON, DEPARTMENT OF ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES DAY 2: 9/30/13 Water Water is a remarkable molecule Water vapor

More information

CHAPTER 5 Lectures 10 & 11 Air Temperature and Air Temperature Cycles

CHAPTER 5 Lectures 10 & 11 Air Temperature and Air Temperature Cycles CHAPTER 5 Lectures 10 & 11 Air Temperature and Air Temperature Cycles I. Air Temperature: Five important factors influence air temperature: A. Insolation B. Latitude C. Surface types D. Coastal vs. interior

More information

Global Warming and Greenhouse Gases Reading Assignment

Global Warming and Greenhouse Gases Reading Assignment What is global warming? Global Warming and Greenhouse Gases Imagine you live in a timber shack in Alaska. It's chilly up there, so you build yourself a huge log fire and pile on all the wood you can find.

More information

a) species of plants that require a relatively cool, moist environment tend to grow on poleward-facing slopes.

a) species of plants that require a relatively cool, moist environment tend to grow on poleward-facing slopes. J.D. McAlpine ATMS 611 HMWK #8 a) species of plants that require a relatively cool, moist environment tend to grow on poleward-facing slopes. These sides of the slopes will tend to have less average solar

More information

The Greenhouse Effect. Lan Ma Global Warming: Problems & Solutions 17 September, 2007

The Greenhouse Effect. Lan Ma Global Warming: Problems & Solutions 17 September, 2007 The Greenhouse Effect Lan Ma Global Warming: Problems & Solutions 17 September, 2007 What to cover today: How do we calculate the Earth s surface temperature? What makes a gas a greenhouse gas and how

More information

1. Theoretical background

1. Theoretical background 1. Theoretical background We consider the energy budget at the soil surface (equation 1). Energy flux components absorbed or emitted by the soil surface are: net radiation, latent heat flux, sensible heat

More information

SATELLITE USES FOR PURPOSE OF NOWCASTING. Introduction

SATELLITE USES FOR PURPOSE OF NOWCASTING. Introduction SATELLITE USES FOR PURPOSE OF NOWCASTING Kedir, Mohammed National Meteorological Agency of Ethiopia Introduction The application(uses) of satellite sensing data deals to obtain information about the basic

More information

The Balance of Power in the Earth-Sun System

The Balance of Power in the Earth-Sun System NASA Facts National Aeronautics and Space Administration www.nasa.gov The Balance of Power in the Earth-Sun System The Sun is the major source of energy for Earth s oceans, atmosphere, land, and biosphere.

More information

GREENHOUSE EFFECT & GLOBAL WARMING - The internet as the primary source of information

GREENHOUSE EFFECT & GLOBAL WARMING - The internet as the primary source of information GREENHOUSE EFFECT & GLOBAL WARMING - The internet as the primary source of information - The internet as a resource - Use reputable web sites Government agencies: EPA, NASA, DOE, etc Academic Institutions

More information

Copyrighted Material. 1 Basics of Climate. The climate s delicate, the air most sweet. William Shakespeare, A Winter s Tale

Copyrighted Material. 1 Basics of Climate. The climate s delicate, the air most sweet. William Shakespeare, A Winter s Tale 1 Basics of Climate The climate s delicate, the air most sweet. William Shakespeare, A Winter s Tale To appreciate the role of the ocean in climate, we need to have a basic understanding of how the climate

More information

Climate Change and Protection of the Habitat: Empirical Evidence for the Greenhouse Effect and Global Warming

Climate Change and Protection of the Habitat: Empirical Evidence for the Greenhouse Effect and Global Warming Complexity and Analogy in Science Pontifical Academy of Sciences, Acta 22, Vatican City 2014 www.pas.va/content/dam/accademia/pdf/acta22/acta22-ramanathan.pdf Climate Change and Protection of the Habitat:

More information

ChangE. PolICIEs. not the ClIMatE!

