Earth s Energy Balance & the Greenhouse Effect

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1 Earth s Energy Balance & the Greenhouse Effect

2 Outline: The Earth s Energy Balance: Electromagnetic Spectrum: Ultraviolet (UV) Visible Infrared (IR) Blackbody Radiation Albedo (reflectivity) Greenhouse Gases Atmospheric layers

3 Planetary Atmospheres Question: Why does the earth support life but, say Venus and Mars do not?

4 The Goldilocks Problem Life as we know it requires liquid water Venus Earth Mars Too Hot Ave Temp 460C No liquid H20 Just Right! Ave Temp 15C (mmmmm..) H20 in all 3 phases Too Cold Ave Temp -55C (BRRRRRR..) No present signs of H20

5 Planet Energy Balance * How do you heat a planet? Or: what determines that final average temperature?

6 Heat transfer The atmosphere and ocean are heated in three important ways: (i) Electromagnetic Radiation (ii) Convection (iii)conduction

7 Electromagnetic Energy Short wavelength = high energy Long wavelength = low energy

8 High Energy The Electromagnetic Spectrum 10-9 m Low Energy 10-6 m

9 Electromagnetic Spectrum UV: High Energy IR: Low Energy

10 Energy Flux Energy Flux= radiation per unit area per second Units: Joules per second per square meter Written: J s -1 m -2 or J/s m 2 J/second =? = Watts ( POWER = energy/ time) W/m 2 = most common expression of energy flux

11 Concept of Temperature In terms of atmosphere (or water) What is Heat?

12 Concept of Temperature Temperature = average kinetic energy of molecules Kinetic energy is energy possessed by virtue of motion Measures of temperature is

13 Temperature of air: total motion of molecules

14 Concept of Temperature Measures of temperature are

15 Fahrenheit: freezing point of a mixture of snow and salt (0F) and body temp (100F). Celcius: based on freezing point (0C) and boiling point (100C) of pure water. Kelvin: absolute temperature based on molecular motion. All atoms at rest at 0K (absolute zero).

16 Radiation vs. temperature All objects with a temperature above 0 deg K (absolute zero) emit radiation. The intensity and wavelength of the radiation emitted is a strong function of temperature. All objects also absorb radiation. A so-called blackbody emits and absorbs radiation at all wavelengths. None is reflected.

17 As we continuously heat the ball, its color changes. Why?

18 Constant temp (T) Radiation flux vs temperature Stefan-Boltzmann Law: High Temp = High Total Energy output (Total radiation flux emitted as a function of temperature) (T in Kelvin) Wien s Law: High energy = LOW wavelength (wave-length of maximum intensity as a function of Temp) 2898 T (T in Kelvin) max E T W m K 8-2 4

19 The Sun and Earth What are the consequences of Wien s Law and the Stefan-Boltzmann Law for the Sun and Earth? Sun average T=3000K Earth average T=288K

20 Sun emits primarily in visible (short wave radiation, SWR) Note: Sun emissions MUCH LARGER than Earth emissions (Stefan-Boltzmann Law) Earth emits primarily in IR (long wave radiation, LWR)

21 Solar & Terrestrial (Radiation) Sun: Solar Radiation is source of UV and Visible energy Earth: Terrestrial Radiation is infrared energy

22 Recall Albedo Albedo (from daisy-world!) Albedo = Reflectivity of surface ~ how much energy actually makes it into system.

