Tsunami observations by satellite altimeters

Save this PDF as:

Size: px
Start display at page:

Transcription

1 J.F. Legeais, M. Ablain, E. Sanz (CLS) E. Bronner, N. Picot (CNES) Ocean Surface Topography Meeting Lisbon

2 Overview What are tsunamis? High frequency phenomena whose amplitude and speed depend on depth: - Propagation through an ocean basin within a few hours - Amplitude of only a few tens of centimeters in the deep ocean and several meters close to the coast due to energy conservation. Question: In which extent is it possible to observe tsunami waves by altimetry? Conditions for tsunami observation: 1. A strong earthquake magnitude that generates high enough tsunami wave to be distinguished among ocean mesoscale variability 2. Altimeters must fly over the tsunami wave within the very few hours following the earthquake so that the wave hasn t vanished or reached the coast. The probability of observation by satellite altimeters is thus rather low Interest: Altimetry could provide an independent measurement of the tsunami wave propagation with high accuracy which could help to improve the parametrization of propagation models. These are the only one which provide quick enough warning to inhabitants

3 Table of contents Method Indian ocean tsunami of 26 th December 2004 Chilean tsunami of 27 th February 2010 Analysis of past tsunamis in historical altimetric data Conclusions and perspectives

4 Method 1) A basic way to detect tsunami from altimeter measurements is to compare the ocean state (SLA) a few days before and after the tsunami occurrence => Cycle N-1 / Cycle N / Cycle N+1 2) Mesoscale ocean variability strongly limits tsunami detection Use of a specific ocean variability mapping technique (Le Traon et al., 1998) to better extract the tsunami signal Optimal interpolation of all altimeters data in space and time using 40 days of data before and after tsunami day (excluded) via objective analysis Gives an estimation of the ocean state as if tsunami had not occurred 40 days of all altimeters Tsunami day 40 days of all altimeters Filtered SLA = Original SLA Interpolated SLA The filtered SLA reflects periods lower than ~15 days, which is only possible thanks to a very good space / time sampling of the ocean with several altimeters (Pascual et al., 2006) Gives a good estimation of the tsunami wave

5 2004 Indian ocean tsunami The Indian Ocean earthquake of December 26 th 2004 (magnitude of 9) generated a tsunami which has been well observed by satellite altimeters in the open ocean (Ablain et al., 2006, Geophys. Res. Lett., 33). Observation of tsunami waves in altimeter measurements Jason-1, TOPEX, Envisat and Geosat Follow-On overflew the wavefront from 2h00 until 9h00 after the earthquake. Comparison of altimeter observations with the CEA propagation model (A. Sladen and H. Hebert, 2006). For all the following results, initial displacement conditions of the model were refined thanks to the altimeter data It significantly improved coherence between model and in-situ observations compared with 1 st initial model outputs.

6 2004 Indian ocean tsunami 2 hours after the earthquake: 60 cm amplitude Jason-1 Track 129 Wavelength ~460 km (from J1, 2h Topex after beginning); taken into account: TOPEX Track 129 Track 129 the time for satellite to cross the wave (90 sec) and the angle between the altimeter track and direction of the wave propagation

7 2004 Indian ocean tsunami 3h15 after the earthquake: 35 cm amplitude Envisat Track 352 7h00 after the earthquake: 20 cm amplitude GFO Track 208 9h00 after the earthquake: 15 cm amplitude GFO Track 210

8 2010 Chilean tsunami On February 27 th 2010, an 8.8 Mn earthquake occurred off Chilean coast and generated a tsunami wave that propagated across the Pacific ocean within 15 hours. +12h: < 10 cm +8h: < 20 cm +4h: < 40 cm From NOAA 2m amplitude Tide gauge vs model (MOST from NOAA)

9 2010 Chilean tsunami Observation of tsunami waves in altimeter measurements: 3 altimeters available (Jason 1 & 2, Envisat) but their configuration wasn t optimal: Envisat Jason-2 Too early! ~2h too early! +10h +8h Bad configuration: => No detection although large coverage and amplitude +9h +7h +4.5h +3h Ascending tracks: 2h too early Descending tracks: 8h and 10h later 4 tracks 3h to 10h after earthquake

10 2010 Chilean tsunami Among 3 altimeters measurements, although: the tsunami had large amplitude and coverage, ocean variability had been removed, the wavefront has only been detected with J1 8h after the earthquake with a 20 cm wave amplitude Jason-1 +8h +6h +4h ~950 km Original SLA The almost zero angle prevents us from estimating the real wavelength (~400km expected) Detection is strongly limited by the ocean variability, especially by ACC fronts in the southern part of the area.

