Study on the Development of Sports Apparel Culture

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1 Study on the Development of Sports Apparel Culture JIANG Mingfei Functional Sportswear Research Base of Wuhan Textile University, Hubei, P.R.China, Abstract: Sports apparel as a dress, with a dramatic impact on the propulsion of internationalization and high-tech, the penetration of sports cultural atmosphere and the implication played a very important role in improving the social civilization. Keywords: Sports apparel, Culture development, Influence 1 Introduction Apparel is the product and the carrier of culture, all the apparel are the polymer of human spirit and matter creation, which embodies the role of all culture. Sports apparel as a unique costumes language symbols convey the social culture and aesthetic taste, with the development of society and economy, the improvement of people s living standard, along with the people to pursue health at the same time, people s aesthetic to the sports apparel has new standards, the provided functions far beyond the protection of the body, the basic functions against the cold and hot, but special significance to the fashion language to convey the aesthetic culture and the significance. 2 The Concept and the Cultural Connotation of Sports Apparel Sports apparel as a phenomenon of social culture, its evolution closely connected with human behavior, social politics, economy, culture, science and technology and the history development. First of all, sports apparel material culture refers to the cultural function of sports apparel and its practical effect. The different styles have different sports apparel. Secondly, sports system culture, sports apparel have different rules in the different game, the design must comply with the rules of sports dress. Third, sports apparel spirit culture is class, political values, aesthetic values, religion and customs etc. Reflect by sports apparel in sports. Each time, each country or nation made sports apparel condenses with cultural characteristics of that era, the country or nation. 3 The Historical and Cultural Background of Sports Apparel Development Research on Sports costume, historians use history, sociology, cultural anthropology, linguistics theory, verify a period of sports apparel and sports apparel culture by large amounts of data from the historical time, sports apparel development history can be traced back to ancient times. From the well preserved wall paintings and murals, sports event and people dress in the movement can be seen at the time. The German scholar Feng Jiaban in the book named sports apparel, by quoting a large amount of data, discusses in detail the different sports dress and customs, etc. in every countries; domestic scholars Wang Junqi studied the dress features of Baixi and Long boat through historical data, found that these two projects are in red apparel, red was very popular at that time, at the same time, had as fire as morality cultural tradition to fit in China. Zhan Xiaoyan described the history of the change of Chinese ancient sports apparel, from gown in the pre Qin period, Cuju in the Han Dynasty, to the sports apparel in the height of the Tang Dynasty of ancient all demonstrate the continuous development of China s traditional culture and sports apparel culture promotion. There are a large number of scholars, studied sports apparel from the perspective of the history of the Olympic, Li Xiumei revealed the change process of sports apparel through the research on the development of the Olympic Games, from the nudes of the ancient Greek Olympic Games athletes, to modern Olympic sports apparel gradually formed and continuously changes, and then to the modern 240

2 fusion of Olympic sports apparel and sports science and technology, gradually toward the top. Liu Yingdong expounded the basic process, and the development of sports apparel through literature. Modern sports apparel can show the harmonious beauty sense of movement and dress, and the cultural and scientific significance of nationality and times. 4 Culture Characteristics of Sports Apparel 4.1 Practical utility There are triple meanings for humans to have a clothing, that is practical, concealing one s disgrace and beautifying themselves. To be practical is the basic starting point of the costume existence and development, sports apparel as the body language of the sport with the practical function of general clothing, should adapt to the requirement of sports activities. Technically it is the motor function for people to extend and expand beyond the limit by nature inherited outside the body; on the humanistic value, it is a norm for human in the sports activities; and from the aesthetic point of view it is the promoter and external form for the beauty of people s sports. Sports clothing culture use the practical utility as its main value orientation. 4.2 Aesthetic nature With the development of social productivity and progress of human civilization, people are keen on enjoying all kinds of competitions in recent years. In order to adapt to the needs of human sports activities and their enjoyment, the meaning of beautification is becoming more and more significant. Sports reflect the perfect combination between the beauty of costume and the physical beauty. Sports apparel adapts to the technical features of some sports, together with the aesthetic feeling of the sports to bring out their active diversity, free and graceful. Aesthetic characteristic of sports apparel culture embodies two aspects: one is natural beauty, for sports apparel can show the natural beauty of the athletes, such as highlights the full line of the body through the flexibility, elasticity and scalability of the clothing fabric; another is social beauty and harmonious beauty for sports apparel is the embodiment of a harmony between sports and society, such as colorful collocation for various sports apparel, etc. 4.3 Epochal character Sports apparel culture has its epochal character, various nationalities worldwide at the same time or on the same stage of social development has the same characteristics in corresponding to the time together. Physical activities will develop because of the time change, economic development and improvement of ideology and culture, and the sports apparel with the time changes has also been change to meet the needs of human beings. From the philosophical perspective, human beings are the main body for the objective existence of sports clothing, that is because people s needs to the development of sports apparel. Under the trend of global culture integration in today, the boundaries between east and west in sports apparel are gradually broken. With the development of science and technology and growth in living standard, people pay more attention to their health, as a whole, tend to be neutral and protrude personalized is embodiment of the spirit of the time in sports culture. 4.4 Nationality Sports clothing cultures nationality endows a strong emotional color with sports apparel, and adds rich emotional experience for people to take part in and watch sports activities. Sports apparel culture also retains all ethnic groups in the long years experienced in the typical culture of period. Due to cultural differences, the ancient Chinese and western sports clothing has a huge difference. 4.5 The cultural background in clothing differences between China and western countries Man is the object of common concern for the west. But because of different thoughts on the meaning of man, results in two kinds of culture within the category of people of the different meaning. Sports 241

