Evaluation of Angular Rate Sensor Technologies for Assessment of Rear Impact Occupant Responses

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2 TECHNICAL REPORT Evaluation of Angular Rate Sensor Technologies for Assessment of Rear Impact Occupant Responses Merkle AC, Wing I, Szcepanowski RS, McGee BM, Voo LM and Kleinberger M Biomechanics and Injury Science Program The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory May 2007

3 TABLE OF CONTENTS Table of Contents... ii List of Figures...iii List of Tables... iv I. Motivation... 1 II. Sensor Technologies... 1 III. Experimental Methodologies... 2 i. Bench Top Tests (MHD, IES Gyro)... 2 ii. Pendulum Impacts (MHD, IES Gyro)... 3 iii. Sled Tests Series I (MHD, IES Gyro)... 5 iv. Sled Tests Series II (MHD, IES Gyro, DTS Gyro)... 6 IV. Results... 8 i. Bench Top Tests (MHD, IES Gyro)... 8 ii. Pendulum Impacts (MHD, IES Gyro) iii. Sled Tests Series I (MHD, IES Gyro) iv. Sled Tests Series II (MHD, IES Gyro, DTS Gyro) V. Discussion i. Uni-axial Rotation Sensor Evaluation ii. Sled Test Sensor Evaluation Series I iii. Sled Test Sensor Evaluation Series II iv. Relative Head-Torso Rotation v. Frequency Spectrum Analysis VI. Conclusion Appendix A Sensor Specification Sheets Appendix B Initial Sensor Calibration Sheets Appendix C Revised Sensor Calibration Sheets ii

4 LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1. Angular Rate Sensor images....1 Figure 2. Sensor mounts for bench top experimentation....2 Figure 3. Bench top experimental setup....3 Figure 4. Pendulum test sensor mount...4 Figure 5. Pendulum impact experimental setup...4 Figure 6. Instrumentation of the 50 th percentile Hybrid III dummy head with ARS sensors....5 Figure 7. Experimental setup and initial dummy position for rear impact sled tests...6 Figure 8. Sled test sensor configuration...7 Figure 9. Initial dummy position for the Series II sled tests...7 Figure 10. Angular velocity and angular displacement time histories for ARS007LFAd...9 Figure 11. Angular velocity and angular displacement time histories for ARS007HNAb...10 Figure 12. Pendulum test deceleration pulse Figure 13. Pendulum test sensor measurements Figure 14. Sled impact deceleration pulse Figure 15. Head accelerations from sled test...15 Figure 16. Head angular velocity results for sled test RIARS Figure 17. Head angular displacement for RIARS04 sled test Figure 18. Still images from sled test RIARS Figure 19. Head angular velocity measurements for sled test RIARS Figure 20. Head angular displacement measurements calculated for sled test RIARS Figure 21. Still images from sled test RIARS05 taken from a single on-board camera Figure 22. Head-torso rotation comparison for IES rate gyro and video motion analysis Figure 23. Head-torso rotation comparison with computed differences for IES rate gyro and video motion analysis...25 Figure 24. Frequency plots (FFT) for the angular velocity sensor data recorded in the head and the torso...25 iii

5 LIST OF TABLES Table 1. Summary of test conditions for bench top experiments....8 Table 2. Angular displacement values from the bench top tests for each sensor type Table 3. Test parameters and resulting deceleration for the impact pendulum experiments Table 4. Pendulum test result s for sensor angular velocity (deg/sec) and calculated optical angular velocity (deg/sec) Table 5. Impact velocity and peak decelerations for sled impact test series Table 6. Measured angular velocity (deg/sec) of the head during the sled tests Table 7. Calculated sensor angular displacement (deg) of the head during the sled tests Table 8. Calculated difference between sensor angular head displacement and optically tracked angular displacement Table 9. Impact velocity and peak decelerations for second sled impact test series...20 Table 10. Measured angular velocity (deg/sec) of the head during the second series of sled tests...22 Table 11. Calculated sensor angular displacement (deg) of the head during the second series of sled tests...23 Table 12. Calculated difference (deg) between sensor angular head displacement and optically tracked angular displacement during the second series of sled tests iv

