Native American Arts and Cultures

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1 Editor Dona Herweck Rice Editor-in-Chief Sharon Coan, M.S. Ed. Creative Director Elayne Roberts Imaging Alfred Lau Primary Native American Arts and Cultures Exploring Tradition Product Manager Phil Garcia Consultant Sandra D. Lowry Executive Director Indian Education Center Susanville, CA Publisher Mary D. Smith, M.S. Ed. Author and Illustrator Mary E. Connors Teacher Created Resources, Inc Industry Way Westminster, CA ISBN: Teacher Created Resources, Inc. Reprinted, 2009 Made in U.S.A. The classroom teacher may reproduce copies of materials in this book for classroom use only. The reproduction of any part for an entire school or school system is strictly prohibited. No part of this publication may be transmitted, stored, or recorded in any form without written permission from the publisher.

2 Table of Contents Introduction Maps (Cultural Areas in This Book; Names of the People of North America; Forests of the United States; Rivers and Mountains of the United States) Vocabulary Homes and Lodges Topics for Discussion Activities (Kwakiutl Northwest Plank House Pop-Up; Anasazi Pueblo of Mesa Verde, 1270 A.D.; Match the Home; Southwest Pueblo Pop-Up; Great Plains Tepee; Making Homes; Traditional Native American Dwellings and Shelters Minibook) Quest for Food Topics for Discussion Activities (Parfleche; Vegetable Stew; Traditional Foods and Recipes; Medicine Bag; Colored Maize; Growing Maize; Growth Chart; Utensils for Cooking; Draw Your Favorite Meal; Owl Box) Animals in Life and Legend Topics for Discussion Activities (Haida Totem Pole; Mystery Animal; Stand-up Buffalo; Buffalo Herd; Grizzly Bear Puzzle; Dot-to-Dot Elf Owl; Climbing Bear Cub; Flying Eagle Puppet; How to Draw a Horse; A Bird s Eye View; Animal Shadows; Skagit Cedar Box Design; Zuni Animal Fetish Necklace; Fetish Minibook; Animal Tracks Game; Arctic Animals; Arctic Habitat; Woodlands Animals; Woodlands Habitat; Southwest Desert Animals; Southwest Desert Habitat) Dance and Drama Topics for Discussion Activities (Sun Kachina Dancer; Butterfly Kachina Dancer; Painted Dancing Shield; Rosette Patterns; Finger Puppets of the Arctic; Dance Rattle; Eagle Feather Dance Fan) #619 Native American Arts & Cultures Teacher Created Resources, Inc.

3 Table of Contents (cont.) Basketry and Pottery Topics for Discussion Activities (Birchbark Basket; Corn Basket; Basket Maze; Coil Pot; Origami Basket; Colored Pot; Baskets of Yarn; What Is in the Basket?; Pottery of the Southwest Clip Art) Transportation and Trade Topics for Discussion Activities (Birchbark Canoe; Haida Wooden Boat; Wampum Belt; Snowshoe Crossword Puzzle; Horse Travois; Canoe Race; Travel in North America; Dot-to-Dot Stars; Measure the Boats; Directions for Travel) Communication Topics for Discussion Activities (Activities for Communication; Birchbark Scroll; Sandpainting; Tepee-Shaped Book; Smoke Signals; Picture Writing of the Great Plains; Sign Language; Writing Border; Dream Catcher; My Dream; Bookmarks) Clothing and Jewelry Topics for Discussion Activities (Southwestern Jewelry; Weave on a Loom; Paper Bag Vest; A Navaho Weaver; Match the Moccasins; Painted Buffalo Robe; Border Designs; Weaving a Rug; Clothing Styles of the Southwest Pueblos; Clothing Styles of the Pacific Northwest and California; Clothing Styles of the Arctic and Far North; Clothing Styles of the Great Plains; Clothing Styles of the Woodlands; The Gift of the Spiderwoman; The Gift of the Spiderwoman Minibook) Toys and Games Topics for Discussion Activities (Traditional Games; Dice Sticks; Arctic Doll; Cornhusk Doll; Spinning Tops; Cat s Cradle; Fish Spear) Teacher Created Resources, Inc. #619 Native American Arts & Cultures

