# Objectives. Geodesy, Coordinate Systems, and Map Projections

Save this PDF as:

Size: px
Start display at page:

## Transcription

1 Geodesy, Coordinate Systems, and Map Projections Objectives Introduce the main concepts of geodesy coordinate systems, datums, ellipsoids, and geoids Describe map projections and coordinate systems we use in GIS Two key questions what is the shape of the earth, and where are things on the earth? Our first references were local, relative, and qualitative. Even today, addresses are qualitative locations ASSIGNED by a government body, but how do we know the quantitative location? 3 4 1

2 ..with a coordinate address, also assigned by governments...but, how is Lat/Lon defined, and or height, and what is this WGS84 business? Coordinates Differ Because: 1) Our best estimates of where things are have evolved over time (pre and post satellite technologies (Geodesy) 2) We use different methods to project our data from the curved Earth surface to a flat map surface (Map Projections, next lecture) 5 6 Geodesy: Why all the confusion? All measurements are relative to some reference, and our best estimates of the reference have changed (better measurements, better models). Describe, as quantitatively and precisely as possible, where A and B are We started with, visualize the World, and still use 2 dimensional systems of coordinates. This won t work for long distances, or the whole Earth. The Earth s shape is approximately spherical, but irregular. We didn t know this at first, and we ve since discovered relative positions are changing (plate tectonics). 7 2

3 9 For most the reaction is to: Establish an origin (starting reference, or reference frame) Identify, through measurements, the locations of important things using this reference frame All positions are relative to the origin and principal directions within this reference frame 9 Cartesian Coordinates (right angle) Two dimensions, X and Y, or E and N Two dimensional system most often used with Projected coordinates (maps and GIS) y 90 o x Establish a reference frame Identify, through measurements, the locations of important things using this reference frame (235,78) Geodesy - science of measuring the size and shape of the Earth Datum - a reference surface e.g., a site datum - a reference height against which elevations are measured p1 p3 (Ferris State/ACSM) (10,30) p2 (0,0) Datum height h1 h2 h3 3

4 Datum Example Except for the Earth, our standard locations were first, local fixed objects (large rock outcrops, placed monuments, then, estimated imaginary lines on the surface (Greenwich meridian, the Equator) then, the center of mass of the Earth, and standard axes 14 Datum Evolution Pre 1500 s 1500 s to 1980s post 1980s Two Kinds of Surveying Plane Surveying > We can assume the underlying Earth (our reference surface) is flat, with topographic changes over this flat base > Only valid over short distances Geodetic Surveying > Takes Earth s curvature into account - our reference surface is curved > But the calculations become more complicated

5 Plane Surveying is Based on Horizontal and Vertical Distance Measurement Horizontal measurements required leveling Surveying Methods Evolved Through Time 1600s either raising the end of the measuring rods to maintain a level measurement, or 1700s - measuring angles and calculating the horizontal distance 1800s s - early 1900 s, improved precision, but same methods, over much larger scope and distances 1600 s - scales and optics 19 Wikimedia commons 20 USGS 5

6 21 21 USGS 22 UNH Dimond Library Earth Curvature Distortion How Big a Difference? Angle, q Curved Distance, S Straight line Distance, C Difference 1 second m m m 1 minute 1,894.5 m 1, m 30 minutes = 0.5 degree km m 1 degree km km m 23 5 degrees km km m 6

7 At some point, we have to move from a plane to a globe. What is our reference surface for a globe? It depends When we thought the World was a sphere, we invented a spherical system, with spherical references Horizontal location on a sphere, using Spherical Coordinates Use angles of rotation to define a directional vector Use the length of a vector originating near the ellipsoid center to define the location on the surface Measuring Earth Size, Shape, and Location of Points is Complicated The Earth Isn t Round The Continents are Moving The Poles Wander

8 Eratosthenes deduced the Earth s circumference to within a few percent of our present estimate Earth s is Flattened - an Ellipsoid Two radii: r 1, along semi-major (through Equator) r 2, along semi-minor (through poles) 30 Photobucket Contradictory Measurements, Cleared Up by the French No one could agree on the right size - Differening estimates of r 1 and r 2? - Different countries adopted different standard ellipsoids 8

9 Different Countries Adopted Different Ellipsoids as Datums Why? Surveys rarely spanned continents Best fit differed Nationalism Local or Regional Ellipsoid Origin, R 1, and R 2 of ellipsoid specified such that separation between ellipsoid and Geoid is small These ellipsoids have names, e.g., Clarke 1880, or Bessel Global Ellipsoid Selected so that these have the best fit globally, to sets of measurements taken across the globe. Generally have less appealing names, e.g. WGS84, or ITRF

