Computer Lab: Hydrodynamics of sinking and swimming

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Computer Lab: Hydrodynamics of sinking and swimming"

Transcription

1 Computer Lab: Hydrodynamics of sinking and swimming 1 Introduction Presented by the OCEAN 497 Class 1 October 19, 2009 Small suspended particles are central to the biological, chemical, and geological dynamics of the world s oceans. Living particles plankton are responsible for the vast majority of carbon fixation (i.e., photosynthesis by phytoplankton) and nutrient cycling, and are the basis of oceanic food webs on which we ourselves depend. Other types of particles supply key limiting nutrients (e.g. delivery of iron by dust particles) and drive the biological pump (e.g. sinking marine snow and other detritus), ultimately affecting global productivity and carbon fluxes. Particles from terrestrial inputs and volcanism shape geological deposits that cover much of the earth s surface. The distributions of particles in space and time, and their strong impacts on their environment, depend crucially on the fact that they are suspended in the water column. However, particles are seldom exactly the same density as ambient seawater. Most are heavier, a few are lighter. Differences in density mean that particles tend to move out of the water column, usually to the sediments (but, for the few buoyant particles, to the surface). This tendency raises fundamental questions about the type and number of oceanic particles we should expect to see: If suspended particles are constantly leaving the water column, why are there so many of them? Which mechanisms either prevent particle sinking or floating, or balance losses by creating and transporting new particles? Are sinking and floating selective, disproportionately removing particles with some characteristics while leaving other kinds of particles relatively unaffected? For biological particles, are size, shape and composition constrained by the need to remain in particular parts of the water column (e.g., the photic zone)? The answers to all of these questions depend on how sinking, floating and swimming rates vary quantitatively with particle characteristics. In this computer lab, we will use a hydrodynamic model explore the relationships between vertical movement and particle geometry, composition, and (in plankton) swimming propulsion. 1 Please direct questions or comments to Danny Grünbaum, 1

2 Figure 1: A screenshot of the particle sinking/swimming hydrodynamics model. This graphic represents a prolate ellisoid-shaped cell, that is propelled upwards by cilia but is so dense that it nonetheless sinks. Flow patterns are visualized by a set of cyan tracers released immediately below the cell, and a set of red tracers released a couple of cell diameters lower in the water column. 2 The Model To quantify these relationships, we will use a Matlab-based model of low Reynolds number hydrodynamics. Low Reynolds number (Re 1) means that viscous forces are much stronger than inertial effects. This is true for small, slow particles, which includes many oceanic particles. Restricting our attention to this subset of particles enables us to devise a flexible and efficient computer model. This model addresses a family of hypothetical biotic and abiotic particles that are various types of ellipsoids. An ellipsoid is similar to a squashed sphere. It satisfies the equation x 2 a 2 x + y2 a 2 + z2 y a 2 z By adjusting a x, a y, and a z, we can define a prolate (cigar-shaped) spheroid, an oblate (disk-shaped) spheroid, and other shapes that are not exact representations of any specific particles but that approximate a wide variety of particle = 1 2

3 Table 1: Sinking/swimming model parameters. To see tooltips, hover mouse over the parameter input boxes in the graphics window. Particle characteristics a x,a y,a z Size (radius) of larva in X, Y and Z ciliary velocity Max. ciliary tip speed (zero if non-motile) particle density Density of particle Water characteristics ν ρ Visualization parameters N part X part range, Y part range, Z part range Tmax part dt part dt plot Kinematic viscosity Sea water density Number of particles Initial position ranges of particles Duration of trajectories Timestep for trajectories Plotting interval for trajectories shapes found in nature (Figure 1). In addition, the ellipsoids could represent shapes not found in nature. To model motile plankton, the model assumes that the surface of the particle is covered in cilia, that are beating tangentially to the surface in a downward direction. The maximum ciliary tip speed is a parameter you set, called ciliary_velocity. The tip speed of these cilia depends on their orientation: Cilia that are on a horizontal surface do not beat at all; cilia that are on a vertical surface beat at speed ciliary_velocity in the downward (negative z) direction; and cilia on surfaces between vertical and horizontal have intermediate tip speeds. In the model, a particle with a zero value of ciliary_velocity is a nonmotile particle. The geometry you specify (with your choice of a x, a y, and a z ) also specifies the volume of the ellipsoid. You must also specify the interior density of the particle, and the density of the ambient sea water. These parameters define the particle s excess weight in water, and hence the force acting on it due to gravity and buoyancy. 3