ChangE. PolICIEs. not the ClIMatE! ChangE PolICIEs not the ClIMatE! IPCC The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change s (IPCC) reports are the most comprehensive global overview to date of the science behind climate change. These climate

More information

Spring 2014 California State University, Northridge. Understanding Global Warming

Spring 2014 California State University, Northridge. Understanding Global Warming Spring 2014 California State University, Northridge Understanding Global Warming Global Warming is Real The combined global land and ocean average surface temperature for January November 2013 was 0.62

More information

California Standards Grades 9 12 Boardworks 2009 Science Contents Standards Mapping

California Standards Grades 9 12 Boardworks 2009 Science Contents Standards Mapping California Standards Grades 912 Boardworks 2009 Science Contents Standards Mapping Earth Sciences Earth s Place in the Universe 1. Astronomy and planetary exploration reveal the solar system s structure,

More information

Phosphorus and Sulfur

Phosphorus and Sulfur Global Change Instruction Program Phosphorus and Sulfur The Important Nutrient Phosphorus Phosphorus is a key nutrient, fueling organic productivity on land and in water. A portion of its cycle is shown

More information

climate science A SHORT GUIDE TO This is a short summary of a detailed discussion of climate change science.

climate science A SHORT GUIDE TO This is a short summary of a detailed discussion of climate change science. A SHORT GUIDE TO climate science This is a short summary of a detailed discussion of climate change science. For more information and to view the full report, visit royalsociety.org/policy/climate-change

More information

Chapter 7: Greenhouse gases and particulate matter

Chapter 7: Greenhouse gases and particulate matter Additional material for Fundamentals of Sustainable Development, Niko Roorda, 2012. Chapter 7: Greenhouse gases and particulate matter Debates on the anthropogenic greenhouse effect and climate change

More information

Arctic warming feedbacks and amplifications. John Noble EARTH254 4 June 2009

Arctic warming feedbacks and amplifications. John Noble EARTH254 4 June 2009 Arctic warming feedbacks and amplifications John Noble EARTH254 4 June 2009 Temperature - dynamical feedback Climate sensitivity export Feedback characteristics Negative feedbacks dampen; positive amplify

More information

Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.

Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. Test 2 f14 Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. Carbon cycles through the Earth system. During photosynthesis, carbon is a. released from wood

More information

ESCI-61 Introduction to Photovoltaic Technology. Solar Radiation. Ridha Hamidi, Ph.D.

ESCI-61 Introduction to Photovoltaic Technology. Solar Radiation. Ridha Hamidi, Ph.D. 1 ESCI-61 Introduction to Photovoltaic Technology Solar Radiation Ridha Hamidi, Ph.D. 2 The Sun The Sun is a perpetual source of energy It has produced energy for about 4.6 billions of years, and it is

More information

CHAPTER 6 THE TERRESTRIAL PLANETS

CHAPTER 6 THE TERRESTRIAL PLANETS CHAPTER 6 THE TERRESTRIAL PLANETS MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. Which of the following is NOT one of the four stages in the development of a terrestrial planet? 2. That Earth, evidence that Earth differentiated.

More information

AP* Environmental Science: Atmosphere and Air Pollution Answer Section

AP* Environmental Science: Atmosphere and Air Pollution Answer Section AP* Environmental Science: Atmosphere and Air Pollution Answer Section MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. ANS: B Stratospheric ozone, found roughly 11-16 miles above sea level keeps about 95% of the sun s harmful UV radiation

More information

1. At which temperature would a source radiate the least amount of electromagnetic energy? 1) 273 K 3) 32 K 2) 212 K 4) 5 K

1. At which temperature would a source radiate the least amount of electromagnetic energy? 1) 273 K 3) 32 K 2) 212 K 4) 5 K 1. At which temperature would a source radiate the least amount of electromagnetic energy? 1) 273 K 3) 32 K 2) 212 K 4) 5 K 2. How does the amount of heat energy reflected by a smooth, dark-colored concrete

More information

Observed Cloud Cover Trends and Global Climate Change. Joel Norris Scripps Institution of Oceanography

Observed Cloud Cover Trends and Global Climate Change. Joel Norris Scripps Institution of Oceanography Observed Cloud Cover Trends and Global Climate Change Joel Norris Scripps Institution of Oceanography Increasing Global Temperature from www.giss.nasa.gov Increasing Greenhouse Gases from ess.geology.ufl.edu