10 geoid Different Ellipsoids in Different Countries There are locally best fit ellipsoids Ellipsoid B Transforming Between Reference Surfaces We can transform positions from one ellipsoid to another via mathematical operations Ellipsoid A e.g., an origin shift, and mapping from one surface to the next Geocentric Ellipsoid and Coordinate System 3 D Cartesian Z system Origin(0,0,0) at the Earth center of mass Best globally fit X spheroid, e.g., WGS84, used for global coordinate systems Y 10

11 The Earth s True Shape a GEOID Why? Law of Gravity: Force = g x Massa x massb r 2 Larger mass, stronger pull, and the Earth s mass isn t uniform throughout, e.g., near mountains, subsurface ore, deep mantle density variation 42 11

12 Definition of the Geoid A Geoid is the surface perpendicular to a plumb line, and for which the pull of gravity is a given value Note, there are at least three definitions of vertical A plumb direction The center of the celestial disk Perpendicular to the adopted ellipsoid The Geoid is a measured surface Gravimeter CIRES, U. of Colorado, and Gerd Steinle-Neumann, U. Bayerisches The Geoid is a measured surface Gravimeter on a Satellite Separation between the Geoid and best-fitting global ellipsoid averages about 30 meters this undulation is always below 100 meters 12

13 We have three surfaces to keep track of at each point on Earth 1.the ellipsoid 2.the geoid, and 3.the physical surface surface ellipsoid geoid Our position on the surface of the Earth is defined by a latitude / longitude pair on a specified ellipsoid (also known as a spheroid) Horizontal Position Heights are usually specified relative to the Geoid Heights above the geoid are orthometric heights These are the heights usually reported on topographic or other maps Heights above the ellipsoid are spheroidal heights Sometimes used to define vertical position, but usually to specify geoid-ellipsoid separation Spheroidal Height Orthometric Height Earth Surface Ellipsoid Geoid 13

14 Horizontal Datum Defining a Datum Specify the ellipsoid Specify the coordinate locations of features on this ellipsoidal surface Vertical Datum Specify the ellipsoid Specify the Geoid which set of measurements will you use, or which model Specifying a Horizontal Datum Measure positions (celestial observations, surveys, satellite tracking) Adjust measurements to account for geoid, determine position on adopted ellipsoid Specifying a Horizontal Datum A horizontal datum is a reference ellipsoid, plus a precisely-measured set of points that establish locations on the ellipsoid. These points define the reference surface against which all horizontal positions are measured Defining the Horizontal Datum Horizontal datums are realized through large survey networks 1. Define the shape of the Earth (the ellipsoid) 2. Define the location of a set of known points control points for which the position on the ellipsoid is precisely known 3. This is the reference surface and network against which all other points will be measured 14

15 Datum, Survey Network Historically: Triangulation Network Astronomical observation Intermittent baselines Multiple, redundant angle measurements Astronomical Observations Were Accurate, but Time Consuming Why these technologies? Easy to measure angles Difficult to measure distance accurately Time consuming to measure point position accurately Horizontal Surface Measurements Horizontal Surface Measurements: Compensation Bars 15

16 Triangulation Triangulation S1 c A S2 b B C a S3 If we measure the initial baseline length A, and measure the angles a, b, and c, we are then able to calculate the lengths B and C: by the law of sines, _ B = sine (a) sine (b) sine (b) then sine (c) = A and = A sine (a) sine (a) S1 c A B b f S2 C a E S3 e F g S4 With the length C known, angles e, f, and g may then be measured. The law of sines may be used with the now known distance C to calculate lengths E and F. Successive datum points may be established to extend the network using primarily angle measurements. Horizontal Survey Benchmarks Survey Network, 1900 (from Schwartz, 1989) 16

17 North American Datum of 1927, 26,000 measured points, Clarke 1866 spheroid, fixed starting point in Kansas 1920s 1950s NAD27 survey network 1990s Survey Network, 1981 NAD83 North American Datum 1983 Successor to NAD ,000 measurements points GRS80 Ellipsoid, No fixed stations (from Schwartz, 1989) (from Schwartz, 1989) 17

18 North American Datum of 1927, 26,000 measured points, Clarke 1866 spheroid, fixed starting point in Kansas NAD83 North American Datum 1983 Successor to NAD ,000 measurements points GRS80 Ellipsoid, No fixed stations NAD27 survey network (from Schwartz, 1989) Datum Adjustment A datum adjustment is a calculation of the coordinates of each benchmark this is how we specify the reference surface Not straightforward, because of: Errors in surface measurements from 800 BC to 1940 AD After 1960, errors in assumptions came to dominate Two Main Classes of Datums Pre-satellite: e.g., Clarke, Bessel, NAD27, NAD83(1986) large errors (10s to 100s of meters), local to continental Post-satellite: e.g., NAD83(HARN), NAD83(CORS96), WGS84(1132), ITRF99 small relative errors (cm to 1 m) global 18