6 I. MOTIVATION In their recent upgrade to the FMVSS 202 head restraint standard, the NHTSA has proposed an optional dynamic test alternative. This dynamic compliance option provides a better representation of real-world crash dynamics and also gives manufacturers more flexibility to design active whiplash mitigation systems, which may not meet the static compliance requirements. The injury criteria used for the dynamic option include HIC 15 and the maximum head-to-torso relative extension rotation. The head-to-torso rotation has a limit of 12 deg for the 50 th percentile Hybrid III dummy when subjected to a nominal 9G deceleration pulse as prescribed in the FMVSS 202. Measurement of the head and torso angular displacements may be accomplished using Angular Rate Sensors (ARS). However, a systematic evaluation of these sensors is needed to determine if they can provide the measurement capability for this dynamic compliance option. II. SENSOR TECHNOLOGIES This report presents an evaluation of two ARS technologies. The sensors provide direct angular velocity measurements which can be processed to produce both angular displacement and acceleration. The application of ARS in automotive crash testing has been limited primarily due to the relatively narrow range of bandwidth. However, recently developed ARS claim to meet the full spectrum of performance requirements for automotive testing, notably the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) ARS-06 (Applied Technology Associates) and the 3100 series rate gyro (IES) (Figure 1). The ARS-06 requires a digital compensation processing routine to extend the sensor range to lower frequencies commonly exhibited by the dummy during a rear impact event. Rate gyros do not require special processing but commonly have reduced sensitivity at higher frequency ranges. The IES rate gyro claims to be able to record up to 4800 deg/sec and also meet the FMVSS CFC 600 frequency response requirement. A third sensor, the DTS ARS-1500 rate gyro, was added to this research effort at a later stage and therefore was only evaluated against the other sensors in the final two sled test runs. The specs for the sensors used in this report are provided in the Appendix. 10 mm 10 mm 10 mm Figure 1. Angular Rate Sensor images. Photos of the tri-axial ARS-06S MHD (left) and the IES 3103 rate gyro (center) tri-axial sensor packages and the single axis DTS ARS-1500 rate gyro (right).

7 III. EXPERIMENTAL METHODOLOGIES The sensors were evaluated in a set of controlled laboratory experiments to assess their performance in a variety of conditions. The accuracy, frequency response, and sensitivity to impact were evaluated under test conditions including pure rotation, controlled rotation followed by impacts, and full scale sled tests under FMVSS 202a dynamic test conditions. The results provide the relative performance of each sensor and compare their output with benchmark measurements (e.g., rotary encoder for table top tests, optical tracking for pendulum/sled tests). i. Bench Top Tests (MHD, IES Gyro) A motor-driven rotary apparatus was constructed to rotate the sensors at angular velocities reaching a maximum of 1000 deg/sec (Figure 2). The MHD and rate gyro sensors were mounted at locations equidistant from the axis of rotation. Sensor outputs were connected to the stationary data acquisition system (TDAS Pro) through a mercury slip ring (Mercotac) aligned with the axis of rotation (Figure 2). Data was recorded at 10 khz and filtered using SAE J211 standards. A rotary encoder was installed in line with the axis of rotation of the test apparatus to allow direct calculation of its angular velocity. Each test was recorded by a Phantom 4 video camera operating at 1000 frames per second (fps). The complete experimental setup is provided in Figure 3. Slip Ring Rate Gyro MHD Figure 2. Sensor mounts for bench top experimentation. Mounting orientation of the MHD and rate gyro on the rotating test bed. 2

8 Figure 3. Bench top experimental setup. Complete experimental setup for bench top sensor evaluation. ii. Pendulum Impacts (MHD, IES Gyro) The MHD and IES rate gyro sensors were evaluated under constrained, planar rotation which included an impact event. A mount was constructed to align the sensors (Figure 4) and rigidly connect them to an impactor that rotates as part of a pendulum (Figure 5). An accelerometer was also mounted to the back end of the impactor to record the deceleration pulse during the impact event. Tests were performed on a two-layer energy absorbing foam as well as a Nissan Quest head restraint similar to those used by JHU/APL in the research effort evaluating the effect of seat system properties on occupant response. The pendulum motion was captured using a single Phantom 5 camera aligned normal to the plane of rotation and sampled at 1000 fps. The sensor data were recorded at 10 khz and processed according to SAE J211 standards. 3

9 Figure 4. Pendulum test sensor mount. Sensor mount constructed to align the MHD and the IES rate gyro along the axis of the impactor. X Z Tri-axial Accelerometer Y Figure 5. Pendulum impact experimental setup. Experimental setup for the pendulum tests (left) and an image of the instrumented impactor including the MHD, IES rate gyro and accelerometer (right). 4

