# Accuracy Enhancement of Position Estimation using Adaptive Kalman Filter and Map Matching

Save this PDF as:

Size: px
Start display at page:

## Transcription

2 2. System Model An adaptive Kalman filer is used for position detection technique which works in the process shown in Figure 1. The inaccurate position sensor data is revised by the map matching technique. The revised position data is input to the noise filter. In this paper, latitude longitude directional moving patterns are devived from the velocity and position data of the train moving on a specific section. The approximated moving pattern is applied to the state transition matrix of the Kalman filter [8] to estimate the position and velocity. The estimated position is used for the map-matching technique to detect the final position. Figure 1. Block Diagram of Position Detection When starting and stopping point for railroad cars are designated, it has a characteristic such that the travel course between the two points are always fixed. This means, all points in between the two points (starting and stopping point) have to be passed by in any situation. Figure 2 shows map of railway section. The experimental position data was obtained from GPS on the train operated in this section. Figure 2. Dobong Dobong Mountain Section As shown in the figure2, the train operated in Dobong Dobong Mountain section must pass by all rail way between the two points. In this paper, the actual position data for trains passing the section of Dobong Dobong Mountain was obtained and this data was used to approximate the train moving pattern. 168 Copyright c 2014 SERSC

3 Figure 3. Latitude Directional Moving Pattern Approximation Figure 4. Longitude Directional Moving Pattern Approximation Figure 3 and Figure 4 show velocity changes in terms of latitude and longitude directional position on the Dobong Dobong Mountain section, respectively. The velocity is change rate of longitude and latitude position on time and the equation for the velocity is given in (1). (1) where, v is velocity, s is the position acquired from the sensor (Map matched longitude and latitude position), t is the time acquired from the sensor, and n is the number of samples. 3. Adaptive Kalman Filter The adaptive Kalman filter is designed based on the Kalman filter [8]. When the characteristics of a system change with time and sensor signal measuring the output of the system contains a lot of noise, the Kalman filter is used to obtain noiseless signal by Copyright c 2014 SERSC 169

4 estimating the system and compensating the measured signal. The data obtained from a position sensor which the accuracy cannot be trusted is used in the map matching technique to match with actual position of rail way and reduce noise. The matched position data is used for the input of the adaptive Kalman filter. The Kalman filter composition proposed in this paper is as shown in equation (2). (2) where, [ ] and [ ]. Equation (2) represents the state equation of the Kalman filter, where A is the state transition matrix, is the state variable, k is the number of sample and t is the elapsed time between sample k+1 and k. The α is an estimated acceleration composite obtained from approximating the moving pattern. In equation (2), the longitude and latitude directional position is represented as and the velocity is represented as. In this paper, the Kalman filter estimates longitude and latitude position and velocity independently. In order to find the estimated acceleration composite α, the approximated moving pattern obtained previously is used. As mentioned in the introduction, if a vehicle is operated at a specific moving pattern in a specific course, the velocity at a point in the specific course can be estimated. Figure 5. Moving Pattern to Find In Figure 5, the variables are assumed as: the estimated position at the sampling time k-1, the estimated velocity, the measured position at sampling time k and as the measured velocity. The x-axis stands for the position and the y-axis stands for velocity. The approximated moving pattern value is and estimated velocity is. The estimated acceleration composition α is as shown in equation (3). where, α plays a role of changing the estimated velocity in state transition matrix depending on the moving pattern. Therefore, the estimated acceleration composite α is a parameter to find estimated velocity. In Figure 5, the measured velocity which is not used to find α is used in the Kalman filter update part to detect the estimated velocity. A measurement equation is required to utilize the Kalman filter. The measured equation used in this paper is shown in equation (4)., [ ] (4) (3) 170 Copyright c 2014 SERSC

5 KALMA Predict Update Figure 6. Kalman Filter s Process The state variables in the measured equation [ ], the position data in map matching is designated to and measured velocity in Figure 5 is designated to. When the model composition is completed, the Kalman filter process is performed repeatedly as shown in Figure 6. A method to automatically separate the start and stop of the position detection technique using the adaptive Kalman filter within a specific region, the closeness of the vehicle from the start and stop point are used as a standard. Figure 7 and 8 are the obtained data from a vehicle operating through the Dobong Dobong Mountain section (the same experiment was repeated twice). C is the time taken for the train Copyright c 2014 SERSC 171

6 to stop at Dobong station and leave again. B is the time taken to reach the destination. The leaving time C and arriving time B are different in Figure 7 and 8 but the position of C and B are almost the same. Therefore, the position data from the sensor are continuously obtained before the train leaves and the Kalman filter is operated from the point the position data leaves the starting point. The Kalman filter is terminated when the estimated position data from the filter arrives at the destination. A is the poor data obtained from the sensor while the train is operated. Figure 7. Change in Latitude Depending on Time in Dobong Dobong Mountain Section 1 Figure 8. Change in Latitude Depending on Time in Dobong Dobong Mountain Section Copyright c 2014 SERSC

