PQ03. Using Test Equipment to Detect and Measure Power Quality Issues

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1 PQ03 Using Test Equipment to Detect and Measure Power Quality Issues

2 Power Quality Related Presentations: PQ01 Harmonic Solutions for VFD s PQ02 - Power Quality and Monitoring with isense/igrid/dysc & Surge/Sag/Transient Protection 2

3 Power Quality Effects of bad power quality are not immediately obvious Bad power quality can come from anywhere Consequences could be severe (production loss) Power quality problems are a root cause: Malfunction Shutdown Excessive energy cost Decreased lifetime of equipment 3

4 Measurement Safety 1. Safety 2. Power Quality Measurement PQ Issues Measurement of Harmonics The effect of distortion on simple test tools Power Factor Transients Unbalance Basic Measurements 4

5 Measurement Safety Example: DMM fitted with low energy fuse used incorrectly on a high energy circuit 5

6 EN61010 LV Directive EN61010 is based on overvoltage transients, as well as steady-state voltages. All instruments have to be tested by an independent test house Each instrument must be marked with an Overvoltage Category ( CAT I, II, III, IV ) As well as a voltage level (300, 600, 1000 Volts) 6

7 Category Rating CAT IV Origin of installation Utility level and any outside cable run, Electricity meters and primary connection CAT III Distribution wiring, including mains bus, feeders and branch circuits, permanently installed loads. CAT II Receptacle outlet circuit, plug-in loads. CAT I Protected electronic circuits. 7

8 Voltage Rating per Category Isolation and Safety Standards for Electronic Instruments, Test Impulse Rating, Transient Voltage Tolerated Nominal Voltage (VAC) CAT I CAT II CAT III CAT IV ,000 Source Impedance 30 Ω 12 Ω 2 Ω 2 Ω 8

9 IEC 1010 / EN61010 Regulations are not an option Second edition EN61010 ( 2004 ) requires independent testing Remember Test leads are CAT rated... 9

10 PQ Measurement 1. Safety 2. Power Quality Measurement PQ Issues Measurement of Harmonics The effect of distortion on simple test tools Power Factor Transients Basic Measurements 10

11 Power Quality Culprits Lightning Non-Linear Loads VFD s, SMPS Capacitor switching transients Inrush Currents from Motors Sags, Surges Undersized Neutrals Electrical Noise Gen-Sets not sized for Harmonics 11

12 Frequency of Occurrence Low The PQ Story Very Low Medium High Swell (0.5 cycles 60s) Notching (Constant) Unbalance (Fluctuating) Noise (Constant) Harmonics (Constant) Sag (0.5 cycles 60s) Undervoltage (>1 minute) Overvoltage (>1 minute) Interruption (0.5 cycles >1 hr) EPRI (Electrical Power Research Institute) Monitored 300 sites for 2+ years study: 92% of all events were voltage sags under 2 seconds 1995 study: 96% of all events were voltage sags less than 2 seconds Transient (<50 ns 5 ms) $ $$ $$$ $$$$ Grid Related Facility Related 12

13 Harmonics Are Harmonics are... Deviations from the Ideal Fundamental AC line voltage and current waveforms AC Drive Input Current Time Domain Analysis Amplitude Input Current Fundamental Current time Non-linear loads contain.. Current Harmonics which cause Voltage Harmonic problems for other users Frequency Domain Analysis 1 pu Current magnitude (RMS) Harmonics 60 Hz Frequency [Hz] Frequency [h] Fundamental 5th th 11th 13th 17th 19th 13

14 Linear vs Non-Linear Linear Load, sinusoidal waveform, no harmonics Non-linear Load, non-sinusoidal waveform, harmonics present 14

15 Non-Linear Loads Non-linear Commercial loads generally come from: Computers and CRT s Electronic Ballasts And other single phase office equipment Non-linear Industrial loads generally come from: Welders Arc furnaces UPS and DC power supplies AC & DC Drives 15

16 AC Line Input Adjustable Speed Drive Input = Fixed V Fixed freq Bus = Fixed Vdc AC Drive Output = Var Voltage Var frequency AC Motor Output 480Vac 60Hz Converter AC to DC DC Bus Filter ~650Vdc Inverter DC to AC 0-460Vac 0-60Hz 16

17 Harmonic Measurement VFD Load w/ Line Reactor Volt, Amp Measurement of Phase A Harmonic Measurement of Current Waveform

18 Harmonic Measurement VFD w/ Harmonic Filter Volt, Amp Measurement of Phase A Harmonic Measurement of Current

19 Effects of Harmonics Current Harmonics create Voltage Distortion One of the major effects is to increase the current in a system Component Overheating. Motors, Generators, Transformers, wires will experience additional losses resulting in additional heat. Power Factor Capacitor issues, resonance, additional loading. Voltage Flat Topping Increased Utility current requirement.