10 iii. Sled Tests Series I (MHD, IES Gyro) Four rear impact sled tests were performed using a modified Toyota Camry seat with a Nissan Quest head restraint and recliner rotational stiffness set at 35 Nm/deg. A 50 th percentile male Hybrid III dummy was instrumented with a tri-axial IES rate gyro positioned at the head center of gravity and a tri-axial MHD attached to the skull cap (Figure 6). The head restraint height was kept constant for all tests at approximately 750 mm and the initial head restraint backset was set to approximately 75 mm (Figure 7). Data was recorded using an on-board TDAS Pro data acquisition system sampling at 10 khz and processed according to SAE J211 standards. The FMVSS 202 deceleration pulse was employed for this test series. The crash pulse was recorded with an on-board accelerometer which was also used to determine the crash sled impact velocity. Two cameras, a Phantom 4 (512 x 512 pixels) and a Phantom 5 (1024 x 1024 pixels), were used to simultaneously record each test at 1000 frames per second. The multiple camera views provided data necessary for performing kinematic tracking of the dummy head. The angular displacement of the head was determined by 3D motion analysis using the Track Eye Motion Analysis (TEMA) system. In addition, the head angular displacement was also obtained through numerical integration of the data from the rate gyro and MHD sensors. Upon the completion of this test series, the IES rate gyro and the MHD were returned to the manufacturer for evaluation and re-calibration. Figure 6. Instrumentation of the 50 th percentile Hybrid III dummy head with ARS sensors. The IES rate gyro was positioned at the head center of gravity (left) and the MHD was attached to the skull cap (right). 5

11 +X +Y +Z Figure 7. Experimental setup and initial dummy position for rear impact sled tests. iv. Sled Tests Series II (MHD, IES Gyro, DTS Gyro) Two rear impact sled tests were performed using the same seat system as previous tests but with additional instrumentation in the 50 th percentile male Hybrid III dummy. Three uni-axial DTS rate gyros were mounted directly to the IES rate gyro located at the head center of gravity (Figure 8). A tri-axial IES Rate Gyro was installed in the thoracic spine and a thoracic motion tracking target was also used for these tests. The head restraint height was kept constant for both tests at approximately 800 mm and the initial head restraint backset was set to approximately 50 mm (Figure 9). Data was again recorded at 10 khz and processed according to SAE J211 standards. Sensor setup and analysis for these sled tests used the most recent calibration information provided by the sensor manufacturers in the specifications sheets generated by the calibrations performed after the completion of the initial series of sled tests. A single on-board camera, a Phantom 5 (1024 x 1024 pixels), was used to record each test at 1000 fps. The 2-D angular displacement of the head was determined by motion analysis using the TEMA software and by integration of the sensor data. Note on Data Analysis Initial analysis of the IES rate gyro data from all the test modes indicated a consistent off-set of 3% comparing to the reference values. The manufacturer of this sensor has not been able to find the reason for this off-set. Hence the results presented in this report will include both the original data and the values adjusted by a factor of

12 Figure 8. Sled test sensor configuration. Installation configuration for the IES Rate Gyro, DTS Rate Gyro, and accelerometers at the head center of gravity. Figure 9. Initial dummy position for the Series II sled tests. A torso tracking target was added for this test series. 7

13 IV. RESULTS The MHD results listed in this section and throughout this report have been corrected using the digital compensation routine according to the specifications provided by ATA Sensors. The appropriate sensor specific filters were used to perform this processing. i. Bench Top Tests (MHD, IES Gyro) The bench top tests were performed at three peak angular velocities. The sensors were placed at two different radial positions with respect to the axis of rotation to evaluate any potential effects of centripetal acceleration. Table 1 summarizes the test conditions, including nominal peak angular velocity, for the test results presented below. Characteristic results for the 600 deg/sec and 1000 deg/sec tests are plotted in Figures 10 and 11, respectively. Figure 10 compares both the original and adjusted rate gyro data with the other measurement techniques. The original IES rate gyro data is divided by a factor of 1.03 to provide the adjusted data. Figure 11 provides only the adjusted rate gyro data for the angular velocity and the angular displacement plots. The angular displacements for each test taken at selected times based on encoder displacement are provided in Table 2. The table also provides the percent difference between each angular displacement measurement technique and the encoder values, which were used as the benchmark for the table top tests. Table 1. Summary of test conditions for bench top experiments. Max Nominal Ang Vel Test ID (deg/sec) Location (cm) ARS007LFAb ARS007LFAd ARS007LNAb ARS008MFAd ARS008MFAe ARS007HNAa ARS007HNAb