7 4. GPS Error Filter Generally, GPS data includes error which can be classified into bias error and white noise error. The information of location received by GPS can differ by actual location from few meters to few tens of meters because the information includes biased error and white noise [7]. Figure 9. GPS Error The use of information of location removed GPS error is more reasonable to estimate the actual location than the use of information of location included GPS error. Therefore, in this paper, GPS error is modeled and estimated using Kalman Filter in order to remove it. The GPS error is expressed as equation (5). ( ) ( ) ( ) (5) The e(k) means the GPS error at time k in equation (5), ( ) is bias error at time k, and ( ) is white noise error at time k. Because bias error is generated by meteorological factors and satellite problem, equation (5) can be approximated to equation (6). ( ) The state equation of GPS error filter is given in equation (7). [ ] [ ] [ ] State variable and are north-south direction(latitude) and east-west direction (longitude) of the location, respectively. The and are north-south and east-west direction of the velocity, respectively. And the and are north-south and eastwest direction of the GPS error, respectively. The Relation between position of the state variables and the position of the measurement is as equation (8). ( ) ( ) ( ) (8) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) and ( ) are measurement values, north-south and east-west direction nal position received by GPS at time k. ( ) and ( ) are the distance difference between the north-south and east-west of the positions received by the GPS and the north- (6) (7) Copyright c 2014 SERSC 173

8 south and east-west of the positions resulted by map matching. The represents noise on the GPS sensor which follows the distribution of ( ). The measurement equation of GPS error filter is as follows. (9) 5. Experiment and Result [ ] [ ] In order to determine the error between the actual position and the GPS position, fixed to the specific absolute position. Error is the distance between the actual position and the GPS position. Here, the actual position of the GPS, which is fixed, is referred to as center point. Figure 10 is a representation of the map errors in data obtained using the GPS error filter and general matching data. (a) Point-to-Curve Matching (b) Matching Using GPS Error Filter Figure 10. Comparing the General Matching and the Matching using GPS Error Filter 174 Copyright c 2014 SERSC

9 Figure 11. Distance Between Center Point In Figure 10, the gray line represents the matching path and the red line on the path is matched data, where marking point means center point. The error of the applied GPS error filter data is smaller than general matching data. Figure 11 shows the variation of position error with time for the cases of point to curve matching and GPS error filter matching. Table 1 shows the average of the distance from the center point about the applied GPS error filter data and general matching data. Table 1. Average Distance between Center Point Average distance between center point General matching m Matching using GPS error filter m The adaptive Kalman filter which uses moving pattern is a position estimation filter for a set pattern movement in a limited situation traveling a specific section. In this paper, the position estimation schme proposed in this paper is applied to a moving train operated on Dobong Dobong Moutaion section. In Figure 12, the path A means the position data obtained from the position sensor and the path B means the actual position of Dobong Dobong Mountain section. From the Figure 12, we can note that the latitude directional noise could not be found but the longitude directional noise could be found. As shown in Figure 13, to detect the revised position from the unreliable sensor data, the Kalman filter was used and the results are shown in Figure 13 and 14. Copyright c 2014 SERSC 175

10 Figure 12. Dobong Dobong Mountain Section GPS Course Figure 13. Velocity Results Depending on Latitude Passed through the Kalman Filter 176 Copyright c 2014 SERSC

11 Figure 14. Velocity Results Depending on Longitude Passed through the Kalman Filter As shown in Figure 12, GPS data has some noise included which leads to a large error of GPS data in Figure 13 and 14. The results of adaptive Kalman filter are obtained by interaction between GPS data and moving pattern. The results corresponding in Figure 13 and 14 are the filter part. The position result estimated by the Kalman filter is finally revised by the map-matching technique. The map-matching technique used in this paper is point-to-curve matching with results shown in Figure 15. Figure 15. Final Results of Map-matching Copyright c 2014 SERSC 177

12 Acknowledgements This Research was supported by Seokyeong University in References [1] J.-S. Yang and S.-P. Kanl, The Map Matching Algothm og GPS Data, Journal of the Eastern Asia Society for Transportation Studies, vol. 6, (2005), pp [2] C. E. White, D. Bernstein and A. L. Kornhauser, Some Map Matching Algorithms for Personal Navigation, Transportation Research Part C, vol. 8, (2000), pp [3] E. Murakami and D. P. Wagner, Can using Global Positioning System (GPS) Improve Trip Reporting?, Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, vol. 7, no. 2-3, (1999), pp [4] S. Brakatsoulas, Dieter Pfoser, Randall Salas and Carola Wenk, On Map-Matching Vehicle Tracking Data, RA Computer Technology Institute Akteou 11GR Athens Greece {sbrakats, (2005). [5] J. Greenfeld, Matching GPS Observations to Locations on a Digital Map, Proc. 81th Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC, (2002). [6] H. Alt, A. Efrat, G. Rote and C. Wenk, Matching Planar Maps, J. of Algorithms, vol. 49, (2003), pp [7] H. Liu, H. Wei, H. Xu and Y. Bao, Editors Simultaneous Correction of GPS Error and Map Error for Improved Map-matching, Geoinformatics 2008 and Joint Conference on GIS and Built Environment, Proc. of SPIE, vol. 7145, 71452S, (2008). [8] T. Jo, M. Haseyamai and H. Kitajima, A Map Matching Method with the Innovation of the Kalman Filtering, IEICE Trans. Fund. Electron. Comm. Comput. Sci. E79-A, (1996), pp [9] W. Kim, G. Jee and J. Lee, Efficient Use of Digital Road Map in Various Positioning for ITS, IEEE Symposium on Position Location and Navigation, San Deigo, CA, (2000). [10] S. K. Honey, W. B. Zavoli, K. A. Milnes, A. C. Philips, M. S. White and G. E. Loughmiller, Vehicle Navigational System and Method, United States Patent No., , (1989). [11] T. Miwa, D. Kiuchi, T. Yamamoto and T. Morikawa, Development of Map Matching Algorithm for Low Frequency Probe Data, Transportation Research Part C 22, (2012), pp [12] Y. Cho and H. Choi, A Position Estimation of Vehicle using Adaptive Kalman Filter based on Moving Pattern, Advanced Science and Technology Letters, vol.46, Proc. of Int. Workshop,(2014), pp Authors Youngwan Cho was born in Hamyang, Korea, in He B.S., M.S., and Ph.D. degrees in electronic engineering from Yonsei University, Seoul, Korea, in 1991, 1993, and 1999, respectively. He worked as a Senior Research Engineer in the Control System Group at SAMSUNG Electronics, Seoul, Korea, from 1999 to He is currently working as an Associate Professor in the Department of Computer Engineering, Seokyeong University, Seoul, Korea. His research interests include fuzzy control theory and applications, nonlinear analysis of intelligent control systems, adaptive and robust control, and robotics and automation. Hyunkyu i was born in Incheon, Korea, in He received the B.S degree in computer engineering from Seokyeong University, Korea in He is currently in the master's program of electronic and computer engineering at Seokyeong University. 178 Copyright c 2014 SERSC