19 Our Estimate of Locations Change There are Three Main Families of Datums 19

20 NAD27 NAD27 and NAD83 Vertical Datums Like horizontal, but referenced to standard elevation and established using vertical leveling Two major vertical datums, North American Vertical Datum of 1927 (NAVD29), and an update, North American Vertical Datum of 1988 (NAVD88) Summary The Earth s shape is approximated by an ellipsoid Horizontal positions defined relative to the ellipsoid A datum is a reference surface, a realization of the ellipsoid, against which locations are measured Multiple datums, improved through time 20

21 Summary Cartesian Coordinates (right angle) 90 o Ellipsoid is an approximation the shape is better characterized by a geoid Heights measured relative to the geoid Estimates of geoid changes through time Sets of horizontal, vertical points and reference surfaces are datums Two dimensions, X and Y, or in three dimensions, the X, Y, and Z Two-dimensional system most often used with Projected coordinates Three dimensional system used with Geocentric coordinates y z x x y Spherical Coordinates meridians north pole 90 Greenwich meridian 67.5 Use angles of rotation to define a directional vector Use the length of a vector originating near the ellipsoid center to define the location on the surface latitude south pole equator parallels longitude 21

### SPATIAL REFERENCE SYSTEMS

SPATIAL REFERENCE SYSTEMS We will begin today with the first of two classes on aspects of cartography. Cartography is both an art and a science, but we will focus on the scientific aspects. Geographical

### Geographic Datums & Coordinates

Geographic Datums & Coordinates What is the shape of the earth? Why is it relevant for GIS? 9-04-2012 GEO327G/386G, UT Austin 2-1 From Conceptual to Pragmatic Dividing a sphere into a stack of pancakes

### Earth Coordinates & Grid Coordinate Systems

Earth Coordinates & Grid Coordinate Systems How do we model the earth? Datums Datums mathematically describe the surface of the Earth. Accounts for mean sea level, topography, and gravity models. Projections

### GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS Lecture 09: Map Projections

GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS Lecture 09: Map Projections Earth Ellipsoid and Horizontal Datums (cont d) Components of a Geographic Coordinate System Recognize that there are three components to a geographic

### WHAT YOU NEED TO USE THE STATE PLANE COORDINATE SYSTEMS

WHAT YOU NEED TO USE THE STATE PLANE COORDINATE SYSTEMS N & E State Plane Coordinates for Control Points AZIMUTHS - True, Geodetic, or Grid - Conversion from Astronomic to Geodetic (LaPlace Correction)

### Ellipsoid and Datum, Projection, Coordinate system, and Map Scale

Ellipsoid and Datum, Projection, Coordinate system, and Map Scale Lectures 4 Sept 14, 2006 Why we need it? Earth Shape Models Flat earth models are still used for plane surveying, over distances short

### Map Projection, Datum and Plane Coordinate Systems

Map Projection, Datum and Plane Coordinate Systems Geodetic Control Network Horizontal Control Network Datum A datum is a set of parameters defining a coordinate system, and a set of control points whose

### Lecture 2. Map Projections and GIS Coordinate Systems. Tomislav Sapic GIS Technologist Faculty of Natural Resources Management Lakehead University

Lecture 2 Map Projections and GIS Coordinate Systems Tomislav Sapic GIS Technologist Faculty of Natural Resources Management Lakehead University Map Projections Map projections are mathematical formulas

### GIS s s Roots in Cartography

Following up on the last lecture GIS s s Roots in Cartography Getting Started With GIS Chapter 2 Information ordering: Lists and indexes Organizing data and information Information can be organized as

### Latitude and Longitudes in Geodesy James R. Clynch February 2006

Latitude and Longitudes in Geodesy James R. Clynch February 2006 I. Latitude and Longitude on Spherical Earth Latitude and longitude are the grid lines you see on globes. For a spherical earth these are

### Geodesy and Datums. Ellipsoid and Geoid Geographic Coordinate system

Geodesy and Datums Ellipsoid and Geoid Geographic Coordinate system Defining the Ellipsoid The Earth is not perfectly round Fatter around the waist (equator) Flattened at the Poles To define this unique

### Lecture 4. Map Projections & Coordinate System in GIS

Lecture 4 Map Projections & Coordinate System in GIS GIS in Water Resources Spring 2015 Geodesy, Map Projections and Coordinate Systems Geodesy - the shape of the earth and definition of earth datums Map

### Welcome to Lesson 3. It is important for a GIS analyst to have a thorough understanding of map projections and coordinate systems.