11 Analysis of past tsunamis in historical altimetric data We have good quality of altimeter measurements from 1992 onwards Use of systematic approach to detect potential tsunami wave associated to earthquake of magnitude from 6.9 to 9.0 (22 earthquakes) It has never been checked 12 had a magnitude already discussed have the highest magnitude (8.8, 9.0) Date Mn Lat/Lon Date Mn Lat/Lon 12/07/ / /05/ / /08/ / /07/ / /10/ / /01/ / /07/ / /04/ / /02/ / /08/ / /02/ / /08/ / /07/ / /09/ / /06/ / 286,36 07/10/ / /09/ / /01/ / /12/ / /02/ / /12/ / /07/ /

12 Analysis of past tsunamis in historical altimetric data The only two tsunamis which have been detected are those we have discussed (Indian ocean, 2004 and Chili, 2010). Such few observations are explained by: Wave amplitude not high enough or signal lost in the surrounding ocean variability AND Bad configuration of altimeters: no over flight of the wave or too long delay after the earthquake so that the wave has vanished or reached the coast (eg: Envisat and Jason-2 with 2010 Chili tsunami) Even if a strong earthquake produces high wave, at least 1 altimeter must have overfly the wave AND we need up to 4 altimeters to remove at best the ocean variability to better extract the tsunami signal This analysis of historical data: shows high difficulties to have adapted tsunamis observations Even if data acquisition were quick enough, altimetry could not be used to produce tsunami alerts

13 Conclusions It is possible to detect tsunami waves with altimetric SLA The 2004 Indian ocean tsunami has been detected with 4 altimeters Good accuracy has been demonstrated by consistent comparisons with CEA model. The 2010 tsunami off Chili has been detected with Jason-1 measurements Altimeters configuration wasn t optimal but the amplitude was high enough to be detected by only one altimeter with no need of removing ocean variability. These are the only tsunami waves clearly measured in the open ocean by altimetry Need of strong earthquake magnitude and up to 4 altimeters to extract at best short periods (<15d) of tsunami signals from ocean variability (Pascual et al., 2006) This study shows that tsunami alert is NOT possible with altimetry, due to: Delay of data acquisition and processing Low probability of observation These observations highlight the essential role of altimetry to better understand and to improve models of tsunami wave propagation and dissipation

14 Perspectives Several aproaches were used to extract tsunami signals from ocean variability (Gower 2007; Ablain et al., 2006; our study) but this problem still limits tsunami observation by altimetry. Improvement of the method to remove the ocean variability to better extract tsunami signal Use of an automatic detection tool which could be used to detect other phenomena (hurricanes, ) Collaboration with studies on tsunami waves detection via the altimeter backscattered coefficient σ 0 (B. Leben et al.) could help to improve altimeter products

15 2004 Indian ocean tsunami Analysis of short wavelength signals Jason-1 and Envisat SLA seem quite noisy at some latitudes SLA from 20Hz measurements show coherent oscillations with short wavelengths (between 20 km and 40 km according to the latitude) Jason-1 Envisat CEA model outputs don t reproduced such oscillations but they are probably associated with the tsunami (Altimetric parameters were checked to exclude error in SLA calculation) Indeed, at these short wavelengths, propagation is dispersive and the dispersive relation for wave propagation (Le Blond and Mysask, 1978) provides us with the theoretical wavelengths: λ theo = λ obs ± 3 km => Remarkable agreement

16 2010 Chilean tsunami Among 3 altimeters measurements, although: the tsunami had large amplitude and coverage, ocean variability had been removed, the wavefront has only been detected with J1 8h after the earthquake with a 20 cm wave amplitude Jason-1 T h +6h +4h ~950 km Original SLA Filtered SLA: Cy 300

High Resolution Altimetry Reveals New Characteristics of the December 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami

Please note that this is an author-produced PDF of an article accepted for publication following peer review. The definitive publisher-authenticated version will be available on the publisher Web site

Ocean surface currents: What can we do with Earth Observations?

Ocean surface currents: What can we do with Earth Observations? G. Larnicol, G.Dibarboure, Y Faugère, I Pujol, S Labroue, C Dufau, MH Rio, Space Oceanography Division, CLS Globcurrent UCM 7-9 march, Brest

COASTAL ALTIMETRY AT THE CENTRE DE TOPOGRAPHIE DES OCEANS ET DE L HYDROSPHERE

COASTAL ALTIMETRY AT THE CENTRE DE TOPOGRAPHIE DES OCEANS ET DE L HYDROSPHERE Florence Birol, Caroline Delebecque, Laurent Roblou, Sara Fleury, Rosemary Morrow, Fernando Niño and Guillaume Pernot http://ctoh.legos.obs-mip.fr/

Satellite Altimetry. Wolfgang Bosch Deutsches Geodätisches Forschungsinstitut (DGFI), München email: bosch@dgfi.badw.de