### Developing Safety Management Systems for Track Workers Using Smart Phone GPS

, pp.137-148 http://dx.doi.org/10.14257/ijca.2013.6.5.13 Developing Safety Management Systems for Track Workers Using Smart Phone GPS Jin-Hee Ku 1 and Duk-Kyu Park 2 1 Dept of Liberal Education and 2 Dept

### Smart Integrated Multiple Tracking System Development for IOT based Target-oriented Logistics Location and Resource Service

, pp. 195-204 http://dx.doi.org/10.14257/ijsh.2015.9.5.19 Smart Integrated Multiple Tracking System Development for IOT based Target-oriented Logistics Location and Resource Service Ju-Su Kim, Hak-Jun

### Density Map Visualization for Overlapping Bicycle Trajectories

, pp.327-332 http://dx.doi.org/10.14257/ijca.2014.7.3.31 Density Map Visualization for Overlapping Bicycle Trajectories Dongwook Lee 1, Jinsul Kim 2 and Minsoo Hahn 1 1 Digital Media Lab., Korea Advanced

### Implementation of IR-UWB MAC Development Tools Based on IEEE 802.15.4a

Vol. 8, No. 4 (2015), pp. 275-286 http://dx.doi.org/10.14257/ijca.2015.8.4.27 Implementation of IR-UWB MAC Development Tools Based on IEEE 802.15.4a Sol Lim, Kye Joo Lee, So Yeon Kim, Chang Seok Chae,

### Effective Use of Android Sensors Based on Visualization of Sensor Information

, pp.299-308 http://dx.doi.org/10.14257/ijmue.2015.10.9.31 Effective Use of Android Sensors Based on Visualization of Sensor Information Young Jae Lee Faculty of Smartmedia, Jeonju University, 303 Cheonjam-ro,

### An Energy-Based Vehicle Tracking System using Principal Component Analysis and Unsupervised ART Network

Proceedings of the 8th WSEAS Int. Conf. on ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE, KNOWLEDGE ENGINEERING & DATA BASES (AIKED '9) ISSN: 179-519 435 ISBN: 978-96-474-51-2 An Energy-Based Vehicle Tracking System using Principal

### Automatic Train Control based on the Multi-Agent Control of Cooperative Systems

The Journal of Mathematics and Computer Science Available online at http://www.tjmcs.com The Journal of Mathematics and Computer Science Vol.1 No.4 (2010) 247-257 Automatic Train Control based on the Multi-Agent

### Map Matching Algorithm for the Spar på farten Intelligent Speed Adaptation Project

Map Matching Algorithm for the Spar på farten Intelligent Speed Adaptation Project Nerius Tradišauskas 1, Jens Juhl 1, Harry Lahrmann 1, Christian S. Jensen 2 1 nerius@plan.aau.dk, jj@land.aau.dk, lahrmann@plan.aau.dk

### Quality of Map-Matching Procedures Based on DGPS and Stand-Alone GPS Positioning in an Urban Area

Quality of Map-Matching Procedures Based on DGPS and Stand-Alone GPS Positioning in an Urban Area Konstantinos LAKAKIS, Paraskevas SAVVAIDIS, Ioannis M. IFADIS and Ioannis D. DOUKAS, Greece Key words:

### Traffic State Estimation for Urban Vehicle Tracking

International Journal of Engineering and Technical Research (IJETR) ISSN: 2321-0869, Volume-2, Issue-6, June 2014 Traffic State Estimation for Urban Vehicle Tracking Nilesh Bajbalkar, B. Sonkamble Abstract

### GPS Enabled Taxi Probe s Big Data Processing for Traffic Evaluation of Bangkok Using Apache Hadoop Distributed System

GPS Enabled Taxi Probe s Big Data Processing for Traffic Evaluation of Bangkok Using Apache Hadoop Distributed System Paper Identification number: AYRF14-060 Saurav RANJIT 1, Masahiko NAGAI 1, 2, Itti

### Traffic Estimation and Least Congested Alternate Route Finding Using GPS and Non GPS Vehicles through Real Time Data on Indian Roads

Traffic Estimation and Least Congested Alternate Route Finding Using GPS and Non GPS Vehicles through Real Time Data on Indian Roads Prof. D. N. Rewadkar, Pavitra Mangesh Ratnaparkhi Head of Dept. Information

### IMU Components An IMU is typically composed of the following components:

APN-064 IMU Errors and Their Effects Rev A Introduction An Inertial Navigation System (INS) uses the output from an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU), and combines the information on acceleration and rotation

### An Analysis of Regenerative Braking and Energy Saving for Electric Vehicle with In-Wheel Motors

, pp. 219-23 http://dx.doi.org/1.14257/ijca.214.7.12.2 An Analysis of Regenerative Braking and Energy Saving for Electric Vehicle with In-Wheel Motors 1 Li-qiang Jin, 2 Peng-fei Chen and 3 *Yue Liu State

