Burning Method for the Calorie of Natural Gas

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1 Burning Method for the Calorie of Natural Gas 1 Joohyun Lee Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science APMP 2014

2 What is Natural gas Natural Gas -Natural gas was formed from the remains of plants and animals which lived on the Earth many millions of years ago. Over time the remains were covered by layers of sand, rock and ice. Heat and pressure eventually changed them into fossils. The gaseous form of these fossils is natural gas Sandstone Shale Natural gas Oil Granite 2

3 Advantage and disadvantage of Natural Gas Advantage -Natural gas(largely methane) burns more cleanly than other fossil fuels(45% less CO 2 than coal and 30% less than oil) -It is easily transported via pipelines and fairly easily using tankers (land and sea) -It's relatively abundant, clean burning and seems easy to distribute. -Natural gas is more economical than electricity -It's also lighter than air, so if there is a leak it will tend to dissipate, unlike propane, which is heavier than air. -It can be used for heating, cooking, hot water, clothes dryer, backup generator power, and so forth. Disadvantage -Even though it is cleaner than coal and oil, it still contributes a large amount of carbon dioxide to greenhouse gases. -If your house is not properly insulated it can be very expensive. -It can leak, potentially causing an explosion. 3

4 Natural gas reserve 4

5 Gas trade 5

6 Geograpic variations of the natural gas compositions % Methane Ethane Propane Buthane Nitrogen Alaska Algeria Baltimore Gas San Diego Gas Venezuelan Calorific value of natural gas depends on the composition -Variations of the calorific value influence on the performance of the combustion devices such as boiler, automobiles, power plants, etc. -Gas transactions invoiced in energy units. 6

7 Background of the research Motivation -In the near future, various gas such as bio-gas, shale gas as well as LNG will be actively developed so accurate measurement of gas calorific value is a very important issue. -Worldwide natural gas trade is based on the gas calorific value instead of gas volume. -The accurate gas calorific value can be obtained only by gas calorimeter. Purpose -Development of the Rossini type gas calorimeter. -The target expanded uncertainty is lower than 0.5% when 1g of methane is burned. 7

8 Alexandrov type Principle -Heat of combustion of gas is transferred into the latent heat of the phase transition liquid to gas -The evaporated working fluid rose and condense by Peltier elements -The thermometer keeps a constant temperature -By comparing two cases(flame, heater), calorific value of fuel gas is calculated 8

9 Rossini type Principle -Calorimeter is composed of burner, calorimeter vessel and water bath -The energy released by combustion transfers to the water in the calorimeter vessel -By comparing two cases(flame, heater), calorific value of fuel gas is calculated 9

10 PTB gas calorimeter PTB gas calorimeter -PTB developed Rossini type gas calorimter from 2002 to 2009 by GERG project with four contries(germany, France, Italy, Spain) -The uncertainty of the gas calorimeter is less than 0.05% Water bath Calorimeter Vessel Burner 10

11 Comparison of Experimental result PTB -The difference between the experimental data and the reference value is only 0.006% 11

12 LNE gas calorimeter LNE gas calorimeter -Gas calorimeter is surrounded by polystyrene wall -The heat exchanger is designed based on the simulation result -The uncertainty of the gas calorimeter is less than 0.06% Burner 12

13 Experimental apparatus Experimental apparatus -The Rossini type gas calorimeter is developed. -The burner is immersed in the calorimeter vessel which is in isothermal state by chiller. H s = C cal T comb + K m gas -The burned heat in the burner is transferred to the water in the calorimeter vessel and the water temperature is monitored so that the calorific value is calculated. -The consumed gas quantity is measured by electric balance. 13

14 Components Calorimeter Vessel Excellent insulation with 30mm thickness and minimizing heat loss by eliminating metal contact 14

15 Components Pyrex Burner 2 nd O 2 Drawing Product CH 4 1 st O 2 +Ar 15

16 Components Metal Jacket Burner Metal Jacket Burner has advantage of accurate and easy manufacturing Burner design is similar to Pyrex burner and modified for easy manufacturing It is possible to standardize burner so it can decrease uncertainty 16

17 Components Burner -The previous burner made of Pyrex has disadvantage such as brittleness and inaccurate manufacturing. -KRISS has developed metal jacket burner made of stainless steel, enabling standardization of gas calorimeter. <Pyrex Burner> <Metal Jacket Burner> Gas calorimeter <Metal Jacket system Burner with window> Calorimeter vessel - excellent insulation, Pyrex and Metal jacket burner can be installed. 17

18 Temperature( C) Experimental results Electrical Calibration -The heat capacity of the calorimeter is measured by electrical calibration T elec Time(min) C cal = E elec T elec, E elec = VI 18

19 Temperature( C) Experimental results Combustion result -The heat capacity of the calorimeter is measured by electrical calibration T comb Time(min) H s = C cal T comb + K m gas 19

20 Results and Future work Comparison between experiments and reference value of CH 4 calorific value Experiment Reference Calorific Value KJ/g KJ/g Difference 0.4% Conclusion and Future work -The calorific value of the methane can be measured with windowed Metal Jacket Burner with 0.4% difference. -The update of the gas calorimeter and the uncertainty analysis are now in progress. 20

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