Satellite Altimetry Wolfgang Bosch Deutsches Geodätisches Forschungsinstitut (DGFI), München email: bosch@dgfi.badw.de Objectives You shall recognize satellite altimetry as an operational remote sensing

Observing Coastal dynamics with SAR Altimetry

Observing Coastal dynamics with SAR Altimetry S. Labroue, M. Raynal, T. Moreau, C.Dufau, F. Boy, N. Picot, G. Dibarboure, L. Amarouche -1- Interest of SAR altimetry for observing coastal dynamics? Increase

Jason-2 GDR Quality Assessment Report. Cycle 059 07-02-2010 / 17-02-2010. M. Ablain, CLS. P. Thibaut, CLS

Jason-2 GDR Quality Assessment Report Cycle 059 07-02-2010 / 17-02-2010 Prepared by : S. Philipps, CLS M. Ablain, CLS P. Thibaut, CLS Accepted by : Approved by : DT/AQM, CLS E. Bronner, CNES Edition 01.0,

The relationships between Argo Steric Height and AVISO Sea Surface Height

The relationships between Argo Steric Height and AVISO Sea Surface Height Phil Sutton 1 Dean Roemmich 2 1 National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research, New Zealand 2 Scripps Institution of Oceanography,

NOTES AND CORRESPONDENCE. Interaction of Mesoscale Variability with Large-Scale Waves in the Argentine Basin

MARCH 2007 N O T E S A N D C O R R E S P O N D E N C E 787 NOTES AND CORRESPONDENCE Interaction of Mesoscale Variability with Large-Scale Waves in the Argentine Basin LEE-LUENG FU Jet Propulsion Laboratory,

What has 16 years of Satellite Radar Altimetry given us towards Global monitoring of the Earth s inland water resources?

What has 16 years of Satellite Radar Altimetry given us towards Global monitoring of the Earth s inland water resources? P.A.M Berry (1), R.G.Smith (1), J.A.Freeman (1) 1. EAPRS Laboratory, De Montfort

Tsunami Practice Questions and Answers Revised November 2008

Tsunami Practice Questions and Answers Revised November 2008 1. What happened on 26 December 2004 off the west coast of Sumatra? 2. What is the final estimate of the magnitude of the Sumatra 26 December

Intra-seasonal and Annual variability of the Agulhas Current from satellite observations

Intra-seasonal and Annual variability of the Agulhas Current from satellite observations Marjolaine Krug Ecosystem Earth Observation (CSIR NRE) Pierrick Penven Laboratoire de Physique des Océans (IRD)

Jason-2 GDR Quality Assessment Report. Cycle 243 05-02-2015 / 15-02-2015. S. Philipps, CLS. M. Ablain, CLS. P. Thibaut, CLS

Jason-2 GDR Quality Assessment Report Cycle 243 05-02-2015 / 15-02-2015 Prepared by : H. Roinard, CLS S. Philipps, CLS M. Ablain, CLS P. Thibaut, CLS Accepted by : Approved by : DT/AQM, CLS E. Bronner,

Disaster Risk Reduction through people centered National Multi-hazard Early Warning System in the context of Maldives

Disaster Risk Reduction through people centered National Multi-hazard Early Warning System in the context of Maldives Abdul Muhusin, Deputy Director Department of Meteorology, Maldives Fourth Technical

Magnitude 8.8 OFFSHORE MAULE, CHILE

A great 8.8-magnitude struck central Chile early Saturday. The quake hit 200 miles (325 kilometers) southwest of the capital Santiago. The epicenter was just 70 miles (115 kilometers) from Concepcion,

Huai-Min Zhang & NOAAGlobalTemp Team

Improving Global Observations for Climate Change Monitoring using Global Surface Temperature (& beyond) Huai-Min Zhang & NOAAGlobalTemp Team NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI) [formerly:

Exploiting the potential of an improved multimission altimetric data set over the coastal ocean

GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS, VOL. 35, L10601, doi:10.1029/2008gl033488, 2008 Exploiting the potential of an improved multimission altimetric data set over the coastal ocean J. Bouffard, 1 S. Vignudelli,

Thompson/Ocean 420/Winter 2005 Tide Dynamics 1

Thompson/Ocean 420/Winter 2005 Tide Dynamics 1 Tide Dynamics Dynamic Theory of Tides. In the equilibrium theory of tides, we assumed that the shape of the sea surface was always in equilibrium with the

Operational Monitoring of Mesoscale Upper Layer Circulation Fields with Multi-Satellite Technology in the Southwestern Atlantic Ocean

Operational Monitoring of Mesoscale Upper Layer Circulation Fields with Multi-Satellite Technology in the Southwestern Atlantic Ocean Marcio Vianna & Viviane Menezes VM Oceanica Ltda AGU Ocean Science