3 clothing as a service to the people of things, also as a result of these two different interpretations, the formation of different clothing concept, and decide the different styles of Chinese and western sports clothing. China in traditional thoughts is a combination of a whole together with the universe, so different from the general sense of the people, he is an inclusive, has the spirit connotation of people. So the sports apparel worn on the human body, does not emphasize the relationship with the body, and focus on the wearer s overall image, the main function of costume lies in some spiritual meaning to human body outside. So it is with loose clothing, elegant charm and character, occupation status and occasions. Chinese dress culture belongs to the culture category, has the integrity and Datong idea, makes the wearer emphasizes the group consciousness, do not emphasize individual effect. Characteristics of clothing tends to internal, introverted, connotation, introverted, people wear in the accustomed not to highlight the personality. So, traditional Chinese sportswear basically is generous, conservative, pay attention to human spirit and external harmony. Differences between Chinese and western clothing are associated with cultural characteristics of philosophy, aesthetic idea, national character, economic development level. Attaching great importance to wisdom and pursuit of goodness as well as attaching great importance to reason and pursuit of truth respectively form the essential difference in clothing between Chinese and western culture. Differences occur in clothing as those of cultures. The concept characteristics of Chinese traditional costume culture implicitly express their forms and colors: dim and hazy, hidden, and implied in meaning give a person with harmonious beauty as a whole. Chinese costume in modeling and aesthetic outlook influenced by the specific cultural environment, thus forms the unique loose garment culture. Attaches great importance to the two-dimensional space effect on clothing modeling, adopt the method of plane cutting on clothing structure, as deeply influenced by Confucianism, this unique costume culture doesn t pay attention to the performance curve of human body with dress, by contrast, pay more attention to the appearance of the fabric itself effect, the processing technology of combination of superb skills and dress overall effect. While western clothing culture concept is advocating physical beauty. From ancient Greece till now, western art, including clothing, take the ode and beauty of nature show as a model of supreme, therefore, the clothing wearing on the west becomes a copy, women show the beauty of its form through the stereo modeling while men pay more attention to the clothing to reflect their strong body and great power. In the European civilization, the human body beauty has a high status, the combination of science and art with human consciousness brings to the costume culture another kind of narrow dress style culture. Western clothing modeling emphasizes more on three-dimensional effect, and on structure processing is given priority to the three-dimensional cutting, pay attention to fitting and revised so as to fit the body. In the clothing art creation, the style and structure are designed according to the human body; paying attention to the embodiment of the human body curves, and restore physical beauty by costume. 5 Effects of Sports Popularization of Sports Apparel Since the rise of the modern Olympic movement in 1896, people s life and sports were closely together in modern society. In 1908, women obtained the approval to participate in the Olympic Games, after those sports are becoming more and more deeply into people s daily life, it not only affects people s way of life, but also has a direct impact the apparel the people closely related in the daily life. Movement in the equality, hard work, self transcendence spirit, agrees with the emphasis on the spirit of modern time. Along with the sports popularization, all kinds of sports and leisure apparel are popular. Sports lifestyle is a notable feature of modern social life. Sports activities rose in twentieth Century 20 s as entertainment leisure, to achieve prosperity in twentieth Century 80 years. With the improvement of labor productivity, the progress of the society, people s leisure time increase that provides guarantee for the development of leisure sports. Busy modern life, highly stressful work environment, people are longing for the leisure and entertainment to restore physical and mental, which promote the entertainment trend of sports. With the rising standard of living, people in modern life, more and more 242