4 3 Code and parameters To run this model, download or copy all the m-files in the directory ellipsoid_swimming497. The code has two parts. Part 1 sets the geometry and calculates the flow. To run this, navigate to the ellipsoid_swimming497 directory in Matlab and execute the m-file ellipse_swim4.m. A graphics window will come up (as in Figure 1). At the top of that window are editable boxes, into which you can enter the particle characteristics that you would like to model. In addition, there are four buttons on the left of the window that enable you to perform various calculations. Using this model involves three basic steps: 1. Change a parameter and hit return. The model will plot the geometry that you specified, and report its volume and excess weight (that is, the net force after both gravity and buoyancy are accounted for). 2. Clicking on the button labeled Calculate Flow causes the model to (guess what?) calculate the flow. This takes a few seconds, so in some cases you may want to fine tune the particle geometry you are interested in before you do this calculation. When the calculation is complete, the model will display the vertical velocity of the particle and plot some velocity vectors on its surface. If you want to get back the three-dimensional plot of the skin, click on the Plot 3D button. In general, the model will display the vertical velocity if it is known. That is, if you change a parameter, then the velocity is not known until you recalculate it. Accordingly, the model will not display the velocity until after you click the Calculate Flow button. 3. To vizualize the flow patterns, click on the button labeled Track Particles (after the Calculate Flow button!!). This will bring up a window in which you can modify parameters such as how many tracers, where they are released, their color, and for how long to track them. Tracking can be stopped at any point by clicking the Stop Tracking button. You can release a new set of particles, e.g. with a different color, to visualize different parts of the flow as in Figure 1. These parameters are highly adjustable to enable you to explore the consequences of different geometries and material properties (though it is certainly possible to break the code... ). The parameters and their interpretations are summarized in Table 1. NOTE: It is easy to copy and save snapshots of the graphics window into a Word or OpenOffice document. That is a quick and effective way of saving both input parameters and results. 4

5 4 Your Task When you first get this model running, experiment with the effects of different parameters to get an intuition about what different values do to the geometry of the particle, its sinking/floating rate or swimming performance, and the surrounding flow patterns. Then, ask yourself: From the standpoint of ocean geology, chemistry, and biology, what is it about these shapes that most critically affects particles abundance and impacts? Try to devise a strategy for using the model to gain oceanographic insight. Some examples of topics are listed below, but you are encouraged to generate your own ideas. 1. Effects of size. How does swimming and/or sinking change with increases in size? Does geometric similarity imply functional similarity? 2. Effects of weight. Do heavy particles create flows that are different from light particles? What are consequences for particle transport and encounter rates of being heavy or light? If there are differences, how heavy is heavy and how light is light for particles of various sizes? 3. Effects of shape. What are the consequences of particle shape? For a given particle volume and density, would you expect to see equal proportions of highly prolate, highly oblate, and approximately spherical particles in the water column? What about in the sediments? 4. Swimming metrics. How well do various hypothetical organism shapes swim? Are there shapes that appear to have better overall swimming performance? Are there tradeoffs, in which a cell shape that is good in one respect is not so good in other respects? Is there an upper limit to the size and/or density that you would expect to see in ciliated plankton? Finally, use a short series of runs (three or four snapshots of the graphics window) to formulate a hypothesis based on the model results: When we sample off the Thompson, the model results suggest we should see. 5

Chapter 4. Kinematics - Velocity and Acceleration. 4.1 Purpose. 4.2 Introduction

Chapter 4. Kinematics - Velocity and Acceleration. 4.1 Purpose. 4.2 Introduction Chapter 4 Kinematics - Velocity and Acceleration 4.1 Purpose In this lab, the relationship between position, velocity and acceleration will be explored. In this experiment, friction will be neglected.

More information

12.307. 1 Convection in water (an almost-incompressible fluid)

12.307. 1 Convection in water (an almost-incompressible fluid) 12.307 Convection in water (an almost-incompressible fluid) John Marshall, Lodovica Illari and Alan Plumb March, 2004 1 Convection in water (an almost-incompressible fluid) 1.1 Buoyancy Objects that are

More information

POTATO FLOAT. Common Preconceptions:

POTATO FLOAT. Common Preconceptions: POTATO FLOAT Unit: Salinity Patterns & the Water Cycle l Grade Level: Middle l Time Required: 30 min. (in class) after solutions are prepared by the teacher l Content Standard: NSES Physical Science, properties

More information

Tutorial #2 Exercise: Free Fall

Tutorial #2 Exercise: Free Fall Tutorial #2 Exercise: Free Fall In the following exercise you will use vpython to investigate a ball s motion under the influence of gravity close to Earth s surface (so we will make the approximation

More information

CH-205: Fluid Dynamics

CH-205: Fluid Dynamics CH-05: Fluid Dynamics nd Year, B.Tech. & Integrated Dual Degree (Chemical Engineering) Solutions of Mid Semester Examination Data Given: Density of water, ρ = 1000 kg/m 3, gravitational acceleration, g

More information

Magnetic Fields and Their Effects

Magnetic Fields and Their Effects Name Date Time to Complete h m Partner Course/ Section / Grade Magnetic Fields and Their Effects This experiment is intended to give you some hands-on experience with the effects of, and in some cases

More information

Archimedes. F b (Buoyant Force) DEMO. Identical Size Boxes Which has larger F B. Which is heavier. styrofoam (1 cm 3 ) steel ( 1 cm 3 )

Archimedes. F b (Buoyant Force) DEMO. Identical Size Boxes Which has larger F B. Which is heavier. styrofoam (1 cm 3 ) steel ( 1 cm 3 ) Fluids Density 1 F b (Buoyant Force) DEMO Archimedes Identical Size Boxes Which has larger F B Which is heavier styrofoam (1 cm 3 ) steel ( 1 cm 3 ) steel ( 1 cm 3 ) styrofoam (1 cm 3 ) 2 Finding the Weight

More information

Activity P13: Buoyant Force (Force Sensor)

Activity P13: Buoyant Force (Force Sensor) Activity P13: Buoyant Force (Force Sensor) Equipment Needed Qty Equipment Needed Qty Economy Force Sensor (CI-6746) 1 Mass and Hanger Set (ME-9348) 1 Base and Support Rod (ME-9355) 1 Ruler, metric 1 Beaker,

More information

Ocean in Motion 2: What Causes Ocean Currents and How Do We Measure Them?