Satellite Altimetry Missions

Satellite Altimetry Missions SINGAPORE SPACE SYMPOSIUM 30 TH SEPTEMBER 2015 AUTHORS: LUCA SIMONINI/ ERICK LANSARD/ JOSE M GONZALEZ www.thalesgroup.com Table of Content General Principles and Applications

CCAR Near Real Time and Historical Altimeter Data Server

CCAR Near Real Time and Historical Altimeter Data Server http://eddy.colorado.edu/ccar/data_viewer/index Bob Leben March 2015 GCOOS BOD Meeting CCAR Near Real Time Altimeter Data System! In late 1995,

Hurricane Naming, Track, Structure Tropical Cyclone Development

Chapter 24: Tropical Cyclones Hurricane Naming, Track, Structure Tropical Cyclone Development Hurricane Characteristics Definition: Hurricanes have sustained winds of 120 km/hr (74 mph) or greater. Size:

On the use of Satellite Altimeter data in Argo quality control

On the use of Satellite Altimeter data in Argo quality control Stéphanie Guinehut CLS, Space Oceanography Division Argo-France 14-15/05/2009 Brest -1- - Objective Background idea: to check the data before

DT CorSSH and DT SLA Product Handbook

AVISO DT CorSSH and DT SLA Product Handbook Reference: CLS-DOS-NT-08.341 Nomenclature: - Issue: 2 rev 0 Date: October 2012 Aviso Altimetry 8-10 rue Hermès, 31520 Ramonville St Agne, France aviso@oceanobs.com

hydrographic variability from Argo, SST and altimeter observations

Monitoring the global ocean hydrographic variability from Argo, SST and altimeter observations S. Guinehut A.-L. Dhomps G. Larnicol P.-Y. Le Traon -1- Our approach : Introduction - Outline Consists of

Marine route optimization. Jens Olaf Pepke Pedersen Polar DTU / DTU Space www.polar.dtu.dk www.space.dtu.dk

Marine route optimization Jens Olaf Pepke Pedersen Polar DTU / DTU Space www.polar.dtu.dk www.space.dtu.dk Early attempt at route optimization Jens Munk (1579-1628) Tries to find a way to India through

Satellite Remote Sensing - Introduction

Satellite Remote Sensing - Introduction definition for this class three essentials examples Seasat 1978 notes on human perception and display of information Seasat 1978 http://www.ucsusa.org/nuclear_weapons_and_global_security/

RECOMMENDATION ITU-R RA (Question ITU-R 145/7)

Rec. ITU-R RA.769-1 1 RECOMMENDATION ITU-R RA.769-1 PROTECTION CRITERIA USED FOR RADIOASTRONOMICAL MEASUREMENTS (Question ITU-R 145/7) (1992-1995) Rec. ITU-R RA.769-1 The ITU Radiocommunication Assembly,

RETRIEVING THE OCEAN WAVE-SKEWNESS FROM ENVISAT RA-2 AVERAGED WAVEFORMS

RETRIEVING THE OCEAN WAVE-SKEWNESS FROM ENVISAT RA-2 AVERAGED WAVEFORMS Gómez-Enri, J. (1), Villares, P. (2), Gommenginger, C. (3), Srokosz, M. (4) Challenor, P. (5), Alonso, J.J (6), Arias, M. (7), Catalán

Waves disturbances caused by the movement of energy from a source through some medium.

Oceanography Chapter 10 Waves disturbances caused by the movement of energy from a source through some medium. Floating Gull- Figure 10.1 water is not moving only the energy is moving through the water.

GNSS Reflectometry at GFZ: ocean altimetry and land surface monitoring

GNSS Reflectometry at GFZ: ocean altimetry and land surface monitoring M. Semmling 1 S. Vey 1 J. Beckheinrich 1 V. Leister 1,2 J. Saynisch 1 J. Wickert 1 1 Research Centre for Geoscience GFZ, Potsdam 2

Waves: Recording Sound Waves and Sound Wave Interference (Teacher s Guide)

Waves: Recording Sound Waves and Sound Wave Interference (Teacher s Guide) OVERVIEW Students will measure a sound wave by placing the Ward s DataHub microphone near one tuning fork A440 (f=440hz). Then

COASTAL WIND ANALYSIS BASED ON ACTIVE RADAR IN QINGDAO FOR OLYMPIC SAILING EVENT

COASTAL WIND ANALYSIS BASED ON ACTIVE RADAR IN QINGDAO FOR OLYMPIC SAILING EVENT XIAOMING LI a, b, * a Remote Sensing Technology Institute, German Aerospace Center (DLR), Oberpfaffenhofen, 82234, Germany

Slope correction for ocean radar altimetry

JGeod DOI 10.1007/s00190-014-070-1 ORIGINAL ARTICLE Slope correction for ocean radar altimetry David T. Sandwell Walter H. F. Smith Received: 30 October 013 / Accepted: 8 April 014 Springer-Verlag Berlin