### Efficient Data Replication Scheme based on Hadoop Distributed File System

, pp. 177-186 http://dx.doi.org/10.14257/ijseia.2015.9.12.16 Efficient Data Replication Scheme based on Hadoop Distributed File System Jungha Lee 1, Jaehwa Chung 2 and Daewon Lee 3* 1 Division of Supercomputing,

### The X-DBaaS-Based Stock Trading System to Overcome Low Latency in Cloud Environment

, pp.127-136 http://dx.doi.org/10.14257/ijmue.2015.10.10.14 The X-DBaaS-Based Stock Trading System to Overcome Low Latency in Cloud Environment Hyoyoung Shin 1 and Hyungjin Kim 2* 1 Department of IT Security,

### A Reliability Point and Kalman Filter-based Vehicle Tracking Technique

A Reliability Point and Kalman Filter-based Vehicle Tracing Technique Soo Siang Teoh and Thomas Bräunl Abstract This paper introduces a technique for tracing the movement of vehicles in consecutive video

### Braking/Traction Control Systems of a Scaled Railway Vehicle for the Active Steering Testbed

Braking/Traction Control Systems of a Scaled Railway Vehicle for the Active Steering Testbed Min-Soo Kim and Hyun-Moo Hur Vehicle Dynamics & Propulsion System Research Department Korea Railroad Research

### A Study on Cooperative System between Devices to Construct Internet of Things

, pp. 83-90 http://dx.doi.org/10.14257/ijsh.2015.9.11.10 A Study on Cooperative System between Devices to Construct Internet of Things Chang-Su Kim 1, Sang-Keun Yoo 2, Young-Sic Jeong 2, Yong-Woon Kim

### ACCELERATION CHARACTERISTICS OF VEHICLES IN RURAL PENNSYLVANIA

www.arpapress.com/volumes/vol12issue3/ijrras_12_3_14.pdf ACCELERATION CHARACTERISTICS OF VEHICLES IN RURAL PENNSYLVANIA Robert M. Brooks Associate Professor, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering,

### An Automated Test Method for Robot Platform and Its Components

An Automated Test Method for Robot Platform and Its Components Jae-Hee Lim 1, Suk-Hoon Song 1, Jung-Rye Son 1, Tae-Yong Kuc 2, Hong-Seong Park 3, Hong-Seok Kim 4 1,2 School of Information and Communication,

### Forced Low latency Handoff in Mobile Cellular Data Networks

Forced Low latency Handoff in Mobile Cellular Data Networks N. Moayedian, Faramarz Hendessi Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan, IRAN Hendessi@cc.iut.ac.ir

### DBaaS Using HL7 Based on XMDR-DAI for Medical Information Sharing in Cloud

, pp.111-120 http://dx.doi.org/10.14257/ijmue.2015.10.9.12 DBaaS Using HL7 Based on XMDR-DAI for Medical Information Sharing in Cloud Ho-Kyun Park 1 and Seok-Jae Moon 2 1 School of IT Convergence Engineering,

### Mobile Phone Tracking & Positioning Techniques

Mobile Phone Tracking & Positioning Techniques Laxmana Siridhara Arigela #1, Putta Aditya Veerendra *2, Simhadri Anvesh *2, Kolisetty Sandeep Satya Hanuman #3 1 Assistant Professor, Department of ECE,

### Adaptive MAC Protocol for Emergency Data Transmission in Wireless Body Sensor Networks

, pp. 205-216 http://dx.doi.org/10.14257/ijseia.2015.9.9.18 Adaptive MAC Protocol for Emergency Data Transmission in Wireless Body Sensor Networks Rae Hyun Kim and Jeong Gon Kim 1 Department of Electronic

### A Study on IP Exposure Notification System for IoT Devices Using IP Search Engine Shodan

, pp.61-66 http://dx.doi.org/10.14257/ijmue.2015.10.12.07 A Study on IP Exposure Notification System for IoT Devices Using IP Search Engine Shodan Yun-Seong Ko 1, Il-Kyeun Ra 2 and Chang-Soo Kim 1* 1 Department

### Method for Traffic Flow Estimation using Ondashboard

Method for Traffic Flow Estimation using Ondashboard Camera Image Kohei Arai Graduate School of Science and Engineering Saga University Saga, Japan Steven Ray Sentinuwo Department of Electrical Engineering

### ANN Based Fault Classifier and Fault Locator for Double Circuit Transmission Line

International Journal of Computer Sciences and Engineering Open Access Research Paper Volume-4, Special Issue-2, April 2016 E-ISSN: 2347-2693 ANN Based Fault Classifier and Fault Locator for Double Circuit

### A REVIEW ON KALMAN FILTER FOR GPS TRACKING

A REVIEW ON KALMAN FILTER FOR GPS TRACKING Ms. SONAL(Student, M.Tech ), Dr. AJIT SINGH (Professor in CSE & IT) Computer Science & Engg. (Network Security) BPS Mahila Vishwavidyalaya Khanpur Kalan, Haryana

### Author: Hamid A.E. Al-Jameel (Research Institute: Engineering Research Centre)

SPARC 2010 Evaluation of Car-following Models Using Field Data Author: Hamid A.E. Al-Jameel (Research Institute: Engineering Research Centre) Abstract Traffic congestion problems have been recognised as