Ocean in Motion 2: What Causes Ocean Currents and How Do We Measure Them? Ocean in Motion 2: What Causes Ocean Currents and How Do We Measure Them? A. Overview 1. The Ocean in Motion -- Circulation In this program, students will learn about the driving forces responsible for

More information

AP Biology Unit I: Ecological Interactions

AP Biology Unit I: Ecological Interactions AP Biology Unit I: Ecological Interactions Essential knowledge 1.C.1: Speciation and extinction have occurred throughout the Earth s history. Species extinction rates are rapid at times of ecological stress.

More information

A Guide to Calculate Convection Coefficients for Thermal Problems Application Note

A Guide to Calculate Convection Coefficients for Thermal Problems Application Note A Guide to Calculate Convection Coefficients for Thermal Problems Application Note Keywords: Thermal analysis, convection coefficients, computational fluid dynamics, free convection, forced convection.

More information

Planet Earth in Cross Section By Michael Osborn Fayetteville-Manlius HS

Planet Earth in Cross Section By Michael Osborn Fayetteville-Manlius HS Planet Earth in Cross Section By Michael Osborn Fayetteville-Manlius HS Objectives Devise a model of the layers of the Earth to scale. Background Planet Earth is organized into layers of varying thickness.

More information

Ocean Tracers. From Particles to sediment Thermohaline Circulation Past present and future ocean and climate. Only 4 hours left.

Ocean Tracers. From Particles to sediment Thermohaline Circulation Past present and future ocean and climate. Only 4 hours left. Ocean Tracers Basic facts and principles (Size, depth, S, T,, f, water masses, surface circulation, deep circulation, observing tools, ) Seawater not just water (Salt composition, Sources, sinks,, mixing

More information

FREE FALL. Introduction. Reference Young and Freedman, University Physics, 12 th Edition: Chapter 2, section 2.5

FREE FALL. Introduction. Reference Young and Freedman, University Physics, 12 th Edition: Chapter 2, section 2.5 Physics 161 FREE FALL Introduction This experiment is designed to study the motion of an object that is accelerated by the force of gravity. It also serves as an introduction to the data analysis capabilities

More information

Activity P13: Buoyant Force (Force Sensor)

Activity P13: Buoyant Force (Force Sensor) Name Class Date Activity P13: Buoyant Force (Force Sensor) Concept DataStudio ScienceWorkshop (Mac) ScienceWorkshop (Win) Archimedes Principle P13 Buoyant Force.DS P18 Buoyant Force P18_BUOY.SWS Equipment

More information

Quick Peek. H Students will learn about. H Students will design and. Students will learn about density, buoyancy, and how submarines dive.

Quick Peek. H Students will learn about. H Students will design and. Students will learn about density, buoyancy, and how submarines dive. Quick Peek sink, float, Hover design a submarine! Students will learn about density, buoyancy, and how submarines dive. Suggested Grade Levels: 4 8 Illinois State Learning Goals science 11.A, 11.B, 12.D,

More information

The purposes of this experiment are to test Faraday's Law qualitatively and to test Lenz's Law.

The purposes of this experiment are to test Faraday's Law qualitatively and to test Lenz's Law. 260 17-1 I. THEORY EXPERIMENT 17 QUALITATIVE STUDY OF INDUCED EMF Along the extended central axis of a bar magnet, the magnetic field vector B r, on the side nearer the North pole, points away from this

More information

Natural Convection. Buoyancy force

Natural Convection. Buoyancy force Natural Convection In natural convection, the fluid motion occurs by natural means such as buoyancy. Since the fluid velocity associated with natural convection is relatively low, the heat transfer coefficient

More information

Lab 6: Plate Tectonics: Introduction to Relative Plate Motions. Geology 202: Earth s Interior

Lab 6: Plate Tectonics: Introduction to Relative Plate Motions. Geology 202: Earth s Interior Introduction: Lab 6: Plate Tectonics: Introduction to Relative Plate Motions Geology 202: Earth s Interior In plate tectonics, the mantle and the crust of the earth are divided into layers, called the

More information

Buoyancy. Program Description. Louisiana GLEs: Grades: 3 rd - 5 th grades Program Duration: 60 Minutes Program Type: Demonstration

Buoyancy. Program Description. Louisiana GLEs: Grades: 3 rd - 5 th grades Program Duration: 60 Minutes Program Type: Demonstration Buoyancy Grades: 3 rd - 5 th grades Program Duration: 60 Minutes Program Type: Demonstration Program Description In this program students will investigate Archimedes Principle by using pan balances and

More information

Introduction to COMSOL. The Navier-Stokes Equations

Introduction to COMSOL. The Navier-Stokes Equations Flow Between Parallel Plates Modified from the COMSOL ChE Library module rev 10/13/08 Modified by Robert P. Hesketh, Chemical Engineering, Rowan University Fall 2008 Introduction to COMSOL The following

More information

Trial 9 No Pill Placebo Drug Trial 4. Trial 6.