14 Figure 10. Angular velocity and angular displacement time histories for ARS007LFAd. The results provide the sensor comparison for the IES rate gyro data as recorded (top) and the IES rate gyro data divided by a factor of 1.03 (bottom). 9

15 Figure 11. Angular velocity and angular displacement time histories for ARS007HNAb. The rate gyro values have been adjusted. The gyro, encoder and optical data lines track one another extremely well. 10

16 Table 2. Angular displacement values from the bench top tests for each sensor type. The encoder measurement provided a benchmark to which all other measurements were compared (% diff). Encoder Optical Gyro *Gyro Adj MHD Time (s) Angle (deg) Angle (deg) % diff Angle (deg) % diff Angle (deg) % diff Angle (deg) % diff ARS007HNAa ARS008MFAe ARS008MFAd ARS007LNAb ARS007LFAd ARS007LFAb ARS007HNAb

17 ii. Pendulum Impacts (MHD, IES Gyro) Four pendulum tests were completed to evaluate the sensor response before and after impact. The test ID along with the nominal release angle and the resulting deceleration peak for each test is included in Table 3. The angular velocity (deg/sec) recorded by the rate gyro and the MHD are provided in Table 4. For comparison, the derivative of the optically tracked position data is included as well. Figure 12 exhibits a characteristic deceleration pulse experienced by the pendulum during impact with the energy absorbing foam and with the head restraint. Figure 13 provides the angular velocity and angular displacement time histories for Pend11 with the starting position of 55 deg and impacting a Nissan Quest head restraint at an angular velocity of approximately 200 deg/sec. The additional plots in Figure 13 show the response of the sensors to a 35 deg starting position and an impact with the energy absorbing foam at approximately 120 deg/sec. Table 3. Test parameters and resulting deceleration for the impact pendulum experiments. Test ID Nominal Release Angle (deg) Peak Deceleration (g) Impact Substance Pend Quest Head Restraint Pend Quest Head Restraint Pend Two layer energy absorbing foam Pend Two layer energy absorbing foam Table 4. Pendulum test result s for sensor angular velocity (deg/sec) and calculated optical angular velocity (deg/sec). The optical results are used as the benchmark with the other sensor signals being compared at specified times. Pend14 Pend13 Pend12 Pend11 Time (sec) Optical (deg/s) Gyro (deg/s) Gyro Diff (deg/s) Gyro Adj (deg/s) Gyro Adj Diff (deg/s) MHD (deg/s) MHD Diff (deg/s)

18 30 Pendulum Acceleration (g) 25 Foam 20 Head Restraint Time (sec) Figure 12. Pendulum test deceleration pulse. The pendulum deceleration pulse for impacts to the energy absorbing foam and the head restraint. Figure 13. Pendulum test sensor measurements. The angular velocities and angular displacements for Pend11 (top) and Pend14 (bottom). 13

19 iii. Sled Tests Series I (MHD, IES Gyro) A characteristic sled deceleration pulse is provided in Figure 14. Slight adjustments in impact velocity were used to produce varying kinematics and evaluate the sensors at different impact levels. Table 5 provides the peak decelerations and impact velocity for the four sled tests. Figure 15 illustrates characteristic levels of head deceleration experienced by the Hybrid III ATD during a slow speed rear impact crash. A representative plot of the observed angular velocity response for sled tests (RIARS04) is provided in Figure 16. Table 6 provides the sagittal plane angular velocities for the head as recorded from the sensors. An adjusted angular velocity is included for each rate gyro value to account for the discrepancy repeatedly observed in the bench test evaluation. This value is again the recorded sensor result divided by a factor of The angular velocity data was integrated to obtain the angular displacement of the head during the impact event. A plot of the data from the ARS sensors recorded from RIARS04, as well as the results from the optical tracking, are shown in Figure 17. Still images from each of the cameras are provided at corresponding times during the test in Figure 18. These images show the progression of the head as it begins to rotate, impacts the head restraint, and then begins to rebound from the impact. The angular rate sensor data corresponding to those times are shown in Table 6. These values were integrated and the optical tracking was performed to produce the angular displacement results provided in Table 7. The optical tracking results were used as the benchmark, and the difference in angular head displacement between the sensor results and optical results are given in Table 8. These tables also include the adjusted rate gyro displacement values, which are the result of integrating the adjusted rate gyro angular velocity. These values again indicate that the IES rate gyro general response follows that of the benchmark but seems to have a slight factor offset Acceleration (Gs) Time (sec) Figure 14. Sled impact deceleration pulse. Characteristic sled deceleration pulse for FMVSS 202 as produced by the JHU/APL deceleration sled system. 14