### Development of Taekwondo Trainer System for Training on Electronic Protector with Hitting Target Indicator

IJCSNS International Journal of Computer Science and Network Security, VOL.10 No.6, June 2010 51 Development of Taekwondo Trainer System for Training on Electronic Protector with Hitting Target Indicator

### The Periodic Moving Average Filter for Removing Motion Artifacts from PPG Signals

International Journal The of Periodic Control, Moving Automation, Average and Filter Systems, for Removing vol. 5, no. Motion 6, pp. Artifacts 71-76, from December PPG s 27 71 The Periodic Moving Average

### Design and Implementation of Automatic Attendance Check System Using BLE Beacon

, pp.177-186 http://dx.doi.org/10.14257/ijmue.2015.10.10.19 Design and Implementation of Automatic Attendance Check System Using BLE Beacon Mi-Young Bae and Dae-Jea Cho * Dept. Of Multimedia Engineering,

### Biomarker Discovery and Data Visualization Tool for Ovarian Cancer Screening

, pp.169-178 http://dx.doi.org/10.14257/ijbsbt.2014.6.2.17 Biomarker Discovery and Data Visualization Tool for Ovarian Cancer Screening Ki-Seok Cheong 2,3, Hye-Jeong Song 1,3, Chan-Young Park 1,3, Jong-Dae

### Ziegler-Nichols-Based Intelligent Fuzzy PID Controller Design for Antenna Tracking System

Ziegler-Nichols-Based Intelligent Fuzzy PID Controller Design for Antenna Tracking System Po-Kuang Chang, Jium-Ming Lin Member, IAENG, and Kun-Tai Cho Abstract This research is to augment the intelligent

### A RFID Data-Cleaning Algorithm Based on Communication Information among RFID Readers

, pp.155-164 http://dx.doi.org/10.14257/ijunesst.2015.8.1.14 A RFID Data-Cleaning Algorithm Based on Communication Information among RFID Readers Yunhua Gu, Bao Gao, Jin Wang, Mingshu Yin and Junyong Zhang

### DESIGN OF VLSI ARCHITECTURE USING 2D DISCRETE WAVELET TRANSFORM

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ADVANCED RESEARCH IN ENGINEERING AND SCIENCE DESIGN OF VLSI ARCHITECTURE USING 2D DISCRETE WAVELET TRANSFORM Lavanya Pulugu 1, Pathan Osman 2 1 M.Tech Student, Dept of ECE, Nimra

### Development of an Ignition Interlock Device to Prevent Illegal Driving of a Drunk Driver

, pp.161-165 http://dx.doi.org/10.14257/astl.205.98.41 Development of an Ignition Interlock Device to Prevent Illegal Driving of a Drunk Driver Jeong MyeongSu 1, Moon ChangSoo 1, Gwon DaeHyeok 1 and Cho

### Doppler Effect Plug-in in Music Production and Engineering

, pp.287-292 http://dx.doi.org/10.14257/ijmue.2014.9.8.26 Doppler Effect Plug-in in Music Production and Engineering Yoemun Yun Department of Applied Music, Chungwoon University San 29, Namjang-ri, Hongseong,

### Effects of Standardized Diabetes Education in Clinical Nurses

, pp.55-64 http://dx.doi.org/10.14257/ijbsbt.2015.7.5.06 Effects of Standardized Diabetes Education in Clinical Nurses YoungHee Kim 1 1 Department of Nursing, Tongmyong University, South Korea, kyh0504@tu.ac.kr

### GNSS Parameters. Position estimation uncertainties

GNSS Parameters Position estimation uncertainties Petr Bureš, bures@fd.cvut.cz Faculty of transportation sciences Czech technical university in Prague Contents Satellite systems in general Accuracy Position

### A Testing Technique of Microgrid EMS using the Hardware-in-the Loop Simulation (HILS) System

, pp.53-60 http://dx.doi.org/10.14257/ijeic.2014.5.2.04 A Testing Technique of Microgrid EMS using the Hardware-in-the Loop Simulation (HILS) System Ji-Hye Lee, Nam-Dae Kim and Hak-Man Kim Incheon National

### Development of Integrated Management System based on Mobile and Cloud Service for Preventing Various Hazards

, pp. 143-150 http://dx.doi.org/10.14257/ijseia.2015.9.7.15 Development of Integrated Management System based on Mobile and Cloud Service for Preventing Various Hazards Ryu HyunKi 1, Yeo ChangSub 1, Jeonghyun

### Asian Institute of Technology, Pathum Thani, Thailand Email: saurav.ranjit@ait.ac.th, nagaim@ait.ac.th

GPS Enabled Taxi Probe s Big Data Processing for Traffic Evaluation of Bangkok Using Apache Hadoop Distributed System Paper Identification number: AYRF14-060 Saurav RANJIT 1, Masahiko NAGAI 1, 2, Itti

### Force/position control of a robotic system for transcranial magnetic stimulation

Force/position control of a robotic system for transcranial magnetic stimulation W.N. Wan Zakaria School of Mechanical and System Engineering Newcastle University Abstract To develop a force control scheme

### Preventing and Detecting Plagiarism in Programming Course

, pp.269-278 http://dx.doi.org/10.14257/ijsia.2013.7.5.25 Preventing and Detecting Plagiarism in Programming Course Wang Chunhui, Liu Zhiguo and Liu Dongsheng Computer & Information Engineering College,

### The Combination Forecasting Model of Auto Sales Based on Seasonal Index and RBF Neural Network

, pp.67-76 http://dx.doi.org/10.14257/ijdta.2016.9.1.06 The Combination Forecasting Model of Auto Sales Based on Seasonal Index and RBF Neural Network Lihua Yang and Baolin Li* School of Economics and