Welcome to Lesson 3. It is important for a GIS analyst to have a thorough understanding of map projections and coordinate systems. A GIS without coordinates would simply be a database like Microsoft Excel

### Earth Coordinates & Grid Coordinate Systems

Earth Coordinates & Grid Coordinate Systems You will always find parallels and meridians on largescale maps This is done to make the map a very close approximation to the size and shape of the piece of

### Gravitational potential

Gravitational potential Let s assume: A particle of unit mass moving freely A body of mass M The particle is attracted by M and moves toward it by a small quantity dr. This displacement is the result of

### CONTROL POINT SURVEYING AND TOPOGRAPHIC MAPPING

CONTROL POINT SURVEYING AND TOPOGRAPHIC MAPPING Shoichi Oki Land Bureau, National Land Agency, Japan Keywords: control point, survey, topography, mapping, geodesy Contents 1. Introduction 2. Geometric

### Maintaining High Accuracy in Modern Geospatial Data

Maintaining High Accuracy in Modern Geospatial Data Patrick Cunningham President info@bluemarblegeo.com www.bluemarblegeo.com +1 (207) 582 6747 Copyright 2010 Blue Marble Geographics Concepts Geodesy -

### The Map Grid of Australia 1994 A Simplified Computational Manual

The Map Grid of Australia 1994 A Simplified Computational Manual The Map Grid of Australia 1994 A Simplified Computational Manual 'What's the good of Mercator's North Poles and Equators, Tropics, Zones

### GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS Lecture 11: Projected Coordinate Systems

UTM Coordinate System GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS Lecture 11: Projected Coordinate Systems Why do we need the UTM coordinate system? - in a rectangular (Cartesian) coordinate system, with linear x and

### The Earth Really is Flat! The Globe and Coordinate Systems. Long History of Mapping. The Earth is Flat. Long History of Mapping

The Earth Really is Flat! The Globe and Coordinate Systems Intro to Mapping & GIS The Earth is Flat Day to day, we live life in a flat world sun rises in east, sets in west sky is above, ground is below

### A guide to coordinate systems in Great Britain

A guide to coordinate systems in Great Britain An introduction to mapping coordinate systems and the use of GPS datasets with Ordnance Survey mapping Contents Section Page no 1 Introduction...3 1.1 Who

### Registered map layers

Registered map layers Coordinate map systems Coordinate map systems 1. The Earth's Graticule Latitude and Longitude The graticule is the imaginary grid of lines running east-west lines of latitude (parallels)

### A guide to coordinate systems in Great Britain

A guide to coordinate systems in Great Britain An introduction to mapping coordinate systems and the use of GPS datasets with Ordnance Survey mapping D00659 v2.3 Mar 2015 Crown copyright Page 1 of 43 Contents

### Map Projections & Coordinates. M. Helper 09-01-15 GEO327G/386G, UT Austin 1

Map Projections & Coordinates 09-01-15 GEO327G/386G, UT Austin 1 Laying the earth flat Why? Need convenient means of measuring and comparing distances, directions, areas, shapes. Traditional surveying

### North American Horizontal Datums. Jan Van Sickle

North American Horizontal Datums Jan Van Sickle http://www.holoscenes.com/cgi-bin/moin.cgi/easternobliquearc The New England Datum 1879 was the first geodetic datum of this type in the United States. The

### It is a little challenging suppose you are to describe a point on the surface of a basketball.

Coordinate Systems 1. Geographic coordinate system To locate a point on a piece of white paper, we usually use the distances of the point to the left/right edge (x) and top/bottom edge (y). Therefore the

### Implementation Practice Web Mercator Map Projection

NGA.SIG.0011_1.0.0_WEBMERC NATIONAL GEOSPATIAL-INTELLIGENCE AGENCY (NGA) STANDARDIZATION DOCUMENT Implementation Practice Web Mercator Map Projection 2014-02-18 Version 1.0.0 OFFICE OF GEOMATICS NGA.SIG.0011_1.0.0_WEBMERC

### What are map projections?

Page 1 of 155 What are map projections? ArcGIS 10 Within ArcGIS, every dataset has a coordinate system, which is used to integrate it with other geographic data layers within a common coordinate framework

### GIS for Educators. Coordinate Reference System. Understanding of Coordinate Reference Systems.

GIS for Educators Topic 7: Coordinate Reference Systems Objectives: Understanding of Coordinate Reference Systems. Keywords: Coordinate Reference System (CRS), Map Projection, On the Fly Projection, Latitude,

### State Plane Coordinate Systems & GIS

State Plane Coordinate Systems & GIS An overview of SPCS with emphasis on Grid vs. Ground coordinates. New Jersey Geospatial Forum Meeting Friday, March 18 th 2005 Jesse Kozlowski NJ PLS History of SPCS

### Massachusetts Institute of Technology Department of Urban Studies and Planning

Massachusetts Institute of Technology Department of Urban Studies and Planning 11.520: A Workshop on Geographic Information Systems 11.188: Urban Planning and Social Science Laboratory Lecture 3: More

### CHAPTER 9 SURVEYING TERMS AND ABBREVIATIONS

CHAPTER 9 SURVEYING TERMS AND ABBREVIATIONS Surveying Terms 9-2 Standard Abbreviations 9-6 9-1 A) SURVEYING TERMS Accuracy - The degree of conformity with a standard, or the degree of perfection attained