More information

Global Warming. Charles F. Keller

Global Warming. Charles F. Keller Global Warming Charles F. Keller Smokestacks at an industrial plant. Introduction Global warming is in the news. While scientists agree that temperatures are rising, they disagree as to the causes and

More information

Climate Control and Ozone Depletion. Chapter 19

Climate Control and Ozone Depletion. Chapter 19 Climate Control and Ozone Depletion Chapter 19 Global Warming and Global Cooling Are Not New Over the past 4.5 billion years the climate has been altered by Volcanic emissions Changes in solar input Movement

More information

Lecture 23: Terrestrial Worlds in Comparison. This lecture compares and contrasts the properties and evolution of the 5 main terrestrial bodies.

Lecture 23: Terrestrial Worlds in Comparison. This lecture compares and contrasts the properties and evolution of the 5 main terrestrial bodies. Lecture 23: Terrestrial Worlds in Comparison Astronomy 141 Winter 2012 This lecture compares and contrasts the properties and evolution of the 5 main terrestrial bodies. The small terrestrial planets have

More information

CO2 Absorption Spectrum

CO2 Absorption Spectrum CO2 Absorption Spectrum There is no Valid Mechanism for CO2 Creating Global Warming Proof one: Laboratory measurements show that carbon dioxide absorbs to extinction at its main peak in 10 meters under

More information

Temperature Scales. temperature scales Celsius Fahrenheit Kelvin

Temperature Scales. temperature scales Celsius Fahrenheit Kelvin Ch. 10-11 Concept Ch. 10 #1, 3, 7, 8, 9, 11 Ch11, # 3, 6, 11 Problems Ch10 # 3, 5, 11, 17, 21, 24, 25, 29, 33, 37, 39, 43, 47, 59 Problems: CH 11 # 1, 2, 3a, 4, 5, 6, 9, 13, 15, 22, 25, 27, 28, 35 Temperature

More information

Introduction to the Greenhouse Effect

Introduction to the Greenhouse Effect Introduction to the Greenhouse Effect Planetary Temperature by Arthur Glasfeld and Margret Geselbracht ver the past 10-15 years there has been growing concern over changes in the climate and the possibility

More information

GETTING TO THE CORE: THE LINK BETWEEN TEMPERATURE AND CARBON DIOXIDE

GETTING TO THE CORE: THE LINK BETWEEN TEMPERATURE AND CARBON DIOXIDE DESCRIPTION This lesson plan gives students first-hand experience in analyzing the link between atmospheric temperatures and carbon dioxide ( ) s by looking at ice core data spanning hundreds of thousands

More information

Multiple Choice Exam Questions

Multiple Choice Exam Questions Chapter 1 Multiple Choice Exam Questions 1. The primary source of energy for the earth's atmosphere is: a. energy from within the earth b. the sun c. erupting volcanoes d. lightning discharges associated

More information

Seasonal & Daily Temperatures. Seasons & Sun's Distance. Solstice & Equinox. Seasons & Solar Intensity

Seasonal & Daily Temperatures. Seasons & Sun's Distance. Solstice & Equinox. Seasons & Solar Intensity Seasonal & Daily Temperatures Seasons & Sun's Distance The role of Earth's tilt, revolution, & rotation in causing spatial, seasonal, & daily temperature variations Please read Chapter 3 in Ahrens Figure

More information

The Earth's Atmosphere. Layers of the Earth's Atmosphere

The Earth's Atmosphere. Layers of the Earth's Atmosphere The Earth's Atmosphere The atmosphere surrounds Earth and protects us by blocking out dangerous rays from the sun. The atmosphere is a mixture of gases that becomes thinner until it gradually reaches space.