20 Harmonics Troubleshooting For troubleshooting: Check the harmonics present Check for the levels of the harmonics Look for recognizable patterns

21 Distortion Effect Effect of distortion on test tools Both Clamp Meter s are calibrated and functioning correctly 59.2 A 40.5 A

22 True RMS Measurement True RMS / Harmonics A True RMS meter calculates the effective heating value of the distorted waveform. This will include all harmonics. RMS stands for root-mean-square.

23 Crest Factor Crest Factor = Peak Value / RMS Value For a Sinewave, Crest Factor = Peak RMS Peak value = 2.9 X RMS Value. Crest Factor = 2.9

24 RMS vs Average Sensing True-RMS versus Average Sensing Crest Factor = Peak Value / RMS Value Sinewave = Square wave = 1

25 More on Crest Factor C.F. = 1.43 C.F. = 2.39 C.F. = 4.68 Professional Multimeters usually rated at CF <3 High Quality units rated at CF of 6 Power Quality Analyzer CF >11

26 Power Factor Measurement Two Power Factors Screen Shots from a Fluke 43 Single Phase and a Fluke 434 Three Phase analyzer

27 Power Factor, no Harmonics System with no Harmonic content Reactive power (VAr), Q Apparent power (VA), S True Power (W), P Cos φ (DPF) : True power/apparent Power (fundamental) DPF = Displacement Power Factor

28 What about the Power Factor? What is the Power Factor of a Non-Linear load? Linear Load Power Factor No Current Distortion PF = Watts/VA or phase angle between voltage and current z-axis HARMONIC Current REACTIVE Current y-axis Itotal S Ifund S 1 S Iharm D Ireal P P 2 Q Ireact Q 2 D x-axis 2 REAL Current (in phase with line-to-neutral voltage, VLN) Non-Linear Load Power Factor Includes the Effect of Current Distortion

29 Power Factor with Harmonics Total Power Factor = PF = P/S, (includes Harmonics) Cos φ (DPF) = PF 1 = P/S 1 = cos (angle between P and S 1 ) DPF = Displacement Power Factor (fundamental) Distortion Power Factor = PF D = S 1 /S

30 Power Factor Measurement Two Power Factors! Screen Shots from a Fluke 43 Single Phase and a Fluke 434 Three Phase analyser

31 What are Transients? High energy, short term deviations or changes from desired voltage level Unwanted electrical energy in AC power lines or communication lines (a potential seeking a pathway to ground) High voltages spikes 31

32 32 Any switching that creates a spark From outside the facility Lightning strike Utility grid switching How are Transients Generated? 20% 80% Within the facility Motors Large starters Power factor correction capacitor banks Air circuit breakers Any inductive load as it switches on and off 80% Transients are created from inside the facility

33 PFC Capacitor Switching - LV Power Factor Correction Capacitor Switching Transient Peak Value approx V.

34 Noisy Voltage Waveform

35 Measurements 1. Volts, Amps & Frequency 2. Power 3. Harmonics 4. Transients 5. Sags & Swells 6. Unbalance 7. Flicker 8. Inrush 9. Temperature PQ Measurements & Equipment

36 1) Volts, Amps & Frequency Using a Power Quality Analyzer View all of the main parameters at point of connection Graphical as well as numeric display can help highlight potential problems Scope Vector Trend

37 2) Power & PF Measurement Typical power measurement information Shows the sides of the triangle

38 3) Harmonic Measurement

39 4) Transient Measurement Cause.. interference Difficult to capture Modern power quality analyzers purpose built for the job Envelope trigger Accurate real time stamping is essential +X% 240V - X%

40 5) Sags & Swells Recording of upstream and downstream sags & swells can indicate loads causing problems Upstream Sag Downstream Sag

41 6) Unbalance The phase diagram gives a quick indication of phase relationships and balance In this example voltage unbalance is very small, but current unbalance is nearly 19%.

42 7) Flicker Measurements greater than 1 means that most people will perceive flicker in an incandescent A reading greater than 1 means that most people will perceive flicker in an incandescent bulb Measurement Pst (1 min): Short-term flicker over 1 minute Pst: Short-term flicker over 10 minutes Plt: Long-term flicker over 2 hours

43 8) Inrush Inrush Current Measurement Momentary peak of current during switch on. Current clamps can capture peak reading Analyzers can give time measurement Screen Shot of a PQA showing start-up current generated by a cooling system Three Phase Inrush Measurement

44 Temperature Many power quality problems initially result in an increase in temperature of components, connectors, cables and machinery Infra red non contact measurement is the ideal way to locate this type of problem

45 Fluke Equipment on Show Floor To view Fluke Test Equipment visit Booth 303

46 Power Quality Related Presentations: PQ01 Harmonic Solutions for VFD s PQ02 - Power Quality and Monitoring with isense/igrid/dysc & Surge/Sag/Transient Protection Fluke Meters Booth 604 Rockwell Power Quality Solutions area SA1 46

47 Questions? For questions or additional information please contact: Mark Skoyen Werner Electric

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