Acoustics: the study of sound waves

Acoustics: the study of sound waves Sound is the phenomenon we experience when our ears are excited by vibrations in the gas that surrounds us. As an object vibrates, it sets the surrounding air in motion,

GlobCurrent User Consultation Modelling & Prediction needs Mike Bell November Crown copyright Met Office

GlobCurrent User Consultation Modelling & Prediction needs Mike Bell November 2014 Crown copyright Met Office Contents Different types of - motion - use - modelling and prediction - data Some examples

Monitoring a Changing Environment with Synthetic Aperture Radar. Alaska Satellite Facility National Park Service Don Atwood

Monitoring a Changing Environment with Synthetic Aperture Radar Don Atwood Alaska Satellite Facility 1 Entering the SAR Age 2 SAR Satellites RADARSAT-1 Launched 1995 by CSA 5.6 cm (C-Band) HH Polarization

Введение в спутниковую радиолокацию: Радиолокаторы с синтезированной апертурой (РСА) Introduction to satellite radars: Synthetic Aperture Radars (SAR)

Введение в спутниковую радиолокацию: Радиолокаторы с синтезированной апертурой (РСА) Introduction to satellite radars: Synthetic Aperture Radars (SAR) проф. Бертран Шапрон IFREMER / ЛСО РГГМУ Prof. Bertrand

УДК 528 Nguyen Thanh Le APPLYING MULTIBEAM ECHO-SOUNDER SYSTEM IN MAKING MULTISCALE SEABED TOPOGRAPHY MAP IN VIETNAM

Новый университет. 2013. 11-12(21-22). ISSN 2221-9552 УДК 528 Nguyen Thanh Le APPLYING MULTIBEAM ECHO-SOUNDER SYSTEM IN MAKING MULTISCALE SEABED TOPOGRAPHY MAP IN VIETNAM Making multiscale seabed topography

Passive Optical Resonators

Passive Optical Resonators Optical Cavities and Feedback Back mirror I 0 I 1 Laser medium with gain, G Output mirror I 3 R = 100% R < 100% I 2 Cavities are essential components of the lasers. They provide

Seismic Earthquakes. The most common quakes occur from fault lines

Earthquakes GE 4150- Natural Hazards Slides and images taken from Dr. Jim Diehl, Jason R. Evans, Joanne M. Scott and Benfiled Greig Hazard Research Centre (C471 Geohazards) Tectonic Earthquakes Seismic

Remote Level Monitoring Unit

Remote Level Monitoring Unit SPECIFICATIONS LASER MEASUREMENT Type InGasAs Laser Diode Wavelength 905 nm Beam Divergence 2.3 x 0.2 mrad (typical) Passive Range 0.5m to 150m Range to Reflective Target 0.5m

ABSG Consulting, Tokyo, Japan Email: tkubo@absconsulting.co.jp 2. Professor, Kogakuin University, Tokyo, Japan 3

Application of Earthquake Early Warning System and Real-time Strong-motion Monitoring System to Earthquake Disaster Mitigation of a High-Rise Building in Tokyo, Japan Tomohiro Kubo 1, Yoshiaki Hisada 2,

CASE STUDY LANDSLIDE MONITORING

Introduction Monitoring of terrain movements (unstable slopes, landslides, glaciers, ) is an increasingly important task for today s geotechnical people asked to prevent or forecast natural disaster that

Satellite bathymetry and other satellite derived data. Per Knudsen, Ole Andersen, Rene Forsberg, Roberto Saldo, & Henning Skriver

Satellite bathymetry and other satellite derived data Per Knudsen, Ole Andersen, Rene Forsberg, Roberto Saldo, & Henning Skriver Space and the Arctic Two major meetings were held in March 2012: Space for

ANALOG VS DIGITAL. Copyright 1998, Professor John T.Gorgone

ANALOG VS DIGITAL 1 BASICS OF DATA COMMUNICATIONS Data Transport System Analog Data Digital Data The transport of data through a telecommunications network can be classified into two overall transport

Data Assimilation and Operational Oceanography: The Mercator experience

www.mercator.eu.org Data Assimilation and Operational Oceanography: The Mercator experience Benoît Tranchant btranchant@mercator-ocean.fr And the Mercator-Ocean Assimilation Team (Marie Drevillon, Elisabeth

Satellite Derived Dynamic Ocean Currents in the Arctic. Jens Olaf Pepke Pedersen Polar DTU / DTU Space www.polar.dtu.dk www.space.dtu.