More information

Interactions Between the Atmosphere & Hydrosphere. Weather & Climate

Interactions Between the Atmosphere & Hydrosphere. Weather & Climate Interactions Between the Atmosphere & Hydrosphere Weather & Climate ~occur every 3-7 years ~can last weeks or years! ~cooler/wetter conditions in SE US ~dry weather in southern Africa, Southeast Asia,

More information

Reading Assignment: A&B: Ch. 5 (p. 123-134) CD: Tutorials 3 & 4 (Atm. Moisture; Adiab. Proc.) Interactive Ex.: Moisture LM: Lab# 7

Reading Assignment: A&B: Ch. 5 (p. 123-134) CD: Tutorials 3 & 4 (Atm. Moisture; Adiab. Proc.) Interactive Ex.: Moisture LM: Lab# 7 G109: 7. Moisture 1 7. MOISTURE Reading Assignment: A&B: Ch. 5 (p. 123-134) CD: Tutorials 3 & 4 (Atm. Moisture; Adiab. Proc.) Interactive Ex.: Moisture LM: Lab# 7 1. Introduction Moisture in the atmosphere:

More information

Atmosphere. Overview of Earth s Atmosphere

Atmosphere. Overview of Earth s Atmosphere Atmosphere Overview of Earth s Atmosphere The atmosphere is comprised of of gases, consisting mostly of nitrogen and oxygen. It also contains lesser amounts of argon, carbon dioxide, and many other trace

More information

TOPIC 5 (cont.) RADIATION LAWS - Part 2

TOPIC 5 (cont.) RADIATION LAWS - Part 2 TOPIC 5 (cont.) RADIATION LAWS - Part 2 Quick review ELECTROMAGNETIC SPECTRUM Our focus in this class is on: UV VIS lr = micrometers (aka microns) = nanometers (also commonly used) Q1. The first thing

More information

Greenhouse Glazing Effects on Heat Transfer for Winter Heating and Summer Cooling

Greenhouse Glazing Effects on Heat Transfer for Winter Heating and Summer Cooling Greenhouse Glazing Effects on Heat Transfer for Winter Heating and Summer Cooling David R. Mears, Ph.D. Bioresource Engineering Department of Plant Biology and Pathology Rutgers University 20 Ag Extension

More information

The Surface Energy Budget

The Surface Energy Budget The Surface Energy Budget The radiation (R) budget Shortwave (solar) Radiation Longwave Radiation R SW R SW α α = surface albedo R LW εσt 4 ε = emissivity σ = Stefan-Boltzman constant T = temperature Subsurface

More information

Earth Sciences -- Grades 9, 10, 11, and 12. California State Science Content Standards. Mobile Climate Science Labs

Earth Sciences -- Grades 9, 10, 11, and 12. California State Science Content Standards. Mobile Climate Science Labs Earth Sciences -- Grades 9, 10, 11, and 12 California State Science Content Standards Covered in: Hands-on science labs, demonstrations, & activities. Investigation and Experimentation. Lesson Plans. Presented

More information

Chapter 2. The global energy balance. 2.1 Planetary emission temperature

Chapter 2. The global energy balance. 2.1 Planetary emission temperature Chapter 2 The global energy balance We consider now the general problem of the radiative equilibrium temperature of the Earth. The Earth is bathed in solar radiation and absorbs much of that incident upon

More information

The Climate System: an Overview

The Climate System: an Overview 1 The Climate System: an Overview Co-ordinating Lead Author A.P.M. Baede Lead Authors E. Ahlonsou, Y. Ding, D. Schimel Review Editors B. Bolin, S. Pollonais Contents 1.1 Introduction to the Climate System

More information

AP ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE 2007 SCORING GUIDELINES

AP ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE 2007 SCORING GUIDELINES AP ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE 2007 SCORING GUIDELINES Question 4 Some scientists estimate that by 2025 over 60 percent of the global human population will live in urban areas. Urban residents experience a variety

More information

Teaching Time: One-to-two 50-minute periods

Teaching Time: One-to-two 50-minute periods Lesson Summary Students create a planet using a computer game and change features of the planet to increase or decrease the planet s temperature. Students will explore some of the same principles scientists

More information

Humidity, Condensation, Clouds, and Fog. Water in the Atmosphere

Humidity, Condensation, Clouds, and Fog. Water in the Atmosphere Humidity, Condensation, Clouds, and Fog or Water in the Atmosphere The Hydrologic Cycle Where the Water Exists on Earth Evaporation From the Oceans and Land The Source of Water Vapor for the Atmosphere

More information

GRAND MINIMUM OF THE TOTAL SOLAR IRRADIANCE LEADS TO THE LITTLE ICE AGE. by Habibullo Abdussamatov

