# Definition: String concatenation. Definition: String. Definition: Language (cont.) Definition: Language

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1 CMSC 330: Organization of Programming Languages Regular Expressions and Finite Automata Introduction That s it for the basics of Ruby If you need other material for your project, come to office hours or check out the documentation Next up: How do regular expressions (REs) really work? Mixture of a very practical tool (string matching with REs) and some nice theory A great computer science result CMSC CMSC A Few Questions About REs What does a regular expression represent? Just a set of strings What are the basic components of REs? E.g., we saw that e+ is the same as ee* How are REs implemented? We ll see how to build a structure to parse REs Definition: Alphabet An alphabet is a finite set of symbols Usually denoted Σ Example alphabets: Binary: Σ = {0,1} Decimal: Σ = {0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9} Alphanumeric: Σ = {0-9,a-z,A-Z} CMSC CMSC 330 4

2 Definition: String A string is a finite sequence of symbols from Σ ε is the empty string ("" in Ruby) s is the length of string s! Hello = 5, ε = 0 Note! Ø is the empty set (with 0 elements)! Ø { ε } ε Example strings: 0101 Σ = {0,1} (binary) 0101 Σ = decimal 0101 Σ = alphanumeric CMSC Definition: String concatenation String concatenation is indicated by juxtaposition If s 1 = super and s 2 = hero, then s 1 s 2 = superhero Sometimes also written s 1 s 2 For any string s, we have sε = εs = s ou can concatenate strings from different alphabets; then the new alphabet is the union of the originals:! If s 1 = super Σ 1 = {s,u,p,e,r} and s 2 = hero Σ 2 = {h,e,r,o}, then s 1 s 2 = superhero Σ 3 = {e,h,o,p,r,s,u} CMSC Definition: Language A language L is a set of strings over an alphabet Example: The set of phone numbers over the alphabet Σ = {0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 9, (, ), -} Give an example element of this language Are all strings over the alphabet in the language? No Is there a Ruby regular expression for this language? /\(\d{3,3}\) \d{3,3}-\d{4,4}/ Example: The set of all strings over Σ Often written Σ* (123) CMSC Definition: Language (cont.) Example: The set of strings of length 0 over the alphabet Σ = {a, b, c} L = { s s Σ* and s = 0} = {ε} Ø Example: The set of all valid Ruby programs Is there a Ruby regular expression for this language? No. Matching (an arbitrary number of) brackets so that they are balanced is impossible using REs { { { } } } Can REs represent all possible languages? The answer turns out to be no! The languages represented by regular expressions are called, appropriately, the regular languages CMSC 330 8

3 Operations on Languages Let Σ be an alphabet and let L, L 1, L 2 be languages over Σ Concatenation L 1 L 2 is defined as L 1 L 2 = {xy x L 1 and y L 2 } Union is defined as L 1 L 2 = { x x L 1 or x L 2 } Kleene closure is defined as L* = { x ε or x L or x LL or x LLL or } Definition: Regular Expressions Given an alphabet Σ, the regular expressions over Σ are defined inductively as regular expression Ø ε each element σ Σ denotes language Ø {ε} {σ} Constants CMSC CMSC Definition: Regular Expressions (cont.) Let A and B be regular expressions denoting languages L A and L B, respectively regular expression AB (A B) denotes language L A L B A* L A * L A L B Operations Regular Expressions Denote Languages By applying operations on constants Generates a set of strings (i.e., a language) Examples! a { a }! a b { a } { b } = { a, b }! a* {ε} { a } { aa } = {ε, a, aa, } If s language generated by a RE r, we say that r accepts, describes, or recognizes string s There are no other regular expressions over Σ CMSC CMSC

4 Precedence Order in which operators are applied In arithmetic! Multiplication > addition +! = (2 3) + 4 = 10 In regular expressions! Kleene closure * > concatenation > union! ab c = ( a b ) c = { ab, c }! ab* = a ( b* ) = { a, ab, abb }! a b* = a ( b* ) = { a,, b, bb, bbb } Can change order using parentheses ( )! E.g., a(b c), (ab)*, (a b)* CMSC Regular Languages The languages that can be described using regular expressions are the regular languages or regular sets Not all languages are regular Examples (without proof):! The set of palindromes over Σ reads the same backward or forward! {a n b n n > 0 } (a n = sequence of n a s) Almost all programming languages are not regular But aspects of them sometimes are (e.g., identifiers) Regular expressions are commonly used in parsing tools CMSC Ruby Regular Expressions Almost all of the features we ve seen for Ruby REs can be reduced to this formal definition /Ruby/ concatenation of single-character REs /(Ruby Regular)/ union /(Ruby)*/ Kleene closure /(Ruby)+/ same as (Ruby)(Ruby)* /(Ruby)?/ same as (ε (Ruby)) (// is ε) /[a-z]/ same as (a b c... z) / [^0-9]/ same as (a b c...) for a,b,c,... Σ - {0..9} ^, \$ correspond to extra characters in alphabet Implementing Regular Expressions We can implement a regular expression by turning it into a finite automaton A machine for recognizing a regular language es No CMSC CMSC

5 Finite Automata Start state Transition on 1 Final state Finite Automata: States Start state State with incoming transition from no other state Can have only 1 start state States Machine starts in start or initial state Repeat until the end of the string is reached Scan the next symbol s of the string Take transition edge labeled with s String is accepted if automaton is in final state when end of string reached CMSC Final states States with double circle Can have 0 or more final states S1 S2 Any state, including the start state, can be final CMSC Finite Automaton: Example 1 Finite Automaton: Example accepted not accepted CMSC CMSC

6 What Language is This? Finite Automaton: Example 3 string state at end accepts? aabcc S2 acc S2 bbc S2 aabbb S1 All strings over {0, 1} that end in 1 What is a regular expression for this language? (0 1)*1 aa ε acba S0 S0 S3 N CMSC (a,b,c notation shorthand for three self loops) CMSC Finite Automaton: Example 3 (cont.) What language does this DFA accept? Dead State: Shorthand Notation If a transition is omitted, assume it goes to a dead state that is not shown a*b*c* is short for S3 is a dead state a nonfinal state with no transition to another state CMSC Language? Strings over {0,1,2,3} with alternating even and odd digits, beginning with odd digit CMSC

7 Finite Automaton: Example 4 Finite Automaton: Example 5 a*b*c* again, so DFAs are not unique CMSC Language? (a b)*abb Description for each state S0 = Haven t seen anything yet OR seen zero or more b s OR Last symbol seen was a b S1 = Last symbol seen was an a S2 = Last two symbols seen were ab S3 = Last three symbols seen were abb Practice Give the English descriptions and the DFA or regular expression of the following languages: ((0 1)(0 1)(0 1)(0 1)(0 1))* All strings with length a multiple of 5 (01)* (10)* (01)*0 (10)*1 All alternating binary strings All binary strings containing the substring 11 Practice Give the regular expressions and finite automata for the following languages ou and your neighbors names All protein-coding DNA strings (including only ATCG and appearing in multiples of 3) All binary strings containing an even length substring of all 1 s All binary strings containing exactly two 1 s All binary strings that start and end with the same number CMSC CMSC

8 Review Languages Sets of strings Operations on languages Regular expressions Constants Operators Precedence Finite automata States Transitions Accept strings CMSC

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