4 pursuit of high quality life, sports gradually as an important part of leisure life through people s life. With the development of world sports, the rich of textile materials, as well as the improvement of people s living standard, since the last century seven, eighty times, sports apparel design has gradually changed the simple, boring styles, increasingly to fashion evolution, almost synchronize with the fashion apparel in life. The sports life of today, sports leisure apparel will show more comfortable, more fashion, more personality style. Professional sports apparel is extending to the daily life, fashion will be integrated into more movement characteristic; sports fashion will enrich people s daily life. 6 Influences of Mass Media on the Development of Sports Apparel Early in the last century 70 s, along with media going into sports reports, the sports culture greatly exceeded the national and regional restrictions and limitations of time and space, the media through newspapers, journals, television, the Internet and other channels, transmitting sports information at the same time, sports culture and people s modern life rhythm are closely connected. Because of the involvement of the media, the audience and the scope of sports and cultural was expanded, different age, sex, race, occupation, people are faced with the same physical culture infection, become the whole world system of cultural activities, so that the sports culture go into the mainstream culture. With the development of economy and technology, people s life quality improvement and the change of consumption concept, social development has entered a mass consumption society, resulting in a new type of mass culture, and penetrates into all areas of life and art. When most people have leisure time on economic basis, social mentality, the concept of leisure as mass culture began to spread. In the dissemination of leisure culture, influence of mass media plays a pervasive role in. It is by means of mass media influence and power, leisure can become an important part of modern public life concept and attitude. Now, walking in the street, young men and women who put on Nike, Adidas shoes, wearing a casual jacket, T-shirt, is simply for civilian fashion movement of the wind. Then have a look on the screen, the fashion stage of the mass media has been occupied by sports star. In familiar fashion star, are appearing more and more athletes. These achievement outstanding leaders in the field of sports, one after another become the darling of the fashion industry. Li Na, Yao Ming, Liu Xiang, Beckham, Kobe and so on, they are sports celebrities and fashion star. They often dressed when they introduce products, advertising photography, and in every activity. Through these fashion stars, people see a player outside of the charm and style. The mass media and so take this trend to the people living, so that their rapidly expand influence, influence the aesthetic and fashion. 7 The Olympic Complex of Chinese Sports Apparel Chinese dress like China culture, is a generation each nation infiltrate and influence each other. Dress culture of the Chinese people made the foreigners who smell sensitive to Chinese progress and open to decide early, also in the last century 80 s international capital wave into China. The Olympic Games has gone beyond the sports in the traditional sense, is a comprehensive reflection of a country economic level, the degree of civilization, culture and innovation in all aspects of strength, its core is the charm of national culture. Chinese athletes displayed sports apparel in the Olympic Games, reflect the Chinese nation s aesthetic wisdom, art and technology. China sports apparel demonstrated in front of the world through the dress a variety of styles, unique style, bright colors and exquisite technology, people around the world praise. In the Olympic Games, with the fierce competition of sports, different cultural background and the design concept of the sports apparel in every game compete; the athletes apparel reflected the culture, the national economic strength, technology level and the changes in fashion. Such as the 2004 Athens Olympic Games, Chinese delegation apparel accepting the prize is splendid china. The whole set of 243

5 equipment skillfully applied the traditional Chinese culture, nature of the natural landscape, the Athens Olympic Games emblem and the multi culture, meaning China Olympic athletes will soar, made more brilliant record. In the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games, China delegation apparel accepting the prize named dragon auspicious clouds. The main colors red, yellow and white were from the national flag, with distinct symbolic significance, and the use of auspicious clouds symbol is China characteristics. The whole jacket with red, yellow jacket, white gradually discoloration, has the sense of flow in the visual effect. Pattern design followed the classical elements of the Beijing Olympic Games: auspicious clouds. The London 2012 Olympic Games, Chinese apparel accepting the prize was champion long gown, the Chinese are descendants of the dragon, 2012 is China lunar year of the dragon, the core elements of champion long gown were China traditional concepts of Dragon. 8 Conclusion Sports apparel is human s material wealth and the formation of the concept of matter with people in long-term physical activity constant accumulation and sublimation. Sports apparel as a dress, accompanied by the development of sports, the essence of a sports culture, has gradually become an indivisible part of sports. References [1]. Jiang Lin. The Fashion of Modern Sports Apparel [D]. Tianjin Normal University (in Chinese) [2]. Hu Yiqing. The Evolution and Development Trend of Sports Apparel [J]. Journal of Hunan Institute of Engineering (Social Science Edition). 2003, 01 (in Chinese) [3]. Yue Yousong, Guo Min. Sports Clothing Culture Characteristics [J]. Journal of Hebei Institute of Physical Education. 2004, 01 (in Chinese) [4]. Yin Lixia. Evolution and Development Trend of China s Sports Apparel [G]. Analysis of Sports Space 02 Period First Half of 2012 (in Chinese) 244

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