Trial 9 No Pill Placebo Drug Trial 4. Trial 6. An essential part of science is communication of research results. In addition to written descriptions and interpretations, the data are presented in a figure that shows, in a visual format, the effect

More information

Buoyant Force and Archimedes Principle

Buoyant Force and Archimedes Principle Buoyant Force and Archimedes Principle Predict the behavior of fluids as a result of properties including viscosity and density Demonstrate why objects sink or float Apply Archimedes Principle by measuring

More information

Figure 1. Basic structure of the leaf, with a close up of the leaf surface showing Stomata and Guard cells.

Figure 1. Basic structure of the leaf, with a close up of the leaf surface showing Stomata and Guard cells. BIOL100 Laboratory Assignment 3: Analysis of Stomata Name: Stomata (singular=stoma) are the respiratory control structures in plants (see Figure 1 below). They are essentially small holes in the surface

More information

Beginner s Matlab Tutorial

Beginner s Matlab Tutorial Christopher Lum lum@u.washington.edu Introduction Beginner s Matlab Tutorial This document is designed to act as a tutorial for an individual who has had no prior experience with Matlab. For any questions

More information

Introduction and Origin of the Earth

Introduction and Origin of the Earth Page 1 of 5 EENS 1110 Tulane University Physical Geology Prof. Stephen A. Nelson Introduction and Origin of the Earth This page last updated on 30-Jul-2015 Geology, What is it? Geology is the study of

More information

Chapter 3 Student Reading

Chapter 3 Student Reading Chapter 3 Student Reading If you hold a solid piece of lead or iron in your hand, it feels heavy for its size. If you hold the same size piece of balsa wood or plastic, it feels light for its size. The

More information

Introduction to Visualization with VTK and ParaView

Introduction to Visualization with VTK and ParaView Introduction to Visualization with VTK and ParaView R. Sungkorn and J. Derksen Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering University of Alberta Canada August 24, 2011 / LBM Workshop 1 Introduction

More information

1 One Dimensional Horizontal Motion Position vs. time Velocity vs. time

1 One Dimensional Horizontal Motion Position vs. time Velocity vs. time PHY132 Experiment 1 One Dimensional Horizontal Motion Position vs. time Velocity vs. time One of the most effective methods of describing motion is to plot graphs of distance, velocity, and acceleration

More information

The Mystery of the Pirate s Booty- Salinity and Buoyancy

The Mystery of the Pirate s Booty- Salinity and Buoyancy The Mystery of the Pirate s Booty- Salinity and Buoyancy Buoyancy If you ve ever lain on your back in a swimming pool you have demonstrated the ability of an object to float in water. You float because

More information

Activity P13: Buoyant Force (Force Sensor)

Activity P13: Buoyant Force (Force Sensor) July 21 Buoyant Force 1 Activity P13: Buoyant Force (Force Sensor) Concept DataStudio ScienceWorkshop (Mac) ScienceWorkshop (Win) Archimedes Principle P13 Buoyant Force.DS P18 Buoyant Force P18_BUOY.SWS

More information

Buoyancy. What floats your boat?

Buoyancy. What floats your boat? Buoyancy What floats your boat? Sink or float? Test The cube sinks to the bottom. WHY? Weight Due to the pulling force of gravity both the cube and the water have the property of weight. Gravity Gravity

More information

The Integration of Hydrographic and Oceanographic Data in a Marine Geographic Information System U.S. Hydro 2015

The Integration of Hydrographic and Oceanographic Data in a Marine Geographic Information System U.S. Hydro 2015 The Integration of Hydrographic and Oceanographic Data in a Marine Geographic Information System U.S. Hydro 2015 Karen Hart CARIS USA Oceanography and Hydrography Defined Oceanography: The branch of Earth

More information

Numerical Solution of Differential Equations

Numerical Solution of Differential Equations Numerical Solution of Differential Equations Dr. Alvaro Islas Applications of Calculus I Spring 2008 We live in a world in constant change We live in a world in constant change We live in a world in constant

More information

Gravitational potential

Gravitational potential Gravitational potential Let s assume: A particle of unit mass moving freely A body of mass M The particle is attracted by M and moves toward it by a small quantity dr. This displacement is the result of

More information

Florida Department of Education/Office of Assessment January 2012. Grade 7 FCAT 2.0 Mathematics Achievement Level Descriptions

Florida Department of Education/Office of Assessment January 2012. Grade 7 FCAT 2.0 Mathematics Achievement Level Descriptions Florida Department of Education/Office of Assessment January 2012 Grade 7 FCAT 2.0 Mathematics Grade 7 FCAT 2.0 Mathematics Reporting Category Geometry and Measurement Students performing at the mastery

More information

This document describes methods of assessing the potential for wedge sliding instability, using stereonet kinematic analysis.