20 Table 5. Impact velocity and peak decelerations for sled impact test series. Test ID Impact Velocity (kph) Peak Deceleration (g) RIARS RIARS RIARS RIARS Acceleration (g) Accel X Accel Y Accel Z Time (sec) Figure 15. Head accelerations from sled test. Characteristic head acceleration observed in the Hybrid III ATD during low speed rear impact sled tests. 15

21 Figure 16. Head angular velocity results for sled test RIARS04. Table 6. Measured angular velocity (deg/sec) of the head during the sled tests. The values were taken at 100, 150 and 200 msec as well as the time of peak head rotation. Time (s) Gyro Gyro Adj MHD RIARS04 RIARS03 RIARS02 RIARS

22 Figure 17. Head angular displacement for RIARS04 sled test. t = 0.0 sec t = t = t = t = Figure 18. Still images from sled test RIARS04. Time-synched images taken from two high-speed cameras. The image sequence displays the occupant position at selected times as well as the time of peak head rotation (t = sec). 17

23 Table 7. Calculated sensor angular displacement (deg) of the head during the sled tests. The values were taken at 100, 150 and 200 msec as well as the time of peak head rotation. RIARS04 RIARS03 RIARS02 RIARS01 Time (s) Optical Gyro Gyro Adj MHD

24 Table 8. Calculated difference between sensor angular head displacement and optically tracked angular displacement. Values calculated at the time of 100, 150, and 200 ms after impact as well as peak head rotation. RIARS04 RIARS03 RIARS02 RIARS01 Time (s) Optical Gyro Gyro Adj MHD

25 iv. Sled Tests Series II (MHD, IES Gyro, DTS Gyro) The peak decelerations and impact velocities for the sled tests performed comparing the MHD, IES rate gyro and the DTS rate gyro located in the ATD head are provided in Table 9. The level of head deceleration was similar to that previously shown in Figure 15. Representative plots (RIARS05) of the measured sagittal head angular velocity and calculated angular displacement are provided in Figures 19 and 20, respectively. The IES rate gyro adjustment was again performed and included based on the observed results. Still images from the recorded video are provided at corresponding times during the test (Figure 21). These images show the progression of the head as it begins to rotate, impact the head restraint, and then begin to rebound. The angular rate sensor data corresponding to those times are shown in Table 10. These values were integrated and the optical tracking was performed to produce the angular displacement results provided in Table 11. The optical tracking results were again used as the benchmark. The difference in angular head displacement between the sensor results and optical results are given in Table 12. Adjusted IES rate gyro values which are the result of integrating the adjusted rate gyro angular velocity are also included in these tables. In addition to the head tracking results, the data from the IES rate gyro installed in the head and the torso were used to determine the relative head-torso rotation for these tests. A plot of the adjusted sensor data compared with the optical tracking during the impact event is provided in Figures Relative rotations were not calculated for the DTS gyro or MHD because only the IES rate gyro sensor type was installed in both the head and torso. A frequency response plot for both the head signals from all three sensors as well as the torso signal for the IES rate gyro are provided in Figure 24. Table 9. Impact velocity and peak decelerations for second sled impact test series. Test ID Impact Velocity (kph) Peak Deceleration (g) RIARS RIARS

26 Angular Velocity (deg/sec) RIARS05 Angular Velocity MHD IES Gyro DTS Gyro IES Gyro Adj Time (sec) Figure 19. Head angular velocity measurements for sled test RIARS RIARS05 Angular Displacement Angular Displacement (deg) MHD IES Gyro DTS Gyro Video IES Gyro Adj Time (sec) Figure 20. Head angular displacement measurements calculated for sled test RIARS05. 21

27 t = 0.0 sec t = t = t = t = Figure 21. Still images from sled test RIARS05 taken from a single on-board camera. The image sequence displays the occupant position at selected times as well as the time of peak head rotation (t = sec). Table 10. Measured angular velocity (deg/sec) of the head during the second series of sled tests. The values were taken at 100, 150 and 200 msec as well as the time of peak head rotation. Time (s) IES Gyro IES Gyro Adj MHD Comp DTS Gyro RIARS05 RIARS

28 Table 11. Calculated sensor angular displacement (deg) of the head during the second series of sled tests. The values were taken at 100, 150 and 200 msec as well as the time of peak head rotation. Time (s) Optical IES Gyro IES Gyro Adj MHD Comp DTS Gyro RIARS05 RIARS Table 12. Calculated difference (deg) between sensor angular head displacement and optically tracked angular displacement during the second series of sled tests. The values were taken at 100, 150 and 200 msec as well as the time of peak head rotation. Time (s) Optical IES Gyro IES Gyro Adj MHD Comp DTS Gyro RIARS05 RIARS