### Map Coordinates, GIS, and GPS for Enhanced 9-1-1

Map Coordinates, GIS, and GPS for Enhanced 9-1-1 Keith W. Cunningham, Ph.D. 14 East Eighth Street Lawrence, KS 66044 800/238-1911 Maps and coordinates are used to describe features and their locations

### SURVEYING WITH GPS. GPS has become a standard surveying technique in most surveying practices

SURVEYING WITH GPS Key Words: Static, Fast-static, Kinematic, Pseudo- Kinematic, Real-time kinematic, Receiver Initialization, On The Fly (OTF), Baselines, Redundant baselines, Base Receiver, Rover GPS

### EPSG. Coordinate Reference System Definition - Recommended Practice. Guidance Note Number 5

European Petroleum Survey Group EPSG Guidance Note Number 5 Coordinate Reference System Definition - Recommended Practice Revision history: Version Date Amendments 1.0 April 1997 First release. 1.1 June

### An Introduction to Coordinate Systems in South Africa

An Introduction to Coordinate Systems in South Africa Centuries ago people believed that the earth was flat and notwithstanding that if this had been true it would have produced serious problems for mariners

### Projections & GIS Data Collection: An Overview

Projections & GIS Data Collection: An Overview Projections Primary data capture Secondary data capture Data transfer Capturing attribute data Managing a data capture project Geodesy Basics for Geospatial

### 1. GLOBAL NAVIGATION SATELLITE SYSTEMS

1. GLOBAL NAVIGATION SATELLITE SYSTEMS The Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) is a constellation of satellites, transmitting signals for use in navigation and positioning applications, anywhere

### TOPOGRAPHIC MAPS. RELIEF (brown) Hills, valleys, mountains, plains, etc. WATER. land boundaries, etc. CULTURAL

TOPOGRAPHIC MAPS MAP 2-D REPRESENTATION OF THE EARTH S SURFACE TOPOGRAPHIC MAP A graphic representation of the 3-D configuration of the earth s surface. This is it shows elevations (third dimension). It

### INTRODUCTION: BASIC GEOGRAPHIC CONCEPTS. Eric Jessup Associate Professor School of Economic Sciences

INTRODUCTION: BASIC GEOGRAPHIC CONCEPTS Eric Jessup Associate Professor School of Economic Sciences September 13, 2010 Outline What is geographical / spatial analysis and why do we care? Different types

### Appendix B: Geographic Coordinates Systems & Map Projections. B.1 Approximating the Earth's Shape

The following is an appendix from: Strindberg, S. In prep. Optimized Automated Survey Design in Wildlife Population Assessment. Unpublished PhD Thesis. University of St. Andrews. Appendix B: Geographic

### Projections. Shape (angles) Distance Direction Area. Only a sphere can retain all four properties

Projections Projections Map projections are attempts to portray the surface of the earth (or a portion of the earth) on a flat surface. Four spatial relationships (or properties) between locations can

### ALBERTA SURVEY CONTROL PRODUCTS MANUAL

ALBERTA SURVEY CONTROL PRODUCTS MANUAL Lands Division Land Dispositions Branch Geodetic Control Unit Edmonton 2007 Pub. No.: Ref. 85 ISBN: 0-7732-1298-1 For copies of this document, please contact: Geodetic

### World Geography Unit 1 - Test Introduction to World of Geography

Name World Geography Unit 1 - Test Introduction to World of Geography Term Identification Directions: Pick a word from the box that best completes the sentences below. distortion longitude Equator geography

### EECS467: Autonomous Robotics Laboratory Prof. Edwin Olson. Map Projections and GPS

EECS467: Autonomous Robotics Laboratory Prof. Edwin Olson Map Projections and GPS Cartography Several purposes of maps Geographic Information Systems (GIS) - Where is stuff? Measure distances, etc. Navigation

### Coordinate Systems. Orbits and Rotation

Coordinate Systems Orbits and Rotation Earth orbit. The earth s orbit around the sun is nearly circular but not quite. It s actually an ellipse whose average distance from the sun is one AU (150 million

### GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS CERTIFICATION

GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS CERTIFICATION GIS Syllabus - Version 1.2 January 2007 Copyright AICA-CEPIS 2009 1 Version 1 January 2007 GIS Certification Programme 1. Target The GIS certification is aimed

### UTM Zones for the US UTM UTM. Uniform strips Scalable coordinates

UTM UTM Uniform strips Scalable coordinates Globally consistent, most popular projection/coordinate system for regional to global scale geospatial data (i.e. satellite images global scale datasets USGS/EDC)

### Prof. Ludovico Biagi. Satellite Navigation and Monitoring

Prof. Ludovico Biagi Satellite Navigation and Monitoring Navigation: trajectories control positions estimations in real time, at high frequency popular applications: low accuracy (10 m) required specific