This document describes methods of assessing the potential for wedge sliding instability, using stereonet kinematic analysis. Wedge Failure Kinematic analysis on a stereonet This document describes methods of assessing the potential for wedge sliding instability, using stereonet kinematic analysis. 1. The traditional approach

More information

Section 2 Buoyancy and Density

Section 2 Buoyancy and Density Section 2 Buoyancy and Density Key Concept Buoyant force and density affect whether an object will float or sink in a fluid. What You Will Learn All fluids exert an upward buoyant force on objects in the

More information

CHAPTER 2 HYDRAULICS OF SEWERS

CHAPTER 2 HYDRAULICS OF SEWERS CHAPTER 2 HYDRAULICS OF SEWERS SANITARY SEWERS The hydraulic design procedure for sewers requires: 1. Determination of Sewer System Type 2. Determination of Design Flow 3. Selection of Pipe Size 4. Determination

More information

1.4 Review. 1.5 Thermodynamic Properties. CEE 3310 Thermodynamic Properties, Aug. 26,

1.4 Review. 1.5 Thermodynamic Properties. CEE 3310 Thermodynamic Properties, Aug. 26, CEE 3310 Thermodynamic Properties, Aug. 26, 2011 11 1.4 Review A fluid is a substance that can not support a shear stress. Liquids differ from gasses in that liquids that do not completely fill a container

More information

LAB 6: GRAVITATIONAL AND PASSIVE FORCES

LAB 6: GRAVITATIONAL AND PASSIVE FORCES 55 Name Date Partners LAB 6: GRAVITATIONAL AND PASSIVE FORCES And thus Nature will be very conformable to herself and very simple, performing all the great Motions of the heavenly Bodies by the attraction

More information

An Introduction to Using Simulink. Exercises

An Introduction to Using Simulink. Exercises An Introduction to Using Simulink Exercises Eric Peasley, Department of Engineering Science, University of Oxford version 4.1, 2013 PART 1 Exercise 1 (Cannon Ball) This exercise is designed to introduce

More information

2.1 Force and Motion Kinematics looks at velocity and acceleration without reference to the cause of the acceleration.

2.1 Force and Motion Kinematics looks at velocity and acceleration without reference to the cause of the acceleration. 2.1 Force and Motion Kinematics looks at velocity and acceleration without reference to the cause of the acceleration. Dynamics looks at the cause of acceleration: an unbalanced force. Isaac Newton was

More information

A Determination of g, the Acceleration Due to Gravity, from Newton's Laws of Motion

A Determination of g, the Acceleration Due to Gravity, from Newton's Laws of Motion A Determination of g, the Acceleration Due to Gravity, from Newton's Laws of Motion Objective In the experiment you will determine the cart acceleration, a, and the friction force, f, experimentally for

More information

Buoyancy Problem Set

Buoyancy Problem Set Buoyancy Problem Set 1) A stone weighs 105 lb in air. When submerged in water, it weighs 67.0 lb. Find the volume and specific gravity of the stone. (Specific gravity of an object: ratio object density

More information

Fluids I. Level : Conceptual Physics/Physics I. Q1) Order the following materials from lowest to greatest according to their densities.

Fluids I. Level : Conceptual Physics/Physics I. Q1) Order the following materials from lowest to greatest according to their densities. Fluids I Level : Conceptual Physics/Physics I Teacher : Kim 1. Density One of the properties of any substances (solids, liquids and gases) is the measure of how tightly the material is packed together.

More information

Static and Kinetic Friction

Static and Kinetic Friction Objectives Static and Kinetic Friction In this lab you will Equipment investigate how friction varies with the applied force. measure the coefficients of static and kinetic friction. learn how to use the

More information

Lab 11 Density and Buoyancy

Lab 11 Density and Buoyancy b Lab 11 Density and uoyancy What You Need To Know: Density A concept that you will be using frequently in today s lab is called density. Density is a measurement of an object s mass per unit volume of

More information

CHEG 3128 Heat, Mass, & Kinetics Laboratory Diffusion in Laminar Flow Regimes Modeling and COMSOL Tutorial Tutorial by Andrea Kadilak

CHEG 3128 Heat, Mass, & Kinetics Laboratory Diffusion in Laminar Flow Regimes Modeling and COMSOL Tutorial Tutorial by Andrea Kadilak CHEG 3128 Heat, Mass, & Kinetics Laboratory Diffusion in Laminar Flow Regimes Modeling and COMSOL Tutorial Tutorial by Andrea Kadilak Introduction COMSOL is a computer modeling software package that will

More information

Archimedes' Principle

Archimedes' Principle Archimedes' Principle Introduction Archimedes' Principle states that the upward buoyant force exerted on a body immersed in a fluid, whether fully or partially submerged, is equal to the weight of the

More information

Magnetism. ***WARNING: Keep magnets away from computers and any computer disks!***

Magnetism. ***WARNING: Keep magnets away from computers and any computer disks!*** Magnetism This lab is a series of experiments investigating the properties of the magnetic field. First we will investigate the polarity of magnets and the shape of their field. Then we will explore the

More information

Will an Ice Cube Melt Faster in Freshwater or Saltwater? Teacher Guide:

Will an Ice Cube Melt Faster in Freshwater or Saltwater? Teacher Guide: Will an Ice Cube Melt Faster in Freshwater or Saltwater? Learning Objectives Teacher Guide: Years ago I gave my students four solutions with varying amounts of salt dissolved in water and asked them to

More information

Introduction to SolidWorks Software

Introduction to SolidWorks Software Introduction to SolidWorks Software Marine Advanced Technology Education Design Tools What is SolidWorks? SolidWorks is design automation software. In SolidWorks, you sketch ideas and experiment with different

More information

When the fluid velocity is zero, called the hydrostatic condition, the pressure variation is due only to the weight of the fluid.