### VEHICLE TRACKING SYSTEM USING GPS. 1 Student, ME (IT) Pursuing, SCOE, Vadgaon, Pune. 2 Asst. Professor, SCOE, Vadgaon, Pune

VEHICLE TRACKING SYSTEM USING GPS Pooja P. Dehankar 1, 1 Student, ME (IT) Pursuing, SCOE, Vadgaon, Pune Prof. S. P. Potdar 2 2 Asst. Professor, SCOE, Vadgaon, Pune Abstract- Global Positioning System is

### Application of Fuzzy Statistics Evaluation Theory for Analyzing the Performance of Rolling Bearings

International Journal of New Technology and Research IJNTR) Application of Statistics Evaluation Theory for Analyzing the Performance of Rolling Bearings Xintao Xia, Liang Ye, Zhen Chang Abstract This

### GPS: Theory of Operation and Applications

GPS: Theory of Operation and Applications Christopher R. Carlson March 18, 2004 D D L ynamic esign aboratory. Motivation There are many interesting applications for GPS technology Sailing, flying or hiking

### Open-Source-based Visualization of Flight Waypoint Tracking Using Flight Manipulation System

Open-Source-based Visualization of Flight Waypoint Tracking Using Flight Manipulation System Myeong-Chul Park a, Hyeon-Gab Shin b, Yong Ho Moon b, Seok-Wun Ha b*, a Dept. of Biomedical Electronics, Songho

### An Empirical Approach for the Estimation of GPS Covariance Matrix of Observations

An Empirical Approach for the Estimation of GPS Covariance Matrix of Observations Rodrigo Leandro, University of New Brunswic Marcelo Santos, University of New Brunswic Karen Cove, University of New Brunswic

### Short-term Forecast for Photovoltaic Power Generation with Correlation of Solar Power Irradiance of Multi Points

Short-term Forecast for Photovoltaic Power Generation with Correlation of Solar Power Irradiance of Multi Points HIROAKI KOBAYASHI Polytechnic University / Kogakuin University 2-32-1 Ogawanishi-machi,

### Designing and Embodiment of Software that Creates Middle Ware for Resource Management in Embedded System

, pp.97-108 http://dx.doi.org/10.14257/ijseia.2014.8.6.08 Designing and Embodiment of Software that Creates Middle Ware for Resource Management in Embedded System Suk Hwan Moon and Cheol sick Lee Department

### ALLAN VARIANCE ANALYSIS ON ERROR CHARACTERS OF LOW- COST MEMS ACCELEROMETER MMA8451Q

HENRI COANDA AIR FORCE ACADEMY ROMANIA INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE of SCIENTIFIC PAPER AFASES 04 Brasov, -4 May 04 GENERAL M.R. STEFANIK ARMED FORCES ACADEMY SLOVAK REPUBLIC ALLAN VARIANCE ANALYSIS ON ERROR

### Mapping Linear Networks Based on Cellular Phone Tracking

Ronen RYBOWSKI, Aaron BELLER and Yerach DOYTSHER, Israel Key words: Cellular Phones, Cellular Network, Linear Networks, Mapping. ABSTRACT The paper investigates the ability of accurately mapping linear

### Patent Big Data Analysis by R Data Language for Technology Management

, pp. 69-78 http://dx.doi.org/10.14257/ijseia.2016.10.1.08 Patent Big Data Analysis by R Data Language for Technology Management Sunghae Jun * Department of Statistics, Cheongju University, 360-764, Korea

### Crime Hotspots Analysis in South Korea: A User-Oriented Approach

, pp.81-85 http://dx.doi.org/10.14257/astl.2014.52.14 Crime Hotspots Analysis in South Korea: A User-Oriented Approach Aziz Nasridinov 1 and Young-Ho Park 2 * 1 School of Computer Engineering, Dongguk

### International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Engineering & Technology (IJARCET) Volume 3, Issue 6, June 2014

Real Time Wireless based Train Tracking, Track Identification and Collision avoidance System for Railway Sectors 1 R. Immanuel Rajkumar, 2 Dr.P. E. Sankaranarayanan, and 3 Dr.G.Sundari 1 Research Scholar,

### A New Programmable RF System for System-on-Chip Applications

Vol. 6, o., April, 011 A ew Programmable RF System for System-on-Chip Applications Jee-Youl Ryu 1, Sung-Woo Kim 1, Jung-Hun Lee 1, Seung-Hun Park 1, and Deock-Ho Ha 1 1 Dept. of Information and Communications

### Application of Street Tracking Algorithm to Improve Performance of a Low-Cost INS/GPS System

Application of Street Tracking Algorithm to Improve Performance of a Low-Cost INS/GPS System Thang Nguyen Van Broadcasting College 1, Phuly City, Hanam Province, Vietnam Email: nguyenbathangvov@gmail.com

### Appendix A. About RailSys 3.0. A.1 Introduction

Appendix A About RailSys 3.0 This appendix describes the software system for analysis RailSys used to carry out the different computational experiments and scenario designing required for the research

### A Simulation Study on Clandestine Audio Recording

, pp.297-306 http://dx.doi.org/10.14257/ijseia.2014.8.2.29 A Simulation Study on Clandestine Audio Recording Ik-Soo Ahn 1, Myung-Sook Kim 2 and Myung-Jin Bae 3* 1 Department of Cultural Contents, Soongsil

### Error Revision of the Unknown Tag Location in Smart Space

158 제어 로봇 시스템학회 논문지 제 16 권 제 호 010 Error Revision of the Unknown Tag Location in Smart Space * (Myung Hwan Tak Suk Kun Jee and Young Hoon Joo Abstract: In this paper we propose the location measurement