29 RIARS05: Video Tracking vs IES Gyro Relative Head-Torso Rotation Video Head Rot Video Torso Rot Video Rel Rot IES Head Rot IES Torso Rot IES Rel Rot Angular Displacement (deg) Time (sec) Figure 22. Head-torso rotation comparison for IES rate gyro and video motion analysis. 24

30 RIARS05: Video vs IES Relative Rotation Measurements Angular Displacement (deg) Video Rel Rot IES Rel Rot Difference Measurement Difference (deg) Time (sec) Figure 23. Head-torso rotation comparison with computed differences for IES rate gyro and video motion analysis Figure 24. Frequency plots (FFT) for the angular velocity sensor data recorded in the head and the torso. 25

31 V. DISCUSSION The following section will discuss the results presented above. It is important to note that the IES Rate Gyro and the ATA MHD sensor data for the bench-top, pendulum, and initial series of sled tests discussed below were determined using the initial calibration values specified in Appendix B. The second series of sled tests were completed after the sensors were re-calibrated and therefore use the updated calibration values specified in Appendix C. These tests also include the data from the DTS Rate Gyro. i. Uni-axial Rotation Sensor Evaluation The bench top tests provided an evaluation of the IES rate gyro and the MHD ARS under pure rotation. The angular velocity data were numerically integrated to obtain the angular displacement. These angular displacements, in addition to those determined through optical tracking of the test frame motion, were compared with reference data calculated from the response of a rotary encoder as provided in Table 2. With the rotary encoder signal as the benchmark, the angular displacement calculated from optical tracking contained a maximum 0.8% error with the difference more commonly on the level of 0.1%. The rate gyro data percent difference varied between to -8%. However, when the gyro angular velocity was adjusted by the 1.03 factor (Figures 10 and 11) the peak percent difference was commonly under 2% with the peak at 4.9%. The MHD discrepancies were much larger and ranged up to 12% (partially due to sensors being out of calibration even though they were used for the first time). Although this test environment has a much longer time component than commonly observed for rear impact events, the test results provide an indication of general sensor performance when subjected to pure rotation. The pendulum impacts were used to again evaluate the sensor outputs during uniaxial rotation, but to also introduce an impact event and observe the subsequent sensor response. The optical tracking data was differentiated and used as the angular velocity benchmark for these tests (Table 4). It is evident that the adjusted rate gyro data matches with the optical tracking much more closely than the MHD both before and after impact Figure 13). The rate gyro percent difference is commonly less than 2% whereas the MHD angular velocities characteristically differ by 10-20%. However, it should be noted that much of the large discrepancies observed both during and immediately after impact are due to the oscillatory nature of the calculated optical angular velocity, an artifact of numerical differentiation. This is responsible for much of the data discrepancies. Using the angular displacement to compare signals circumvents this problem and results in the better tracking (Figure 13). The rate gyro signal is still significantly closer to the optically determined values than the MHD. ii. Sled Test Sensor Evaluation Series I The rear impact sled tests evaluated the sensors in the environment of their intended use. A comparison of angular velocities in Table 6 shows an approximate 10% difference between sensor values. The sensor data were integrated and then compared with the optically tracked head rotations (Figure 17). A comparison of the results (Tables 7 and 8) shows that the adjusted rate gyro data differ from the optically tracked angular 26

