Notes Odom, Chapter 3 Flashcards Set:

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1 EDTECH 552 (SP11) Susan Ferdon Notes Odom, Chapter 3 Flashcards Set: LAN Ethernet UTP IEEE NIC 10BASE5 10BASE2 CSMA/CD Local Area Network Layer 1 and 2 standards designed to work together for the purpose of implementing geographically small networks. (p. 41) A family of standards that together define the physical and data link layers speed supported, types of cabling and allowed length of cabling. (p. 45) Unshielded Twisted Pair Inexpensive copper cabling. Less secure, allows for shorter distances between devices. (p. 45) Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Since the early 1980s, this group has been responsible for LAN standardization process. Physical layer differences in speed and types of cabling. Data link layer Media Access Control sublayer and Logical Link Control sublayer (p.45) Network Interface Card Resides inside the PC; allows communication between computer and network/internet. Each NIC has a unique address. (p. 46) Early LANs Single electrical bus created with coaxial cable and Ethernet cards. Signals (frames) are transmitted to all stations on the LAN, like a school bus stopping at every house. 10BASE5 500m of cable max, 10BASE2 185m of cable max [almost 200m]. Both ran 10Mbps. (p.49) Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection Algorithm that defines how the bus is accessed. Originated with 10BASE5 and 10BASE2 but is used for any single bus system. Device waits until LAN is silent before sending frame. If collision occurs, devices wait a random amount of time then resend. Collisions occur when two stations transmit at the same time. Electronic signals overlap causing a collision. CSMA/CD detects

2 Repeater Hub Switch UTP Cables RJ-45 Connector and recovers from collisions. (p.49 & 50) Used when longer cable lengths are needed. Attenuation occurs when cables length is too long the signal dies away. Repeater connects to multiple cable segments, receives electrical signal on one cable, generates a new, clean, strong signal, and sends it out other cable. Repeaters do not amplify the signal as that would also amplify any noise picked up along the way. (p. 50) Basically, a repeater with multiple physical ports. Collisions still occur, so CSMA/CD access rules continue to be used. Hubs create a single electrical bus that is shared the devices that are connected to it. (p. 51) All devices share the same bandwidth available through the hub. (p. 60) All devices on a hub are in the same collision domain since it is a single electrical bus. (p. 61) Interpret bits in the received frame and send it to the required port, not all ports. The switch buffers frames in memory, sending one at a time, thereby avoiding collisions. (p. 61) Switches do NOT share bandwidth. A switch with 100Mbps ports has 100Mbps for each port. (p. 61) A switch s logic requires that the switch look at the Ethernet header (to locate recipient), which is considered a layer 2 feature. Switches are a layer 2 device since they look at data, hubs are layer 1 since they are only physical. (p. 61) Two or four pairs of wires with an outer jacket of flexible plastic for support, as wires are brittle. Each wire also has a thin plastic coating to help prevent breakage; coating is color-coded for ease of identification. Ends of wires are inserted into a connector, typically RJ-45. (p. 52) Wires create magnetic fields when electric current passes through. By twisting pairs, with current traveling in opposite directions, magnetic fields mostly cancel each other out, thus eliminating/reducing electrical noise. (p. 54) To send data over the electrical circuit created over a wire pair, the devices use an encoding scheme which varies the signal to send bits over the wire pair. (p. 55) Has eight pin positions into which UTP cable wires are inserted. Connector is inserted into RJ-45 port. An RJ-45 connector is slightly wider, but is otherwise similar to a standard telephone cable (RJ-11) connector. (p. 53)

3 CISCO LAN switches EIA/TIA Straight- Through Cable Crossover Cable Have physical ports that can be changed without purchasing a whole new switch. Small removable devices support use of a variety of connectors, types of cables, and cable lengths. (p. 54) Electronics Industry Alliance, Telecommunications Industry Association Define standards for UTP cabling, color-coding for wires, and standard pinouts for cables. (p. 55) Wire at pin 1 on one end of the cable goes to pin 1 at the other end of the cable; 2 to 2, 3 to 3, etc. Both ends of the cable use the same EIA/TIA pinout standard on each end. Used when devices use opposite pins for transmitting data: One device transmits 1,2 and receives 3,6. Other device transmits 3,6 and receives 1,2. (p. 56) Used when connecting two devices that both use the same pins to transmit the pinouts need to be set up to swap the pair. Example, between switches 1,2 and crosses to 3,6. (p. 57) Trunks Cables that connect switches; require crossover cables. (p. 58) Collision Domain Half duplex Full duplex OUI FCS LLC Defines the set of devices whose frames could collide. All devices on a hub are in the same collision domain since it is a single electrical bus. Devices in the same collision domain use CSMA/CD. (p. 61) Device sends or receives but never both at the same time. Creates performance issues. Device can send and receive concurrently. With full duplex, CSMA/CD is disabled for devices on both ends of the cable. Performance is doubled by allowing simultaneous transmission in both directions. Organizationally Unique Identifier The first half of the MAC address identifies the manufacturer with a code assigned by IEEE. The second half of the MAC address is a number the manufacturer has never used on another card. Frame Check Sequence Allows a device receiving an Ethernet frame to detect whether the bits have changed during transmission (typically due to electronic interference). Note, not recovery. Damaged frame is discarded not retransmitted. Logical Link Control Uppermost sublayer of the Data Link Layer (L2). Provides flow control, acknowledgment, and error notification addressing