When the fluid velocity is zero, called the hydrostatic condition, the pressure variation is due only to the weight of the fluid. Fluid Statics When the fluid velocity is zero, called the hydrostatic condition, the pressure variation is due only to the weight of the fluid. Consider a small wedge of fluid at rest of size Δx, Δz, Δs

More information

GAMBIT Demo Tutorial

GAMBIT Demo Tutorial GAMBIT Demo Tutorial Wake of a Cylinder. 1.1 Problem Description The problem to be considered is schematically in fig. 1. We consider flow across a cylinder and look at the wake behind the cylinder. Air

More information

Mechanics 1: Conservation of Energy and Momentum

Mechanics 1: Conservation of Energy and Momentum Mechanics : Conservation of Energy and Momentum If a certain quantity associated with a system does not change in time. We say that it is conserved, and the system possesses a conservation law. Conservation

More information

Name Class Date. F 2 2269 N A 1 88.12 cm 2 A 2 1221 cm 2 Unknown: Step 2: Write the equations for Pascal s principle and pressure, force, and area.

Name Class Date. F 2 2269 N A 1 88.12 cm 2 A 2 1221 cm 2 Unknown: Step 2: Write the equations for Pascal s principle and pressure, force, and area. Skills Worksheet Math Skills Pascal s Principle After you study each sample problem and solution, work out the practice problems on a separate sheet of paper. Write your answers in the spaces provided.

More information

CHAPTER 6 THE TERRESTRIAL PLANETS

CHAPTER 6 THE TERRESTRIAL PLANETS CHAPTER 6 THE TERRESTRIAL PLANETS MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. Which of the following is NOT one of the four stages in the development of a terrestrial planet? 2. That Earth, evidence that Earth differentiated.

More information

Exemplar Problems Physics

Exemplar Problems Physics Chapter Eight GRAVITATION MCQ I 8.1 The earth is an approximate sphere. If the interior contained matter which is not of the same density everywhere, then on the surface of the earth, the acceleration

More information

Name Date Hour. Buoyancy

Name Date Hour. Buoyancy Name Date Hour Buoyancy Consider: If I gave you an object that you had never seen before and it was made of unknown material and then asked you whether or not it would float in water, what would you base

More information

EXPERIMENT GRAPHING IN EXCEL

EXPERIMENT GRAPHING IN EXCEL EXPERIMENT GRAPHING IN EXCEL Introduction In this lab you will learn how to use Microsoft Excel to plot and analyze data that you obtain while doing experiments. In this lab you learn how to Enter data

More information

Physics 111: Lecture 4: Chapter 4 - Forces and Newton s Laws of Motion. Physics is about forces and how the world around us reacts to these forces.

Physics 111: Lecture 4: Chapter 4 - Forces and Newton s Laws of Motion. Physics is about forces and how the world around us reacts to these forces. Physics 111: Lecture 4: Chapter 4 - Forces and Newton s Laws of Motion Physics is about forces and how the world around us reacts to these forces. Whats a force? Contact and non-contact forces. Whats a

More information

Experiment 6: Magnetic Force on a Current Carrying Wire

Experiment 6: Magnetic Force on a Current Carrying Wire Chapter 8 Experiment 6: Magnetic Force on a Current Carrying Wire 8.1 Introduction Maricourt (1269) is credited with some of the original work in magnetism. He identified the magnetic force centers of

More information

1 of 7 9/5/2009 6:12 PM

1 of 7 9/5/2009 6:12 PM 1 of 7 9/5/2009 6:12 PM Chapter 2 Homework Due: 9:00am on Tuesday, September 8, 2009 Note: To understand how points are awarded, read your instructor's Grading Policy. [Return to Standard Assignment View]

More information

Buoyancy and Air Bladders:

Buoyancy and Air Bladders: Buoyancy and Air Bladders: Passing gas Follow up in Textbook: pp. 421-423 A. Objective: Explain how fish swim bladders produce neutral buoyancy. Explain how changes in atmospheric pressure influence buoyancy.

More information

Chapter 13 - Gravity. David J. Starling Penn State Hazleton Fall Chapter 13 - Gravity. Objectives (Ch 13) Newton s Law of Gravitation

Chapter 13 - Gravity. David J. Starling Penn State Hazleton Fall Chapter 13 - Gravity. Objectives (Ch 13) Newton s Law of Gravitation The moon is essentially gray, no color. It looks like plaster of Paris, like dirty beach sand with lots of footprints in it. -James A. Lovell (from the Apollo 13 mission) David J. Starling Penn State Hazleton

More information

Page 1. Name:

Page 1. Name: Name: 1) According to the Earth Science Reference Tables, which sedimentary rock would be formed by the compaction and cementation of particles 1.5 centimeters in diameter? A) shale B) conglomerate C)

More information

ES 106 Laboratory # 3 INTRODUCTION TO OCEANOGRAPHY. Introduction The global ocean covers nearly 75% of Earth s surface and plays a vital role in

ES 106 Laboratory # 3 INTRODUCTION TO OCEANOGRAPHY. Introduction The global ocean covers nearly 75% of Earth s surface and plays a vital role in ES 106 Laboratory # 3 INTRODUCTION TO OCEANOGRAPHY 3-1 Introduction The global ocean covers nearly 75% of Earth s surface and plays a vital role in the physical environment of Earth. For these reasons,

More information

KINETIC MOLECULAR THEORY OF MATTER

KINETIC MOLECULAR THEORY OF MATTER KINETIC MOLECULAR THEORY OF MATTER The kinetic-molecular theory is based on the idea that particles of matter are always in motion. The theory can be used to explain the properties of solids, liquids,