GRAND MINIMUM OF THE TOTAL SOLAR IRRADIANCE LEADS TO THE LITTLE ICE AGE. by Habibullo Abdussamatov GRAND MINIMUM OF THE TOTAL SOLAR IRRADIANCE LEADS TO THE LITTLE ICE AGE by Habibullo Abdussamatov SPPI ORIGINAL PAPER November 25, 2013 GRAND MINIMUM OF THE TOTAL SOLAR IRRADIANCE LEADS TO THE LITTLE ICE

More information

Lesson Plan Simulating the Greenhouse Effect in a Terrarium.

Lesson Plan Simulating the Greenhouse Effect in a Terrarium. Lesson Plan Simulating the Greenhouse Effect in a Terrarium. Content Standards: 1. Matter and Energy in the Earth System Central Concepts 1.1 Identify Earth s principal sources of internal and external

More information

Climate Change and Renewable Energy A Perspective from a Measurements Viewpoint

Climate Change and Renewable Energy A Perspective from a Measurements Viewpoint Climate Change and Renewable Energy A Perspective from a Measurements Viewpoint Regional Workshop on Metrology and Technology Challenges of Climate Change and Renewable Energy Guatemala City, Guatemala

More information

Ecosystem Ecology. Community interacts with abiotic factors. Objectives

Ecosystem Ecology. Community interacts with abiotic factors. Objectives Ecosystem Ecology Community interacts with abiotic factors Objectives Compare the processes of energy flow and chemical cycling as they relate to ecosystem dynamics. Define and list examples of producers,

More information

6 th Grade Science Assessment: Weather & Water Select the best answer on the answer sheet. Please do not make any marks on this test.

6 th Grade Science Assessment: Weather & Water Select the best answer on the answer sheet. Please do not make any marks on this test. Select the be answer on the answer sheet. Please do not make any marks on this te. 1. Weather is be defined as the A. changes that occur in cloud formations from day to day. B. amount of rain or snow that

More information

Corso di Fisica Te T cnica Ambientale Solar Radiation

Corso di Fisica Te T cnica Ambientale Solar Radiation Solar Radiation Solar radiation i The Sun The Sun is the primary natural energy source for our planet. It has a diameter D = 1.39x10 6 km and a mass M = 1.989x10 30 kg and it is constituted by 1/3 of He

More information

Climate Lingo Bingo. Climate Discovery: Climate Future. http://.eo.ucar.edu. Teacher s Guide. National Science Content Standards Addressed:

Climate Lingo Bingo. Climate Discovery: Climate Future. http://.eo.ucar.edu. Teacher s Guide. National Science Content Standards Addressed: Climate Discovery: Climate Future Climate Lingo Bingo Teacher s Guide http://.eo.ucar.edu Subject Focus: Earth Science Environmental Science Political Science and Social Studies Materials & Preparations:

More information

ENERGY & ENVIRONMENT

ENERGY & ENVIRONMENT Greenhouse molecules, their spectra and function in the atmosphere by Jack Barrett Reprinted from ENERGY & ENVIRNMENT VLUME 16 No. 6 2005 MULTI-SCIENCE PUBLISING C. LTD. 5 Wates Way, Brentwood, Essex CM15

More information

Convec,on, cloud and radia,on

Convec,on, cloud and radia,on Convec,on, cloud and radia,on Convection redistributes the thermal energy yielding (globally-averaged), a mean lapse rate of ~ -6.5 o C/km. Radiative processes tend to produce a more negative temperature

More information

7. Our Solar System. Planetary Orbits to Scale. The Eight Planetary Orbits

7. Our Solar System. Planetary Orbits to Scale. The Eight Planetary Orbits 7. Our Solar System Terrestrial & Jovian planets Seven large satellites [moons] Chemical composition of the planets Asteroids & comets The Terrestrial & Jovian Planets Four small terrestrial planets Like

More information

Absorption by atmospheric gases in the IR, visible and UV spectral regions.