### Characteristics of Ship Movements in a Fairway

International Journal of Fuzzy Logic and Intelligent Systems, vol. 1, no. 4, December 1, pp. 85-89 http:// dx.doi.org/ 1.5391/IJFIS.1.1.4.85 PISSN 1598-645 eissn 93-744X Characteristics of Ship Movemen

### A Study of Adaptive Cruise Control System to Improve Fuel Efficiency

Proceedings of the World Congress on New Technologies (NewTech 5) Barcelona, Spain July 5-7, 5 Paper No. A Study of Adaptive Cruise Control System to Improve Fuel Efficiency Changwoo Park, Namju Jeon Hanyang

### The Digital Signage System Supporting Multi-Resources Schedule on an Elevator

, pp. 219-228 http://dx.doi.org/10.14257/ijsh.2015.9.8.23 The Digital Signage System Supporting Multi-Resources Schedule on an Elevator Woon-Yong Kim and SoonGohn Kim (Corresponding Author) Department

### AUTOMATIC ACCIDENT DETECTION AND AMBULANCE RESCUE WITH INTELLIGENT TRAFFIC LIGHT SYSTEM

AUTOMATIC ACCIDENT DETECTION AND AMBULANCE RESCUE WITH INTELLIGENT TRAFFIC LIGHT SYSTEM Mr.S.Iyyappan 1, Mr.V.Nandagopal 2 P.G Scholar, Dept. of EEE, Ganadipathy Tulis s Jain Engineering College, Vellore,

### Big Text Data Clustering using Class Labels and Semantic Feature Based on Hadoop of Cloud Computing

Vol.8, No.4 (214), pp.1-1 http://dx.doi.org/1.14257/ijseia.214.8.4.1 Big Text Data Clustering using Class Labels and Semantic Feature Based on Hadoop of Cloud Computing Yong-Il Kim 1, Yoo-Kang Ji 2 and

### Transition Method into Alternate Symbols of Korean Option Market by Expiration Date

Transition Method into Alternate Symbols of Korean Option Market by Expiration Date Young-Hoon Ko Department of Computer Engineering, Hyupsung University, Suwon, Korea tigerko@uhs.ac.kr Abstract This paper

### A Study on HL7 Standard Message for Healthcare System Based on ISO/IEEE 11073

, pp. 113-118 http://dx.doi.org/10.14257/ijsh.2015.9.6.13 A Study on HL7 Standard Message for Healthcare System Based on ISO/IEEE 11073 Am-Suk Oh Dept. of Media Engineering, Tongmyong University, Busan,

### A Study among Chinese Tourists in their 20s and 30s for Determining their Choice of Medical Tourism Destinations

, pp.13-20 http://dx.doi.org/10.14257/ijunesst.2015.8.9.02 A Study among Chinese Tourists in their 20s and 30s for Determining their Choice of Medical Tourism Destinations Mi Joon Lee 1, In Soon Min 2

### Provisioning algorithm for minimum throughput assurance service in VPNs using nonlinear programming

Provisioning algorithm for minimum throughput assurance service in VPNs using nonlinear programming Masayoshi Shimamura (masayo-s@isnaistjp) Guraduate School of Information Science, Nara Institute of Science

### Location Identification and Vehicle Tracking using VANET(VETRAC)

Location Identification and Vehicle Tracking using VANET(VETRAC) Supervisor Name: Md. Mosaddik Hasan Assistant Professor Dept. of CSE MBSTU Md. Al-Amin Nipu CE-10031 Dept. of CSE MBSTU Abstract: Large

### Large Scale Spatial Data Management on Mobile Phone data set Using Exploratory Data Analysis

Large Scale Spatial Data Management on Mobile Phone data set Using Exploratory Data Analysis K.S.Pandiyan, Dr.S.Sivakumar Research scholar, Professor, Department of Geology, Anna University, Chennai Abstract

### Professor-Telecom. Indian Railways Institute of Signal Engg. & Telecomm Secunderabad. India.

TITLE OF PRESENTATION : GPS BASED CAB-SIGNALLING FOR INDIAN RAILWAYS A CONCEPT NAME OF PRESENTER: S.K.BISWAS JOB TITLE: COMPANY NAME: Introduction : Professor-Telecom. Indian Railways Institute of Signal

### Electric Power Steering Automation for Autonomous Driving

Electric Power Steering Automation for Autonomous Driving J. E. Naranjo, C. González, R. García, T. de Pedro Instituto de Automática Industrial (CSIC) Ctra. Campo Real Km.,2, La Poveda, Arganda del Rey,

### Detection and Restoration of Vertical Non-linear Scratches in Digitized Film Sequences

Detection and Restoration of Vertical Non-linear Scratches in Digitized Film Sequences Byoung-moon You 1, Kyung-tack Jung 2, Sang-kook Kim 2, and Doo-sung Hwang 3 1 L&Y Vision Technologies, Inc., Daejeon,

### World Geography Unit 1 - Test Introduction to World of Geography

Name World Geography Unit 1 - Test Introduction to World of Geography Term Identification Directions: Pick a word from the box that best completes the sentences below. distortion longitude Equator geography

### CORE STANDARDS, OBJECTIVES, AND INDICATORS

Aerospace Engineering - PLtW Levels: 11-12 Units of Credit: 1.0 CIP Code: 14.0201 Core Code: 38-01-00-00-150 Prerequisite: Principles of Engineering, Introduction to Engineering Design Test: #967 Course