### Surveying & Positioning Guidance note 5

Surveying & Positioning Guidance note 5 Coordinate reference system definition recommended practice Revision history Version Date Amendments 2.1 January 2009 In example c corrected value for inverse flattening

### Vertical Datums: An Introduction and Software Review

Vertical Datums: An Introduction and Software Review Areas to Cover Theoretical Introduction Representation in EPSG Representation in OGC WKT Incorporation in PROJ.4 Incorporation in GDAL Future Work Introduction

### Measuring the Earth Using a GPS M. Scott Wilkerson & M. Beth Wilkerson, DePauw University, May 10, 2007

Measuring the Earth Using a GPS M. Scott Wilkerson & M. Beth Wilkerson, DePauw University, May 10, 2007 Modified from: Kerski, J.J., 2007, Measuring the Earth s Circumference with GPS, Copyright ESRI,

### PLOTTING SURVEYING DATA IN GOOGLE EARTH

PLOTTING SURVEYING DATA IN GOOGLE EARTH D M STILLMAN Abstract Detail surveys measured with a total station use local coordinate systems. To make the data obtained from such surveys compatible with Google

### Section 3 Mapping Earth s Surface

Section 3 Mapping Earth s Surface Key Concept Maps are tools that are used to display data about a given area of a physical body. What You Will Learn Maps can be used to find locations on Earth and to

### 量 說 Explanatory Notes on Geodetic Datums in Hong Kong

量 說 Explanatory Notes on Geodetic Datums in Hong Kong Survey & Mapping Office Lands Department 1995 All Right Reserved by Hong Kong Government 留 CONTENTS INTRODUCTION............... A1 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND............

### Project 1: Plotting Coordinates and Projections

1 of 6 8/3/2007 1:54 PM Project 1: Plotting Coordinates and Projections Dan Uhrhan dfu101@psu.edu 2 of 6 8/3/2007 1:54 PM 3 of 6 8/3/2007 1:54 PM 4 of 6 8/3/2007 1:54 PM 5 of 6 8/3/2007 1:54 PM [Replace

### A crash course to Coordinate Systems, Map Projections and Data Formats

A crash course to Coordinate Systems, Map Projections and Data Formats Ilkka Rinne Founder & CTO, Spatineo Oy GeoMashup CodeCamp 2011 University of Helsinki Department of Computer Science About Us Startup

### Coordinates, Coordinate Systems and LIDAR Data (Part 3)

DarrickWagg Karrie Sue Simmers In the previous articles we provided an introduction to coordinate systems, geoids, datums and projections. This background information was needed in order to delve into

### 2 GIS concepts. 2.1 General GIS principles

2 GIS concepts To use GIS effectively, it is important to understand the basic GIS terminology and functionality. While each GIS software has slightly different naming conventions, there are certain principles

### the earth and earth coordinates

chapter one the earth and earth coordinates The Earth as a sphere The graticule Parallels and meridians Latitude and longitude Prime meridians The Earth as an oblate ellipsoid Different ellipsoids Geodetic

### GEOGRAPHIC INFORMNATION SYSTEMS Lecture 10: State Plane Coordinate System

State Plane Coordinate System GEOGRAPHIC INFORMNATION SYSTEMS Lecture 10: State Plane Coordinate System Why do we need the State Plane Coordinate System? - the SPCS was designed as a state by state rectangular

### The Chief Directorate: National

Surveying The South African Coordinate Reference System (Part 1) by Aslam Parker, Chief Directorate: National Geo-spatial Information This article will define the various elements of the South African

### circular motion & gravitation physics 111N

circular motion & gravitation physics 111N uniform circular motion an object moving around a circle at a constant rate must have an acceleration always perpendicular to the velocity (else the speed would

### Understanding the motion of the Universe. Motion, Force, and Gravity

Understanding the motion of the Universe Motion, Force, and Gravity Laws of Motion Stationary objects do not begin moving on their own. In the same way, moving objects don t change their movement spontaneously.

### Geodynamics Lecture 2 Kinematics of plate tectonics

Geodynamics Lecture 2 Kinematics of plate tectonics Lecturer: David Whipp david.whipp@helsinki.fi! 4.9.2013 Geodynamics www.helsinki.fi/yliopisto 1 Goals of this lecture Present the three types of plate

### Keywords: coordinate systems, latitude, longitude, georeferencing, global positioning system, GPS, geodetic datum, ellipsoid, geocoding, postal code

Core Curriculum-Geographic Information Science (1997-2000) UCSB Peer Reviewed Title: Units 012-017 - Position on the Earth Book Title: Core Curriculum in Geographic Information Science Author: 012-017,

### INTERNATIONAL INDIAN SCHOOL, RIYADH SA I 2016-17

INTERNATIONAL INDIAN SCHOOL, RIYADH SA I 2016-17 STD V WORKSHEET Page 1 of 7 SOCIAL STUDIES LESSON - 1. KNOW YOUR PLANET Fill in the blanks: 1. A book containing maps is called an. 2. A Flemish map maker,