Satellite Derived Dynamic Ocean Currents in the Arctic Jens Olaf Pepke Pedersen Polar DTU / DTU Space www.polar.dtu.dk www.space.dtu.dk Benefits of exploiting ocean currents Benjamin Franklins map of the

SSALTO/DUACS User Handbook:

Reference : CLS-DOS-NT-06-034 Nomenclature : SALP-MU-P-EA-21065- CLS Issue : 4rev 4 Date : 2015/06/30 CLS-DOS-NT-06-034 - Issue 4.4 - Date : 2015/06/30 - Nomenclature : SALP-MU-P-EA-21065-CLS i.1 Chronology

COMPARISON OF THE MET OFFICE GLOBAL SPECTRAL WAVE MODEL WITH ENVISAT SATELLITE AND BUOY OBSERVATIONS

COMPARISON OF THE MET OFFICE GLOBAL SPECTRAL WAVE MODEL WITH ENVISAT SATELLITE AND BUOY OBSERVATIONS Jian-Guo Li, Martin Holt Met Office, FitzRoy Road, Exeter, EX1 3PB, UK Email: Jian-Guo.Li / Martin.Holt@metoffice.gov.uk

Quality assessment of tide gauge and altimeter measurements through SSH comparisons

Quality assessment of tide gauge and altimeter measurements through SSH comparisons M.Ablain, G.Valladeau, CLS A. Lombard, N.Picot - CNES Overview Purpose : SSH comparison from a global approach between

4.4 WAVE CHARACTERISTICS 4.5 WAVE PROPERTIES HW/Study Packet

4.4 WAVE CHARACTERISTICS 4.5 WAVE PROPERTIES HW/Study Packet Required: READ Hamper pp 115-134 SL/HL Supplemental: Cutnell and Johnson, pp 473-477, 507-513 Tsokos, pp 216-242 REMEMBER TO. Work through all

Two decades of inland water monitoring using satellite radar altimetry P.A.M. Berry (1) (1) De Montfort University, Faculty of Computer Sciences and Engineering, Leicester LE1 9BH, United Kingdom ABSTRACT

EARTHQUAKES. Compressional Tensional Slip-strike

Earthquakes-page 1 EARTHQUAKES Earthquakes occur along faults, planes of weakness in the crustal rocks. Although earthquakes can occur anywhere, they are most likely along crustal plate boundaries, such

3D Visualization of Seismic Activity Associated with the Nazca and South American Plate Subduction Zone (Along Southwestern Chile) Using RockWorks

3D Visualization of Seismic Activity Associated with the Nazca and South American Plate Subduction Zone (Along Southwestern Chile) Using RockWorks Table of Contents Figure 1: Top of Nazca plate relative

7.2.4 Seismic velocity, attenuation and rock properties

7.2.4 Seismic velocity, attenuation and rock properties Rock properties that affect seismic velocity Porosity Lithification Pressure Fluid saturation Velocity in unconsolidated near surface soils (the

TIDES. 1. Tides are the regular rise and fall of sea level that occurs either once a day (every 24.8 hours) or twice a day (every 12.4 hours).

TIDES What causes tides? How are tides predicted? 1. Tides are the regular rise and fall of sea level that occurs either once a day (every 24.8 hours) or twice a day (every 12.4 hours). Tides are waves

Resonance and the Speed of Sound

Name: Partner(s): Date: Resonance and the Speed of Sound 1. Purpose Sound is a common type of mechanical wave that can be heard but not seen. In today s lab, you will investigate the nature of sound waves

Waves-Wave Characteristics

1. What is the wavelength of a 256-hertz sound wave in air at STP? 1. 1.17 10 6 m 2. 1.29 m 3. 0.773 m 4. 8.53 10-7 m 2. The graph below represents the relationship between wavelength and frequency of

Lessons learned from the tsunami disaster caused by the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake and improvements in JMA's tsunami warning system

Lessons learned from the tsunami disaster caused by the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake and improvements in JMA's tsunami warning system October 2013 Japan Meteorological Agency Lessons learned from the

INTERFERENCE OF SOUND WAVES

1/2016 Sound 1/8 INTERFERENCE OF SOUND WAVES PURPOSE: To measure the wavelength, frequency, and propagation speed of ultrasonic sound waves and to observe interference phenomena with ultrasonic sound waves.