Absorption by atmospheric gases in the IR, visible and UV spectral regions. Lecture 6. Absorption by atmospheric gases in the IR, visible and UV spectral regions. Objectives: 1. Gaseous absorption in thermal IR. 2. Gaseous absorption in the visible and near infrared. 3. Gaseous

More information

The Science and Ethics of Global warming. Global warming has become one of the central political and scientific issues of

The Science and Ethics of Global warming. Global warming has become one of the central political and scientific issues of The Science and Ethics of Global warming Global warming has become one of the central political and scientific issues of our time. It holds a fascination for scientists because of the tremendous complexity

More information

Chapter 7 Earth and the Terrestrial Worlds Mercury

Chapter 7 Earth and the Terrestrial Worlds Mercury 9/28/11 Important Stuff (section 003) Important Stuff (section 004) The First Midterm is Tuesday, October 11 The First Midterm will be given in Bell Museum 100 The First Midterm is Wednesday, October 12

More information

Electromagnetic Radiation Energy that comes to us from the sun is transported in the form of waves known as electromagnetic energy.

Electromagnetic Radiation Energy that comes to us from the sun is transported in the form of waves known as electromagnetic energy. Electromagnetic Radiation Energy that comes to us from the sun is transported in the form of waves known as electromagnetic energy. This combines electricity and magnetism such that setting up an electric

More information

Geogg124 The Terrestrial Carbon Cycle P. Lewis

Geogg124 The Terrestrial Carbon Cycle P. Lewis Geogg124 The Terrestrial Carbon Cycle P. Lewis Professor of Remote Sensing UCL Geography & NERC NCEO Aims of lecture In this lecture, we will: consider the importance of understanding the science of climate

More information

Sustainable Living Student Worksheets

Sustainable Living Student Worksheets Sustainable Living Student Worksheets Stage 4 Design & Technology FW4DT1 Name: Introduction Renewable Versus Non-renewable Energy The Sun is a Primary Source of Energy Almost all the energy needed to keep

More information

Systems Thinking and Modeling Climate Change Amy Pallant, Hee-Sun Lee, and Sarah Pryputniewicz

Systems Thinking and Modeling Climate Change Amy Pallant, Hee-Sun Lee, and Sarah Pryputniewicz Systems Thinking and Modeling Climate Change Amy Pallant, Hee-Sun Lee, and Sarah Pryputniewicz You know the effects of the proverbial butterfly flapping its wings. But what about an automobile driver?

More information

History of Chlorofluorocarbons

History of Chlorofluorocarbons History of Chlorofluorocarbons 1928 : Chlorofluorocarbons () were invented. were developed as ideal gases used as refrigerants for refrigerators. Because of their special characteristics, inflammability

More information

Climate Models: Uncertainties due to Clouds. Joel Norris Assistant Professor of Climate and Atmospheric Sciences Scripps Institution of Oceanography

Climate Models: Uncertainties due to Clouds. Joel Norris Assistant Professor of Climate and Atmospheric Sciences Scripps Institution of Oceanography Climate Models: Uncertainties due to Clouds Joel Norris Assistant Professor of Climate and Atmospheric Sciences Scripps Institution of Oceanography Global mean radiative forcing of the climate system for

More information

Changing Clouds in a Changing Climate: Anthropogenic Influences

Changing Clouds in a Changing Climate: Anthropogenic Influences Changing Clouds in a Changing Climate: Anthropogenic Influences Joel Norris Assistant Professor of Climate and Atmospheric Sciences Scripps Institution of Oceanography Global mean radiative forcing of

More information

1. Radiative Transfer. 2. Spectrum of Radiation. 3. Definitions

1. Radiative Transfer. 2. Spectrum of Radiation. 3. Definitions 1. Radiative Transfer Virtually all the exchanges of energy between the earth-atmosphere system and the rest of the universe take place by radiative transfer. The earth and its atmosphere are constantly

More information

Atmospheric Layers. Ionosphere. Exosphere. Thermosphere. Mesosphere. Stratosphere. Troposphere. mi (km) above sea level 250 (400) 50 (80) 30 (50)