### WGS AGD GDA: Selecting the correct datum, coordinate system and projection for north Australian applications

internal report WGS AGD GDA: Selecting the correct datum, coordinate system and projection for north Australian applications JBC Lowry Hydrological and Ecological Processes Program Environmental Research

### Definitions and conventions:

Fundamentals of Spatial Data Accuracy and The Global Spatial Data Model (GSDM) Earl F. Burkholder, PS, PE Global COGO, Inc. - Las Cruces, NM 883 April 4 Three-dimensional (3-D) spatial data accuracy is

### Map Projections And State Plane Coordinate Systems. Thomas Maxell Beer, PLS

Map Projections And State Plane Coordinate Systems By Thomas Maxell Beer, PLS Introduction The origin for the modern State Plane Coordinate System in the United States began with two highway engineers

### Case Study Australia. Dr John Dawson A/g Branch Head Geodesy and Seismic Monitoring Geoscience Australia. Chair UN-GGIM-AP WG1 Chair APREF.

Case Study Australia Dr John Dawson A/g Branch Head Geodesy and Seismic Monitoring Geoscience Australia Chair UN-GGIM-AP WG1 Chair APREF Page 1 Overview 1. Australian height system Australian Height Datum

### Math 215 Project (25 pts) : Using Linear Algebra to solve GPS problem

Due Thursday March 1, 2012 NAME(S): Math 215 Project (25 pts) : Using Linear Algebra to solve GPS problem 0.1 Introduction The age old question, Where in the world am I? can easily be solved nowadays by

### Modernization of the National Spatial Reference System

Modernization of the National Spatial Reference System New Jersey Society of Professional Land Surveyors Atlantic City February 3, 2011 Dave Doyle NGS Chief Geodetic Surveyor dave.doyle@noaa.gov 301-713-3178

### An Introduction to GIS using ArcGIS Spring Lab Workshop 5 March S.P.Harish PhD Candidate Department of Politics New York University

An Introduction to GIS using ArcGIS Spring Lab Workshop 5 March 2013 S.P.Harish PhD Candidate Department of Politics New York University Agenda What is GIS? Basic GIS Concepts Introduction to ArcGIS Coordinates

### Obtaining Accurate Vertical and Horizontal Coordinates using Kiwi OSD

Obtaining Accurate Vertical and Horizontal Coordinates using Kiwi OSD Walter V. Morgan Presented at the IOTA 2007 Annual Meeting July 21, 2007 Pasco, Washington, U.S.A. Summary STATUS GPS-based timing

### METHODS OF GEOREFERENCING OLD MAPS ON THE EXAMPLE OF CZECH EARLY MAPS

CO-314 METHODS OF GEOREFERENCING OLD MAPS ON THE EXAMPLE OF CZECH EARLY MAPS CAJTHAML J. Czech Technical University in Prague, PRAGUE 6, CZECH REPUBLIC BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES Old maps are unique source

### Geographic Coordinates. Measurement: Just use GPS. Geographic Coordinates 1/17/2013

Geographic Coordinates Analytical and Computer Cartography Lecture 3: Review: Coordinate Systems Geographic Coordinates Geographic coordinates are the earth's latitude and longitude system, ranging from

### ESTIMATION USABILITY OF THE FREE SOFTWARE FOR TRANSFORMATION OF GEODETIC COORDINATES BETWEEB LOCAL AND GLOBAL DATUMS-EXAMPLE OF THE ADRIATIC SEA

ESTIMATION USABILITY OF THE FREE SOFTWARE FOR TRANSFORMATION OF GEODETIC COORDINATES BETWEEB LOCAL AND GLOBAL DATUMS-EXAMPLE OF THE ADRIATIC SEA Duplančić Leder, Tea; Faculty of Civil Engineering and Architecture,

### PEOPLE & SITES PEOPLE BIOGRAPHIES

16 PEOPLE & SITES The People & Sites sections contain fields to help you provide contextual information for your collections. Artifacts, archival materials, photographs, and publications reveal something

### An ArcGIS Tutorial Concerning Transformations of Geographic Coordinate Systems, with a Concentration on the Systems Used in Lao PDR.