Flight and Orbital Mechanics

Flight and Orbital Mechanics Lecture slides Challenge the future 1 Material for exam: this presentation (i.e., no material from text book). Sun-synchronous orbit: used for a variety of earth-observing

Standing Waves Physics Lab I

Standing Waves Physics Lab I Objective In this series of experiments, the resonance conditions for standing waves on a string will be tested experimentally. Equipment List PASCO SF-9324 Variable Frequency

EARTH SCIENCE ACTIVITY #1 Tsunami in a Bottle

EARTH SCIENCE ACTIVITY #1 Tsunami in a Bottle Grades 3 and Up This activity is one of several in a basic curriculum designed to increase student knowledge about earthquake science and preparedness. The

General Physics (PHY 2130)

General Physics (PHY 2130) Lecture 28 Waves standing waves Sound definitions standing sound waves and instruments Doppler s effect http://www.physics.wayne.edu/~apetrov/phy2130/ Lightning Review Last lecture:

Simple Pendulum 10/10

Physical Science 101 Simple Pendulum 10/10 Name Partner s Name Purpose In this lab you will study the motion of a simple pendulum. A simple pendulum is a pendulum that has a small amplitude of swing, i.e.,

Plotting Earthquake Epicenters an activity for seismic discovery

Plotting Earthquake Epicenters an activity for seismic discovery Tammy K Bravo Anne M Ortiz Plotting Activity adapted from: Larry Braile and Sheryl Braile Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences Purdue

Pulse Width Modulation

Pulse Width Modulation Pulse width modulation (PWM) is a technique in which a series of digital pulses is used to control an analog circuit. The length and frequency of these pulses determines the total

PI: Riccardo Lanari (IREA CNR) email:lanari.r@irea.cnr.it

On the exploitation and validation of COSMO-SkyMed interferometric SAR data for digital terrain modelling and surface deformation analysis in extensive urban areas (ID: 1441) Project partners: Istituto

SARAL AltiKa introduction Plot of the SARAL/AltiKa ground track over Africa (Credits: Google). S ARAL/AltiKa is a new mission in cooperation between CNES and ISRO (Indian Space Research Organization),

08/19/09 PHYSICS 223 Exam-2 NAME Please write down your name also on the back side of this exam

08/19/09 PHYSICS 3 Exam- NAME Please write down your name also on the back side of this exam 1. A sinusoidal wave of frequency 500 Hz has a speed of 350 m/s. 1A. How far apart (in units of cm) are two

ndian Ocean Tsunami in sharing experiences with Japanese

ndian Ocean Tsunami in 2004 -sharing experiences with Japanese Prof. Fumihiko Imamura, DCRC, Tohoku Univ. Prof. Kazuo Nadaoka, Tokyo Institute of Technology Mechanism of tsunami generation Predicting the

INTERFERENCE OF SOUND WAVES

2011 Interference - 1 INTERFERENCE OF SOUND WAVES The objectives of this experiment are: To measure the wavelength, frequency, and propagation speed of ultrasonic sound waves. To observe interference phenomena

Greens functions - solution for earthʼs surface movement due to a slipping patch at depth

Greens functions - solution for earthʼs surface movement due to a slipping patch at depth Need to know slip distribution along the fault as a function of time No closed-form solution for Greens functions

Distributed optical fibre audible frequency sensor

Distributed optical fibre audible frequency sensor Ali Masoudi 1, Mohammad Belal 1 and Trevor P. Newson 1 1 ORC, University of Southampton, Southampton, SO17 1BJ, UK ABSTRACT A distributed optical fibre

Near Real Time Blended Surface Winds

Near Real Time Blended Surface Winds I. Summary To enhance the spatial and temporal resolutions of surface wind, the remotely sensed retrievals are blended to the operational ECMWF wind analyses over the

SARAL/AltiKa Products Handbook

References: CNES : SALP-MU-M-OP-15984-CN ISRO: xxx Issue: 2 rev 4 Date: December 9, 2013 Iss : 2.4 - date : December 9, 2013 i.1 Chronology Issues: Issue: Date: Reason for change: 1rev0 March 9, 2011

CHARACTERISTICS OF DEEP GPS SIGNAL FADING DUE TO IONOSPHERIC SCINTILLATION FOR AVIATION RECEIVER DESIGN

CHARACTERISTICS OF DEEP GPS SIGNAL FADING DUE TO IONOSPHERIC SCINTILLATION FOR AVIATION RECEIVER DESIGN Jiwon Seo, Todd Walter, Tsung-Yu Chiou, and Per Enge Stanford University ABSTRACT Aircraft navigation

Tennessee State University

Tennessee State University Dept. of Physics & Mathematics PHYS 2010 CF SU 2009 Name 30% Time is 2 hours. Cheating will give you an F-grade. Other instructions will be given in the Hall. MULTIPLE CHOICE.