4 MAC and control of the data link. Media Access Control Lower sublayer of thedata Link Layer (L2) determines where one frame ends and another begins. LAN Components (p. 46) Computers that have an Ethernet network interface card (NIC) installed. Ethernet hub or switch UTP cables to connect each PC/station to the hub or switch. LAN Functions (p. 47) File sharing Printer sharing File transfers (FTP server software needed) Gaming (multi-player) Most Common Types of Ethernet (p. 46, 56, 58) T for twisted pair 10BASE-T 100BASE-TX 1000BASE-T Speed 10 Mbps 100 Mbps 1000 Mbps IEEE Standard u 802.3ab Cable Type copper copper copper Maximum Cable Length 100 m 100 m 100 m Common Name Ethernet Fast Ethernet Gigabit Ethernet UTP Cable Pairs Two pairs Two pairs Four pairs Straight-Through or Crossover as needed 1,2 with 3,6 Transmits and receives simultaneously Crossover: 1,2 with 3,6 and 4,5 with 7,8 1000BASE-LX 1000BASE-SX Speed 1000 Mbps 1000 Mbps IEEE Standard 802.3z 802.3z Cable Type fiber fiber

5 Maximum Cable Length 5 Km 550 m Common Name Gigabit Ethernet Gigabit Ethernet Key points from early LANs (10BASE5, 10BASE2) Original Ethernet LANs created on single electrical bus to which all devices connected. Ethernet defined the CSMA/CD algorithm which avoids collisions and takes action when collisions occur. Repeaters extended the length of LANs by cleaning up the electronic signal and repeating it a layer 1 function but without interpreting the meaning of the signal. Chronology: (p. 51) 10BASE5 and 10BASE2 10BASE-T: BASE-TX: BASE-T: 1999 hubs and switches were created to support the new standards (twisted pair cables) Improvements with 10BASE-T: (p. 51) Inexpensive and easy-to-install UTP cabling replaced old, expensive and difficult to install coaxial cabling. Cabling each device to a central connection point (originally hubs). Single cable problem affects only one device. Star topology (all cables running to centralized device) lowers the cost of purchasing and installing cabling. 10BASE-T and 10BASE-TX Pin Pairs Used (Table 3-3, p. 57) Transmit 1,2 and Receive 3,6 Transmit 3,6 and Receive 1,2 PC NICs Routers Wireless Access Point (Ethernet interface) Networked printers (connect directly to LAN) Hubs Switches

6 CSMA/CD Performance Issues: (p. 60) Half duplex Device sends or receives but never both at the same time. During collisions, no useful data makes it across the LAN and offending devices have to wait longer to use the LAN. Increased Ethernet utilization increases the statistical chance of collisions. LAN Addressing (p. 64) Identifies individual devices or groups of devices. 6 bytes long Written in hexidecimal Typically written with a period between each set of four hex digits. IEEE requires globally unique unicast MAC address on all LAN interface cards. IEEE calls them MAC addresses because MAC (Media Access Controls) protocols define addressing details. Structure of Unicast Ethernet Addresses (p. 64) Organizationally Unique Identifier (OUI) Vendor Assigned (NIC Cards, Interfaces) Size, in bits 24 bits 24 bits Size, in hex digits 6 hex digits 6 hex digits Example F 3A 07 BC LAN MAC Address Terminology and Features (Table 3-4, p. 65) LAN Addressing Term or Feature MAC Ethernet Address, NIC Address, LAN Address Burned-in address Unicast address Broadcast address Multicast address Description Media Access Control, (Ethernet) defines the MAC sublayer of IEEE Ethernet. Other names often used instead of MAC address. These terms describe the 6-byte address of the LAN interface card. The 6-byte address assigned by the vendor making the card. A term for a MAC that represents a single LAN interface. An address that means all devices that reside on this LAN right now. Some subset of all the Ethernet devices currently on the Ethernet LAN.

7 IEEE Ethernet Header and Trailer Fields (Table 3-5, p. 66) HEADER TRAILER Field Field Length in Bytes Description Preamble 7 Synchronization Start Frame Delimiter (SFD) Destination MAC Address 1 Signifies that the next byte begins the Destination MAC field 6 Identifies the intended recipient of this frame Source MAC Address 6 Identifies the sender of this frame Length 2 Defines the length of the data field of the frame (either length or type is present, but not both) Type 2 Defines the type of protocol listed inside the frame (either length or type is present, but not both) Data and Pad* Holds the data from a higher layer, typically an L3 PDU (generic), and often an IP packet Frame Check Sequence (FCS) 4 Provides a method for the receiving NIC to determine if the frame experiences transmission errors. *The IEEE specification limits the data portion of the frame to a maximum of 1500 bytes. The Data field was designed to hold Layer 3 packets; the term maximum transmission unit (MTU) defines the maximum Layer 3 packet that can be sent over a medium. Because the Layer 3 packet rests inside the data portion of an Ethernet frame, 1500 bytes is the largest IP MTU allowed over the Ethernet.

8 Do I Know This Already Quiz, pp TOPIC Q# 1 st Try 2 nd Try 3 rd Try Overview of Modern Ethernet LANs 1 D D History of Ethernet 2 B B (C too?) A Ethernet UTP Cabling 3 B B 4 B, C, E B, D, E Improving Performance 5 B B Using Switches Instead of 6 A A Hubs 7 A and A, C 8 C and C, D Ethernet Data Link Protocols 9 A A 10. E. E (*B) C, E 11 C C Cabling devices on opposite ends of a cable that use the same pair of pins to transmit need a crossover cable. Devices that use opposite pins to transmit. Hubs and switches same as each other, rest same as each other Q10 The one I missed (didn t include it and should have) says Each manufacturer puts a unique code into the first 3 bytes of the address. I thought it was 6. 8 bits = 1 byte 24 bits in OUI, 24 bits in Vendor Assigned half of the address 24 / 8 = 3

2. What is the maximum value of each octet in an IP address? A. 128 B. 255 C. 256 D. None of the above

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