### Implementation of Fuzzy and PID Controller to Water Level System using LabView

Implementation of Fuzzy and PID Controller to Water Level System using LabView Laith Abed Sabri, Ph.D University of Baghdad AL-Khwarizmi college of Engineering Hussein Ahmed AL-Mshat University of Baghdad

### An Architecture for Home-Oriented IPTV Service Platform on Residential Gateway

J Inf Process Syst, Vol.9, No.3, September 2013 pissn 1976-913X eissn 2092-805X http://dx.doi.org/10.3745/jips.2013.9.3.425 An Architecture for Home-Oriented IPTV Service Platform on Residential Gateway

### Research on Safety Distance Mathematical Model of Pro-Active Head Restraint in Rear-end Collision Avoidance System

Vol.9, No. (05), pp.347-356 http://dx.doi.org/0.457/ijsia.05.9..33 Research on Safety Distance Mathematical Model of Pro-ctive Head Restraint in Rear-end Collision voidance System Xiaoqin Yin and Mingxia

### Adaptive Cruise Control of a Passenger Car Using Hybrid of Sliding Mode Control and Fuzzy Logic Control

Adaptive Cruise Control of a assenger Car Using Hybrid of Sliding Mode Control and Fuzzy Logic Control Somphong Thanok, Manukid arnichkun School of Engineering and Technology, Asian Institute of Technology,

### A Real-Time Position, Velocity, and Physiological Monitoring and Tracking Device for Equestrian Training

A Real-Time Position, Velocity, and Physiological Monitoring and Tracking Device for Equestrian Training Kyle Green, Adam Hill, Jade Morton, Mikel Miller, Jacob Campbell Miami University BIOGRAPHIES Kyle

### Automatic Labeling of Lane Markings for Autonomous Vehicles

Automatic Labeling of Lane Markings for Autonomous Vehicles Jeffrey Kiske Stanford University 450 Serra Mall, Stanford, CA 94305 jkiske@stanford.edu 1. Introduction As autonomous vehicles become more popular,

### Continuous Fastest Path Planning in Road Networks by Mining Real-Time Traffic Event Information

Continuous Fastest Path Planning in Road Networks by Mining Real-Time Traffic Event Information Eric Hsueh-Chan Lu Chi-Wei Huang Vincent S. Tseng Institute of Computer Science and Information Engineering

### Synchronization of sampling in distributed signal processing systems

Synchronization of sampling in distributed signal processing systems Károly Molnár, László Sujbert, Gábor Péceli Department of Measurement and Information Systems, Budapest University of Technology and

### 1. GLOBAL NAVIGATION SATELLITE SYSTEMS

1. GLOBAL NAVIGATION SATELLITE SYSTEMS The Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) is a constellation of satellites, transmitting signals for use in navigation and positioning applications, anywhere

### Sensor-Based Robotic Model for Vehicle Accident Avoidance

Copyright 2012 American Scientific Publishers All rights reserved Printed in the United States of America Journal of Computational Intelligence and Electronic Systems Vol. 1, 1 6, 2012 Sensor-Based Robotic

### Modeling and Design of Intelligent Agent System

International Journal of Control, Automation, and Systems Vol. 1, No. 2, June 2003 257 Modeling and Design of Intelligent Agent System Dae Su Kim, Chang Suk Kim, and Kee Wook Rim Abstract: In this study,

### Estimation of the COCOMO Model Parameters Using Genetic Algorithms for NASA Software Projects

Journal of Computer Science 2 (2): 118-123, 2006 ISSN 1549-3636 2006 Science Publications Estimation of the COCOMO Model Parameters Using Genetic Algorithms for NASA Software Projects Alaa F. Sheta Computers

### Intelligent boundary alert system using GPS

Intelligent boundary alert system using GPS C. Sheeba thangapushpam 1 (Embedded system design, Holycross engineering College, India) ABSTRACT: The Tamil Nadu factor in India-Sri Lanka relations that had

### Estimation of Position and Orientation of Mobile Systems in a Wireless LAN

Proceedings of the 46th IEEE Conference on Decision and Control New Orleans, LA, USA, Dec. 12-14, 2007 Estimation of Position and Orientation of Mobile Systems in a Wireless LAN Christof Röhrig and Frank

### AN EFFICIENT STRATEGY OF AGGREGATE SECURE DATA TRANSMISSION

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF REVIEWS ON RECENT ELECTRONICS AND COMPUTER SCIENCE AN EFFICIENT STRATEGY OF AGGREGATE SECURE DATA TRANSMISSION K.Anusha 1, K.Sudha 2 1 M.Tech Student, Dept of CSE, Aurora's Technological

### Step-coordination Algorithm of Traffic Control Based on Multi-agent System

International Journal of Automation and Computing 6(3), August 2009, 308-313 DOI: 10.1007/s11633-009-0308-z Step-coordination Algorithm of Traffic Control Based on Multi-agent System Hai-Tao Zhang 1 Fang

### A Multipurpose Vehicle Tracking System Based on ARM CORTEX-M3 STM32, HMC5883L, MPU-6050, GSM and GPS

Journal of Traffic and Logistics Engineering Vol. 4, No. 1, June 2016 A Multipurpose Vehicle Tracking System Based on ARM CORTEX-M3 STM32, HMC5883L, MPU-6050, GSM and GPS Muhammad Husnain Ul Abdeen, Umar

### A Dynamic Resource Management with Energy Saving Mechanism for Supporting Cloud Computing

A Dynamic Resource Management with Energy Saving Mechanism for Supporting Cloud Computing Liang-Teh Lee, Kang-Yuan Liu, Hui-Yang Huang and Chia-Ying Tseng Department of Computer Science and Engineering,