32 displacements by a maximum of 1.0 deg at the determined time of peak head rotation. The uncorrected maximum MHD discrepancy is 5.8 deg for the same tests. The accuracy of the optical tracking for sled tests depends on a number of factors including camera resolution, distance between tracked targets used to determine rotation, and field of view. Based on this experimental setup and the observed results, the level of optical tracking accuracy for the head is estimated to be within +/-1 degree. The adjustment of the rate gyro signal by a factor of 1.03 was performed to demonstrate that the discrepancy with the benchmark seems largely the result of a scale factor. Although the origin of the error is currently unknown, the sensor manufacturer is evaluating the possibility that it may be due to the sensor's operational capabilities with the data acquisition system used to conduct this study. Upon evaluation of the discrepancies observed between the digitally compensated MHD signals and the benchmark measurements, a consistent error relationship was not observed and a linear scaling technique could not be applied. Both the MHD sensor and the Rate Gyro were sent back to the manufacturers for post-test calibration to ensure the integrity of the pretest calibrations were maintained and are still applicable for the proper conversion of voltage sensor signals to engineering units. Furthermore, the sensor manufacturers will also be consulted regarding the response to the test results and any insight they may have to offer as to the nature of the observed discrepancies. It is important to note that the rate gyro signal includes a much larger noise range than that observed from the MHD signals. Commonly, the rate gyro will exhibit +/- 20 deg/sec of baseline noise while the MHD only produces +/- 1 deg/sec noise. These levels are relatively insignificant when evaluating sled rear impacts under the FMVSS 202a conditions that produce ~ 1400 deg/sec peak angular velocity. However, they may produce slight variations in output and result in small errors when integrating the signals to determine angular displacement. Furthermore, for a pendulum test that produced a maximum angular velocity of only 200 deg/sec, these noise levels can pose a significant problem. Therefore, for the pendulum tests, the signals were subjected to a box filter so that angular velocity values could be compared to the benchmark. iii. Sled Test Sensor Evaluation Series II Due to the measurement discrepancies observed from the initial sled test series, it was determined that the sensors would be returned to the manufacturers for re-calibration and then evaluated again in a second series of sled tests. During this time, a third sensor type, the DTS rate gyro, became available and was included for evaluation in the second series. This sensor was installed in the head. In addition, an IES rate gyro was installed into the torso and tracking targets were rigidly mounted to the upper spine so that relative head-torso rotations could be determined. A single high-speed camera was placed onboard to track head and torso rotation. The MHD was returned with a new calibration and underwent thorough evaluation by the manufacturer. It was determined that the sensor, which had not been calibrated in three years, had experienced a scale factor drift of more than 8% (from 52.4 to mv/rad/sec) even though these were the first tests in which this sensor was used. The manufacturer also pointed out that using a multi-pole model to create the digital filter necessary for compensation may enhance sensor performance when 27

33 compared with the single pole model originally suggested by the manufacturer when the sensor was purchased. The IES rate gyro was also returned with a new calibration. The manufacturer determined that the sensor Z-axis had a wiring issue which may have contributed to a small offset in that data channel. However, the sensor X-axis was used to measure the sagittal plane rotation of the dummy. Therefore, prior to the second sled tests series, the wiring issue was ruled out as a contributing factor to the ~3% discrepancy consistently observed between the IES rate gyro and the benchmark. However, this does not rule out the contribution of any other systematic components (such as the DAQ) to the error. The recalibration found that the sensor scale factor changed by 0.12% (from to deg/s/v). The results from RIARS05 and RIARS06 involving the DTS rate gyro and the new sensor calibrations were provided in Tables 10 and 11. The difference in angular displacement measurements compared with the optical tracking benchmark was shown in Table 12. The MHD sensor response in the second sled test series more closely matches the tracked head rotation when compared to the discrepancies observed in the first sled series. The maximum discrepancy at the time of peak head rotation decreased from 6.4 to 1.8 deg. This improvement is attributed to the updated calibration information. However, the MHD continues to underreport the benchmark (optical) head rotation (Figure 20). Data collected from the IES rate gyro data still demonstrated an offset from the benchmark. This data was again divided by a factor of 1.03 which was consistent with the adjustment made previously. Once the adjustment was performed, the discrepancy with the benchmark was reduced to a magnitude of less than 0.8 deg. However, prior to the adjustment the error was as large as 1.3 deg. This is largely consistent with measurements observed in the previous sled tests. The DTS rate gyro sensor was mounted to the head above the CG and rigidly mounted in line with the IES rate gyro. The measured results showed that the DTS gyro matched the benchmark within 0.39 deg at the time of peak head rotation. However, this sensor was only exposed to a limited set of tests and was not available for the bench-top tests. iv. Relative Head-Torso Rotation The plot from Figure 22 provides the head and torso rotations as well as the calculated relative head-torso rotation from the IES rate gyro and the optical tracking during the RIARS05 sled test. Figure 23 also plots the relative rotation but includes points showing the difference between the data collected from the sensor and the optical tracking method. The greater differences occur near or immediately after the time of peak relative rotation with the magnitudes nominally less than 1 deg. The non-adjusted IES data was used for this calculation. Therefore, both the head rotation and torso rotation produce results in excess of the benchmark. However, when the difference was taken between the head and torso signals to determine relative rotation, the errors essentially cancel one another (presuming the over-prediction occurs for both sensors). 28