An ArcGIS Tutorial Concerning Transformations of Geographic Coordinate Systems, with a Concentration on the Systems Used in Lao PDR. Introduction...3 PART 1, A Theoretical Background about Coordinate Systems...3

### Field Preparations with Topcon Tools

Oscar R. Cantu Topcon University FTP Site For access to previously offered webinars and supporting documentation, please go to: ftp://tulive+topconuniversity.com:tulive@ftp.topconuniversity.com Topcon

### Copyright 2011 Casa Software Ltd. www.casaxps.com. Centre of Mass

Centre of Mass A central theme in mathematical modelling is that of reducing complex problems to simpler, and hopefully, equivalent problems for which mathematical analysis is possible. The concept of

### Surveying on NAD83 State Plane Coordinate System

Surveying on NAD83 State Plane Coordinate System By Dr. Joshua Greenfeld Surveying Program Coordinator NJ Institute of Technology Objective Modern surveying operations which involves working with GIS/LIS

### Trimble CenterPoint RTX Post-Processing Services FAQs

Trimble CenterPoint RTX Post-Processing Services FAQs What is Trimble RTX technology? 30 September 2013 Trimble RTX TM (Real Time extended) is a high-accuracy, global GNSS correction technology that combines

### Using GNSS to establish a Height Datum on a Project

Abstract Richard Stanaway Quickclose PO Box 1364 Carlton VIC 3053 Australia email: richard.stanaway@quickclose.com.au This paper explains in detail practical steps for establishing or extending a height

### Korea Geodetic Framework for Sustainable Development*

UNITED NATIONS E/CONF.102/IP.17 ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL COUNCIL Nineteenth United Nations Regional Cartographic Conference for Asia and the Pacific Bangkok, 29 October 1 November 2012 Item 6(b) of the provisional

### Guideline for the Adjustment and Evaluation of Survey Control Special Publication 1

Guideline for the Adjustment and Evaluation of Survey Control Special Publication 1 Intergovernmental Committee on Surveying and Mapping (ICSM) Permanent Committee on Geodesy (PCG) 24 September 2014 Document

### EPS 101/271 Lecture 11: GPS Data Collection, Mapping Using GPS and Uncertainties in GPS Positioning

EPS 101/271 Lecture 11: GPS Data Collection, Mapping Using GPS and Uncertainties in GPS Positioning How GPS data is collected in GeoMapper Setting Time interval for reporting GPS measurements Modes of

### The purposes of this experiment are to test Faraday's Law qualitatively and to test Lenz's Law.

260 17-1 I. THEORY EXPERIMENT 17 QUALITATIVE STUDY OF INDUCED EMF Along the extended central axis of a bar magnet, the magnetic field vector B r, on the side nearer the North pole, points away from this

### Online Precise Point Positioning Using the. Natural Resources Canada Canadian Spatial Reference System (CSRS-PPP)

Online Precise Point Positioning Using the Natural Resources Canada Canadian Spatial Reference System (CSRS-PPP) Thomas Nylen and Seth White UNAVCO October 2007 I. Precise Point Positioning Precise Point

### 2. Orbits. FER-Zagreb, Satellite communication systems 2011/12

2. Orbits Topics Orbit types Kepler and Newton laws Coverage area Influence of Earth 1 Orbit types According to inclination angle Equatorial Polar Inclinational orbit According to shape Circular orbit

### Understanding the motion of the Universe. Motion, Force, and Gravity

Understanding the motion of the Universe Motion, Force, and Gravity Laws of Motion Stationary objects do not begin moving on their own. In the same way, moving objects don t change their movement spontaneously.

### ELEMENTS OF SURVEYING FOR CADASTRAL MAPPING

ELEMENTS OF SURVEYING FOR CADASTRAL MAPPING Chapter 4 2015 Cadastral Mapping Manual 4-0 Elements of Surveying and Mapping Utah's system of land surveying is the rectangular survey system as set forth on

### MODERNIZATION OF THE NATIONAL SPATIAL REFERENCE SYSTEMS

MODERNIZATION OF THE NATIONAL SPATIAL REFERENCE SYSTEMS Surveyors Association of West Jersey Mount Laurel September 9, 2010 ftp://ftp.ngs.noaa.gov/dist/daved/nj Dave Doyle NGS Chief Geodetic Surveyor dave.doyle@noaa.gov

### The Size & Shape of the Galaxy

name The Size & Shape of the Galaxy The whole lab consists of plotting two graphs. What s the catch? Aha visualizing and understanding what you have plotted of course! Form the Earth Science Picture of

### GPS ALIGNMENT SURVEYS AND MERIDIAN CONVERGENCE

GPS ALIGNMENT SURVEYS AND MERIDIAN CONVERGENCE By Tomás Soler, 1 Member, ASCE, and Rudolf J. Fury 2 ABSTRACT: Since the advent of the Global Positioning System (GPS), geodetic azimuths can be accurately

### GNSS and Heighting, Practical Considerations. A Parker National Geo-spatial Information Department of Rural Development and Land Reform

GNSS and Heighting, Practical Considerations A Parker National Geo-spatial Information Department of Rural Development and Land Reform GNSS Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) Global Positioning

### COVER VERSION 10.4.12

COVER VERSION 10.4.12 P a g e 1 Copyright notice This ebook is provided, and may be used, free of charge. Selling this ebook in its entirety, or extracts from it, is prohibited. Obtain permission from