E190Q Lecture 5 Autonomous Robot Navigation

E190Q Lecture 5 Autonomous Robot Navigation Instructor: Chris Clark Semester: Spring 2014 1 Figures courtesy of Siegwart & Nourbakhsh Control Structures Planning Based Control Prior Knowledge Operator

Development of new hybrid geoid model for Japan, GSIGEO2011. Basara MIYAHARA, Tokuro KODAMA, Yuki KUROISHI

Development of new hybrid geoid model for Japan, GSIGEO2011 11 Development of new hybrid geoid model for Japan, GSIGEO2011 Basara MIYAHARA, Tokuro KODAMA, Yuki KUROISHI (Published online: 26 December 2014)

Evaluation of sea surface salinity observed by Aquarius and SMOS

SMOS & Aquarius science workshop (April 17, 2013) Evaluation of sea surface salinity observed by Aquarius and SMOS Hiroto Abe, Naoto Ebuchi (Hokkaido University, Japan) 1 Introduction (1/1) Aquarius V2.0

Georgia Performance Standards Framework for Natural Disasters 6 th Grade

The following instructional plan is part of a GaDOE collection of Unit Frameworks, Performance Tasks, examples of Student Work, and Teacher Commentary. Many more GaDOE approved instructional plans are

DETECTION METHOD OF METEOTSUNAMI EVENTS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF HARBOUR OSCILLATIONS IN WESTERN MEDITERRANEAN. Abstract

DETECTION METHOD OF METEOTSUNAMI EVENTS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF HARBOUR OSCILLATIONS IN WESTERN MEDITERRANEAN Gaël André 1, Marta Marcos 2, Camille Daubord 3 Abstract A detection algorithm aimed at analysing

WorldWaves wave energy resource assessments from the deep ocean to the coast

WorldWaves wave energy resource assessments from the deep ocean to the coast Stephen Barstow, Gunnar Mørk, Lasse Lønseth and Jan Petter Mathisen Fugro OCEANOR AS Pir-Senteret, N7462 Trondheim, Norway Email:

A pulse is a collection of cycles that travel together. the cycles ( on or transmit time), and. the dead time ( off or receive time)

chapter 2 Pulsed Ultrasound In diagnostic ultrasound imaging, short bursts, or pulses, of acoustic energy are used to create anatomic images. Continuous wave sound cannot create anatomic images. Analogy

GRAS. Första operationella instrumentet för temperaturmätning med GPS-signaler ger förbättrade väderprognoser och klimatmodeller.

GRAS Första operationella instrumentet för temperaturmätning med GPS-signaler ger förbättrade väderprognoser och klimatmodeller. Magnus Bonnedal, RUAG Stefan Nilsson, SMHI RUAG Space AB 1 Radio Occultation

PHYS 101-4M, Fall 2005 Exam #3. MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

PHYS 101-4M, Fall 2005 Exam #3 Name MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) A bicycle wheel rotates uniformly through 2.0 revolutions in

Stress and deformation of offshore piles under structural and wave loading J. A. Eicher, H. Guan, and D. S. Jeng # School of Engineering, Griffith University, Gold Coast Campus, PMB 50 Gold Coast Mail

APPLICATION NOTE ULTRASONIC CERAMIC TRANSDUCERS

APPLICATION NOTE ULTRASONIC CERAMIC TRANSDUCERS Selection and use of Ultrasonic Ceramic Transducers The purpose of this application note is to aid the user in the selection and application of the Ultrasonic

Robot Perception Continued

Robot Perception Continued 1 Visual Perception Visual Odometry Reconstruction Recognition CS 685 11 Range Sensing strategies Active range sensors Ultrasound Laser range sensor Slides adopted from Siegwart

Waves and Sound. AP Physics B

Waves and Sound AP Physics B What is a wave A WAVE is a vibration or disturbance in space. A MEDIUM is the substance that all SOUND WAVES travel through and need to have in order to move. Two types of

Groundwater exploration WATEX applications with Ground Penetrating Radars. Dr.Saud Amer USGS Dr.Alain Gachet Radar Technologies France

Groundwater exploration WATEX applications with Ground Penetrating Radars Dr.Saud Amer USGS Dr.Alain Gachet Radar Technologies France GPR is a technology that allows rapid and non destructive collection

Chapter 15, example problems:

Chapter, example problems: (.0) Ultrasound imaging. (Frequenc > 0,000 Hz) v = 00 m/s. λ 00 m/s /.0 mm =.0 0 6 Hz. (Smaller wave length implies larger frequenc, since their product,

Title: Zero-pad effects on conditional simulation and application of spatially-varying earthquake motions.

Cover page Title: Zero-pad effects on conditional simulation and application of spatially-varying earthquake motions. Authors: Nguyen Van Dinh 1 and Biswajit Basu 2 1, 2 School of Engineering, Trinity

THE STRUCTURE OF THE EARTH FROM SEISMIC WAVES

THE STRUCTURE OF THE EARTH FROM SEISMIC WAVES OUTLINE Main Features of Seismic Velocities in the Earth Velocity depth profile Seismic phases and their nomenclature: seismic ray paths and travel time curves

2. DATA AND EXERCISES (Geos2911 students please read page 8) 2.1 Data set The data set available to you is an Excel spreadsheet file called cyclones.xls. The file consists of 3 sheets. Only the third is