23 14% Solar Radiation is NOT completely absorbed: Albedo Albedo (reflectivity) Albedo is expressed on a scale from 0 to 1. 0 = none of sun s energy reflected 1 = all of sun s energy reflected At 90 sun angle Surface type % reflected albedo Sea water Moistblack soil High grass W hite sand Dirty snow Clean dense snow Average albedo of Earth: Clean dense snow

24 98% But it REALLY matters what the surface is.. Albedo is expressed on a scale from 0 to 1. 0 = none of sun s energy reflected 1 = all of sun s energy reflected At 90 sun angle Surface type % reflected albedo Sea water Moistblack soil High grass W hite sand Dirty snow Clean dense snow Average albedo of Earth: Sea water

25 Albedo Angle (of incidence ) is also very important.. Albedo is expressed on a scale from 0 to 1. 0 = none of sun s energy reflected 1 = all of sun s energy reflected At 90 sun angle Surface type % reflected albedo Sea water Moistblack soil High grass W hite sand Dirty snow Clean dense snow Sea water at different angles Angle % reflected Average albedo of Earth: 0.31

26 Contributions to Albedo

27 Now we can calculate a basic Earth energy balance (and predicted Temp!) Pieces? 1) Incoming radiation 2) Albedo = Reflectivity (out) 3) Blackbody radiation (out)

28 Simplified radiation budget 70% is absorbed and re-radiated as IR (long wavelenghs) Energy arrives as visible (shortwave) sunlight Reflected solar About 30% is reflected albedo Higher reflection albedo at higher latitudes Earth Incoming visible The remainder leaves as outgoing infrared (longwave) radiation Outgoing infrared

29 Radiation Balance equation S = solar constant = 1370 W/m 2 A = albedo S 4 (1-A) = T b 4 = Stefan-Boltzman constant = 5.67 X 10-8 W/m 2 /K 4 T b = blackbody temperature Incoming solar energy heats the earth (blackbody) Outgoing terrestrial energy leaves earth

30 So if you do this calculation, what do you think the current average temp of the earth s surface turns out to be?

31 Answer: ~ -20 C ( -44 F ) avg. global T Amazon Basin landscape (Predicted based on radiation balance alone)

32 Solar System Interesting exercise: Can compare predicted vs. actual temp of three closest earth-like planets

33 predicted Actual Whats going on?

34 Mars: About right Earth & Venus : way, way wrong.. too hot! What s going on?

35 Whats going on? Greenhouse Gasses!

36 Four most common GHGs Greenhouse Gas Water Vapor (H 2 O) Carbon Dioxide (CO 2 ) Methane (CH 4 ) Nitrous Oxide (N 2 O) Amount (ppm) ~

37 The greenhouse effect 1. Incoming Energy Budget : The Black Body Effect warm earth radiates energy 2. Radiation Adsorption by certain molecules Heat

38 The Rest of the Planet table..

39 Heli-touring in Tahiti: Earth with No Greenhouse effect

40 Ignore the Hype!

41 Earth s global temperature Earth s global temperature is determined by THREE things: SOLAR HEATING GLOBAL ALBEDO ATMOSPHERIC CONCENTRATION OF GREENHOUSE GASES

42 Blackbody T, Albedo & greenhouse T b = blackbody temperature T A = temperature it take into account albedo of 0.3 T a = -18 C -23 C = albedo effect T b = +5 C T actual = +15 C -20 C 0 C +20 C +33 C = greenhouse effect

43 Finally: Atmospheric layers Recall Atmosphere ( and ocean) is heated in three ways: (i) Direct Electromagnetic Radiation (ii)convection (iii)conduction

44 Convection vs. conduction Convection is the transfer of heat by mass movement of fluid. Conduction is the transfer of heat from molecule to molecule as a result of molecular collisions.

45

46 Atm: : Pressure vs. Temp Whats going on here?

47 The Stratosphere is heated from above! The stratosphere contains abundant ozone. Ozone is an excellent absorber of UV radiation. stratosphere is directly heated from above by incident solar UV (via greenhouse effect). (A good thing for life on earth)

48

49 BUT -Troposphere heated from below! Most of the atmosphere is largely transparent to incident solar radiation. (why?) Incident solar radiation heats the earth surface. Troposphere is heated from below by conduction, convection and radiation.

50 Atm.. Temp structure Direct Heat from aboveincoming UV + ozone greenhouse Indirect Heating from belowradiated blackbody + greenhouse

51 End

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