More information

Thermal Expansion and Sea Level Rise

Thermal Expansion and Sea Level Rise Thermal Expansion and Sea Level Rise A demonstration or group activity directed at grade levels 5 9 Activity Summary: This activity provides an opportunity for students to investigate how thermal expansion

More information

Instructors Guide: Atoms and Their Isotopes

Instructors Guide: Atoms and Their Isotopes Instructors Guide: Atoms and Their Isotopes Standards Connections Connections to NSTA Standards for Science Teacher Preparation C.3.a.1 Fundamental structures of atoms and molecules. C.3.b.27 Applications

More information

Lab 5: Conservation of Energy

Lab 5: Conservation of Energy Lab 5: Conservation of Energy Equipment SWS, 1-meter stick, 2-meter stick, heavy duty bench clamp, 90-cm rod, 40-cm rod, 2 double clamps, brass spring, 100-g mass, 500-g mass with 5-cm cardboard square

More information

Coral Reefs Lecture Notes

Coral Reefs Lecture Notes Coral Reefs Lecture Notes (Topic 10D) page 1 Coral Reefs Lecture Notes Corals Polyps & Zooxanthellae Coral Polyps Are coral polyps algae or animals? Description (What do coral polyps look like? Make a

More information

Chapter 3. Table of Contents. Chapter 3. Objectives. Chapter 3. Kinetic Theory. Section 1 Matter and Energy. Section 2 Fluids

Chapter 3. Table of Contents. Chapter 3. Objectives. Chapter 3. Kinetic Theory. Section 1 Matter and Energy. Section 2 Fluids States of Matter Table of Contents Objectives Summarize the main points of the kinetic theory of matter. Describe how temperature relates to kinetic energy. Describe four common states of matter. List

More information

Football Learning Guide for Parents and Educators. Overview

Football Learning Guide for Parents and Educators. Overview Overview Did you know that when Victor Cruz catches a game winning touchdown, the prolate spheroid he s holding helped the quarterback to throw a perfect spiral? Wait, what? Well, the shape of a football

More information

Chemistry 104 Chapter Three PowerPoint Notes

Chemistry 104 Chapter Three PowerPoint Notes Atomic Structure and the Periodic Table Chapter 3 Chemistry 104 Professor Michael Russell Atomic Theory Chemistry founded on four fundamental assumptions about atoms and matter which make up the modern

More information

Arcade tutorial 1: Complex Pendulum Kirk Martini 2005 8 June 2005 University of Virginia

Arcade tutorial 1: Complex Pendulum Kirk Martini 2005 8 June 2005 University of Virginia Arcade Tutorial 1: Complex Pendulum The following tutorial demonstrates basic model building and simulation in Arcade, including Adding nodes. Using elastic truss elements. Using supports. Modifying physical

More information

Lab #4 - Linear Impulse and Momentum

Lab #4 - Linear Impulse and Momentum Purpose: Lab #4 - Linear Impulse and Momentum The objective of this lab is to understand the linear and angular impulse/momentum relationship. Upon completion of this lab you will: Understand and know

More information

Advanced Microsoft Excel 2010

Advanced Microsoft Excel 2010 Advanced Microsoft Excel 2010 Table of Contents THE PASTE SPECIAL FUNCTION... 2 Paste Special Options... 2 Using the Paste Special Function... 3 ORGANIZING DATA... 4 Multiple-Level Sorting... 4 Subtotaling

More information

LAB 6 - GRAVITATIONAL AND PASSIVE FORCES

LAB 6 - GRAVITATIONAL AND PASSIVE FORCES L06-1 Name Date Partners LAB 6 - GRAVITATIONAL AND PASSIVE FORCES OBJECTIVES And thus Nature will be very conformable to herself and very simple, performing all the great Motions of the heavenly Bodies

More information

Physics 1050 Experiment 2. Acceleration Due to Gravity

Physics 1050 Experiment 2. Acceleration Due to Gravity Acceleration Due to Gravity Prelab Questions These questions need to be completed before entering the lab. Please show all workings. Prelab 1: For a falling ball, which bounces, draw the expected shape

More information

Learning Module 4 - Thermal Fluid Analysis Note: LM4 is still in progress. This version contains only 3 tutorials.

Learning Module 4 - Thermal Fluid Analysis Note: LM4 is still in progress. This version contains only 3 tutorials. Learning Module 4 - Thermal Fluid Analysis Note: LM4 is still in progress. This version contains only 3 tutorials. Attachment C1. SolidWorks-Specific FEM Tutorial 1... 2 Attachment C2. SolidWorks-Specific

More information

Chapter 4 Dynamics: Newton s Laws of Motion. Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

Chapter 4 Dynamics: Newton s Laws of Motion. Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 4 Dynamics: Newton s Laws of Motion Force Units of Chapter 4 Newton s First Law of Motion Mass Newton s Second Law of Motion Newton s Third Law of Motion Weight the Force of Gravity; and the Normal

More information

Laminar Flow in a Baffled Stirred Mixer

Laminar Flow in a Baffled Stirred Mixer Laminar Flow in a Baffled Stirred Mixer Introduction This exercise exemplifies the use of the rotating machinery feature in the CFD Module. The Rotating Machinery interface allows you to model moving rotating