Atmospheric Layers. Ionosphere. Exosphere. Thermosphere. Mesosphere. Stratosphere. Troposphere. mi (km) above sea level 250 (400) 50 (80) 30 (50) mi (km) above sea level Atmospheric Layers Exosphere 250 (400) Thermosphere Ionosphere 50 (80) Mesosphere Ozone Layer 30 (50) 7 (12) Stratosphere Troposphere Atmospheric Layers Earth s atmosphere is held

More information

Water on Earth Unique Properties of Water Humidity Atmospheric Stability Clouds and Fog

Water on Earth Unique Properties of Water Humidity Atmospheric Stability Clouds and Fog GEO 101: PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY Chapter 07: Water and Atmospheric Moisture Water on Earth Unique Properties of Water Humidity Atmospheric Stability Clouds and Fog Water on Earth The origin of water A scientific

More information

The Atmosphere and Winds

The Atmosphere and Winds Oceanography 10, T. James Noyes, El Camino College 8A-1 The Atmosphere and Winds We need to learn about the atmosphere, because the ocean and atmosphere are tightly interconnected with one another: you

More information

MCQ - ENERGY and CLIMATE

MCQ - ENERGY and CLIMATE 1 MCQ - ENERGY and CLIMATE 1. The volume of a given mass of water at a temperature of T 1 is V 1. The volume increases to V 2 at temperature T 2. The coefficient of volume expansion of water may be calculated

More information

BRSP-7 Page 1. A Open B Covered C Covered / Water. Two different experiments are presented, each experiment using a different pair of models:

BRSP-7 Page 1. A Open B Covered C Covered / Water. Two different experiments are presented, each experiment using a different pair of models: BRSP-7 Page 1 Perhaps you have heard of the greenhouse effect. In a greenhouse, short-wave radiation from sunlight passes freely through the glass and is converted to long-wave radiation inside. But the

More information

Chapter 2: Solar Radiation and Seasons

Chapter 2: Solar Radiation and Seasons Chapter 2: Solar Radiation and Seasons Spectrum of Radiation Intensity and Peak Wavelength of Radiation Solar (shortwave) Radiation Terrestrial (longwave) Radiations How to Change Air Temperature? Add

More information

Chapter 6: Cloud Development and Forms

Chapter 6: Cloud Development and Forms Chapter 6: Cloud Development and Forms (from The Blue Planet ) Why Clouds Form Static Stability Cloud Types Why Clouds Form? Clouds form when air rises and becomes saturated in response to adiabatic cooling.

More information

Chapter 2 Student Reading

Chapter 2 Student Reading Chapter 2 Student Reading Atoms and molecules are in motion We warm things up and cool things down all the time, but we usually don t think much about what s really happening. If you put a room-temperature

More information

(Walter Glogowski, Chaz Shapiro & Reid Sherman) INTRODUCTION

(Walter Glogowski, Chaz Shapiro & Reid Sherman) INTRODUCTION Convection (Walter Glogowski, Chaz Shapiro & Reid Sherman) INTRODUCTION You know from common experience that when there's a difference in temperature between two places close to each other, the temperatures

More information

Grade 7. Objective. Students will be able to:

Grade 7. Objective. Students will be able to: Grade 7 Objective Students will be able to: Describe the carbon cycle in more detail: o Learn about the importance of carbon and the role it plays in photosynthesis and cellular respiration, Identify elements

More information

Radiation Transfer in Environmental Science

Radiation Transfer in Environmental Science Radiation Transfer in Environmental Science with emphasis on aquatic and vegetation canopy media Autumn 2008 Prof. Emmanuel Boss, Dr. Eyal Rotenberg Introduction Radiation in Environmental sciences Most

More information

Section 1 The Earth System

Section 1 The Earth System Section 1 The Earth System Key Concept Earth is a complex system made up of many smaller systems through which matter and energy are continuously cycled. What You Will Learn Energy and matter flow through

More information

Overview. What is EMR? Electromagnetic Radiation (EMR) LA502 Special Studies Remote Sensing

Overview. What is EMR? Electromagnetic Radiation (EMR) LA502 Special Studies Remote Sensing LA502 Special Studies Remote Sensing Electromagnetic Radiation (EMR) Dr. Ragab Khalil Department of Landscape Architecture Faculty of Environmental Design King AbdulAziz University Room 103 Overview What

More information