34 v. Frequency Spectrum Analysis A Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) was performed on the angular rate sensor data to analyze the frequency content. Figure 24 provides the results of this analysis. The majority of the signal components for both the head and torso angular velocities fall well below 100 Hz with most signals below a level of 10 Hz. VI. CONCLUSION Three types of angular rate sensors, one MHD and two rate gyros have been thoroughly evaluated. The results show that the rate gyro technologies track the selected benchmarks more accurately than the MHD sensor under a variety of test conditions. For the bench top tests, the IES rate gyro differed from the benchmark within the range of -1.6 to -8% while the adjusted values (factor = 1.3) characteristically differed by less than 2% with a maximum difference of 4.9%. The MHD discrepancies ranged up to 12% which was partially attributed to sensor calibration issues. The pendulum impact tests revealed a similar trend with IES rate gyro angular velocity measurements differing from the benchmark by less than 2% whereas the MHD angular velocities characteristically differed by 10-20%. It was again felt that the MHD calibration again contributed to the discrepancy. Two separate sets of rear impact sled tests were completed to evaluate the sensors in the environment of their intended use. The initial tests series, Series I, included the IES rate gyro and the MHD sensors. The angular displacements calculated from the sensor data were compared with the optically tracked head rotations. At the time of peak head rotation, the adjusted rate gyro data differed from the benchmark by a maximum of 1.0 deg while the maximum MHD discrepancy was 5.8 deg. Due to the measurement discrepancies, the sensors were returned to the manufacturers for re-calibration. The MHD recalibration showed that the sensor had experienced a scale factor drift of more than 8% from its original calibration three years earlier although it had yet to be used. The IES rate gyro was also returned with a new calibration adjusted by 0.12% and a corrected, yet unrelated, wiring issue. The MHD and IES rate gyro, along with the DTS rate gyro, were then used in a second series of sled tests, Series II. Due to sensor recalibration, the MHD sensor response more closely matched the tracked head rotation with the discrepancy at the time of peak head rotation at 1.8 deg. Data collected from the IES rate gyro data still demonstrated an offset from the benchmark, but the post-adjustment data differed from the benchmark by less than 0.8 deg. The DTS rate gyro matched the benchmark within 0.39 deg at the time of peak head rotation. The completed experiments demonstrate that the IES rate gyro outperforms the MHD in all three test environments. The DTS rate gyro seems to outperform the IES rate gyro and the MHD, but it was subjected to a very limited set of rear impact sled tests. Although the use of optical tracking as a benchmark may contain inherent accuracy limitations, the well-controlled test conditions and the variety of dynamic modes under which the sensors have been tested have given us sufficient confidence in comparing their relative performance. In particular, all the sensors have been evaluated under the rear impact environment of the occupant-seat interaction that is most relevant for the dynamic option of the FMVSS202a. 29

35 MHD ARS-06 APPENDIX A SENSOR SPECIFICATION SHEETS 30

36 31

37 Rate Gyro IES

38 33

39 Rate Gyro DTS ARS

40 35

41 APPENDIX B INITIAL SENSOR CALIBRATION SHEETS MHD ARS-06 36

42 Rate Gyro IES

43 MHD ARS-06 APPENDIX C REVISED SENSOR CALIBRATION SHEETS 1300 Britt St. SE Albuquerque, NM ph: (505) , fx: (505) Sheet 1/2 MHD Angular Rate Sensor Calibration Sheet Model: ARS-06Y Serial Number: 0083 Calibration date: Calibration Software: REV C2 Calibration Test Data Scale factor at 10Hz (Kω) = mv/rad/sec Low frequency -3dB point = Hz Low frequency +45 point = Hz Pole frequency f1 = Hz High frequency -3dB point = 1000 Hz Input Power + +15VDC x 10 ma = 150 mw (typical) Input Power - -15VDC x 10 ma = 150 mw (typical) Total Power 300 mw (typical) Output RMS Voltage Noise: = 0.51 mv Output Offset (After 10min. warming): = 9.04 mv Output Impedance: < 100 Ω (typical) Wiring Instructions* Red Lead: +5VDC to +15VDC White Lead: -5VDC to -15VDC Black Lead: Signal and Power Common (0VDC) Yellow Lead: Signal Output *Wiring instructions are for use with a CA-06 cable assembly. If the sensor is used with an ILC, follow the wiring instructions given on the ILC data sheet. WARNING: Sharp impacts may cause damage to this sensor. This sensor contains mercury and is not designed for safe operation or use outside the specifications. 38

44 Rate Gyro IES

45 Rate Gyro DTS ARS

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