More information

Geology 12 Syllabus House, Fall 2010

Geology 12 Syllabus House, Fall 2010 INSTRUCTOR INFORMATION Dr. Martha House; Office E210B; Office hours posted at office; Voice (626) 585-7026; Email mahouse@pasadena.edu REQUIRED MATERIALS: Textbook Essentials of Oceanography (Thurman and

More information

5. Forces and Motion-I. Force is an interaction that causes the acceleration of a body. A vector quantity.

5. Forces and Motion-I. Force is an interaction that causes the acceleration of a body. A vector quantity. 5. Forces and Motion-I 1 Force is an interaction that causes the acceleration of a body. A vector quantity. Newton's First Law: Consider a body on which no net force acts. If the body is at rest, it will

More information

Prelab Exercises: Hooke's Law and the Behavior of Springs

Prelab Exercises: Hooke's Law and the Behavior of Springs 59 Prelab Exercises: Hooke's Law and the Behavior of Springs Study the description of the experiment that follows and answer the following questions.. (3 marks) Explain why a mass suspended vertically

More information

MSCOPE Final Project Report Melanie Hopkins, Mary Leighton, Roscoe Nicholson, and Panos Oikonomou. Sink or Swim. Photo: M.

MSCOPE Final Project Report Melanie Hopkins, Mary Leighton, Roscoe Nicholson, and Panos Oikonomou. Sink or Swim. Photo: M. MSCOPE Final Project Report Melanie Hopkins, Mary Leighton, Roscoe Nicholson, and Panos Oikonomou Sink or Swim Type of Project: Facilitated activity with optional demonstration Target Museum: SciTech Hands-On

More information

The following is an overview of lessons included in the tutorial.

The following is an overview of lessons included in the tutorial. Chapter 2 Tutorial Tutorial Introduction This tutorial is designed to introduce you to some of Surfer's basic features. After you have completed the tutorial, you should be able to begin creating your

More information

White Paper April 2006

White Paper April 2006 White Paper April 2006 Table of Contents 1. Executive Summary...4 1.1 Scorecards...4 1.2 Alerts...4 1.3 Data Collection Agents...4 1.4 Self Tuning Caching System...4 2. Business Intelligence Model...5

More information

ACTIVITY 1: Gravitational Force and Acceleration

ACTIVITY 1: Gravitational Force and Acceleration CHAPTER 3 ACTIVITY 1: Gravitational Force and Acceleration LEARNING TARGET: You will determine the relationship between mass, acceleration, and gravitational force. PURPOSE: So far in the course, you ve

More information

20, (PAGES 267 279 IN YOUR MANUAL,

20, (PAGES 267 279 IN YOUR MANUAL, GEOLOGY 306 Laboratory Instructor: TERRY J. BOROUGHS NAME: Examining the Terrestrial Planets (Chapter 20) For this assignment you will require: a calculator, colored pencils, a metric ruler, and your geology

More information

Student Exploration: Archimedes Principle

Student Exploration: Archimedes Principle Name: Date: Student Exploration: Archimedes Principle Vocabulary: Archimedes principle, buoyant force, density, displace, mass, volume, weight Prior Knowledge Questions (Do these BEFORE using the Gizmo.)

More information

Acceleration Introduction: Objectives: Methods:

Acceleration Introduction: Objectives: Methods: Acceleration Introduction: Acceleration is defined as the rate of change of velocity with respect to time, thus the concepts of velocity also apply to acceleration. In the velocity-time graph, acceleration

More information

Applying MapCalc Map Analysis Software

Applying MapCalc Map Analysis Software Applying MapCalc Map Analysis Software Using MapCalc s Shading Manager for Displaying Continuous Maps: The display of continuous data, such as elevation, is fundamental to a grid-based map analysis package.

More information

Introduction to the TI-Nspire CX

Introduction to the TI-Nspire CX Introduction to the TI-Nspire CX Activity Overview: In this activity, you will become familiar with the layout of the TI-Nspire CX. Step 1: Locate the Touchpad. The Touchpad is used to navigate the cursor

More information

Grade Stand Sub-Strand Standard Benchmark GRADE 6

Grade Stand Sub-Strand Standard Benchmark GRADE 6 Grade Stand Sub-Strand Standard Benchmark OF OF OF A. Scientific World View B. Scientific Inquiry C. Scientific Enterprise understand that science is a way of knowing about the world that is characterized

More information

SURFACE TENSION. Definition

SURFACE TENSION. Definition SURFACE TENSION Definition In the fall a fisherman s boat is often surrounded by fallen leaves that are lying on the water. The boat floats, because it is partially immersed in the water and the resulting

More information

Measurement with Ratios

Measurement with Ratios Grade 6 Mathematics, Quarter 2, Unit 2.1 Measurement with Ratios Overview Number of instructional days: 15 (1 day = 45 minutes) Content to be learned Use ratio reasoning to solve real-world and mathematical

More information

C06 CALM Buoy. Orcina. 1. CALM Buoy. Introduction. 1.1. Building the model

C06 CALM Buoy. Orcina. 1. CALM Buoy. Introduction. 1.1. Building the model C06 CALM Buoy Introduction In these examples, a CALM buoy is moored by six equally spaced mooring lines. A shuttle tanker is moored to the buoy by a hawser, with fluid transfer through a floating hose.

More information