4 The Earliest Homes Homes and Lodges The North American continent spans an area of over 9,000,000 square miles (24,000,000 square kilometers). Immigrants from Europe and Asia immigrated to this enormous continent over the centuries, and the population grew until, by the time of Christopher Columbus, there were millions of people living across the land from Alaska to South America. The earliest Americans, ancestors of contemporary Native Americans, lived in the cold and harsh climate of the Ice Age. Hunters depended upon the large animals grazing along the edge of the ice flows for the meat and fur they could provide. To make a shelter from the cold winds and snow, the furs of animals were fastened to poles of wood or bones. The earliest Americans had the knowledge of fire and made fires in their dwellings and temporary shelters. As the climate became warmer over time, the people began to change their lifestyles to adapt to the new conditions. They also adapted to their particular environment so that homes in one area were possibly quite different from homes in another area. Adapting to the Environment The human species is very adaptable to a wide range of habitat and climatic conditions. Humans have survived the hottest deserts and the coldest tundra. They have made permanent and temporary dwellings from wood, bark, animal skins, grass, thatch, mud, and stone, each providing the shelter they needed. Homes were always made from the materials available in each area. In the coldest Arctic, the people built their homes from animal furs, wood, or blocks of ice. In forested areas, homes and lodges were made from planks of wood. Homes were permanent or temporary depending upon the lifestyle and the season. Homes Today Most of the homes in North America today are permanent dwellings, and they are usually quite different from the homes of the past. Even mobile homes are usually parked for years at a time, and some camper vehicles are used as homes. Today, as in the past, there can be a sharp contrast in the housing styles across America. From the city highrise apartments to the isolated homes of the countryside, Americans live alone, with family groups, or with friends, just as they always have. In any of these modern homes, you might find a Native American. Make sure the students know that the People today usually live in houses that are just like everyone else s. However, to better understand the Native American homes of yesterday, they may enjoy hearing about the different styles of homes made centuries ago. They can make some traditional Native American homes with paper and clay, discuss their present day homes, and then design homes for the future. They can also color, cut out, and put together the minibook on pages Teacher Created Resources, Inc. 13 #619 Native American Arts & Cultures

5 Homes and Lodges Topics for Discussion Discuss the various styles of homes and public buildings found in your town, state, and country. Homes in other parts of the world may be reviewed as well. The students may be surprised to see the similarities they will find. Use some or all of the following questions for discussion topics. 1. Where do we live? 2. Why do we live in a building? 3. What materials were used to make your home? The school? The local library? 4. Where did these materials come from? 5. Who built your home? Could one person build it alone? 6. What is the shape of your home? The school? The nearest fire department? 7. What kind of homes did the Native Americans have? (tepees, reed houses, stone houses, adobe, wigwams, etc.) 8. What were the Native American homes of long ago made from? (stones, woven reeds, mud bricks, redwood, buffalo skins, cedar planks, etc.) 9. What size and shape were the traditional Native American homes? (The sizes and shapes varied depending on the region, climate, permanency of the dwelling, and the available materials.) 10. Who built the traditional Native American homes? Could one person build a home without help? (Answers will vary depending on the home cultural group building it.) 11. Were any of the traditional Native American homes apartment houses? (The pueblo dwellings of the Southwest were a type of apartment house complex.) 12. Are any traditional Native American houses still made? (Yes, some are made for practical purposes as well as for purposes of keeping tradition alive.) #619 Native American Arts & Cultures 14 Teacher Created Resources, Inc.

6 Homes and Lodges Kwakiutl Northwest Plank House Pop-Up Directions: Color and cut out the plank house and boat on the dotted lines. Fold the house and boat as shown to make a pop-up. Teacher Created Resources, Inc. 15 #619 Native American Arts & Cultures

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