ATTACHMENT 3-A. A Technical Evaluation of Two Weight- and Engineering-Based Fuel Efficiency Parameters for Cars and Light Trucks

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "ATTACHMENT 3-A. A Technical Evaluation of Two Weight- and Engineering-Based Fuel Efficiency Parameters for Cars and Light Trucks"

Transcription

1 ATTACHMENT 3-A A Technical Evaluation of Two Weight- and Engineering-Based Fuel Efficiency Parameters for Cars and Light Trucks Measuring fuel economy of vehicles in miles per gallon (mpg) alone does not provide sufficient information to evaluate a vehicle s efficiency in performing its intended function. A better way to measure the energy-efficiency of vehicles is needed, one that has a sound engineering basis. This attachment presents two weight-based parameters as examples of approaches that take the intended use of a vehicle into consideration. One is based on a vehicle s curb weight and the other includes its payload (passenger plus cargo). Because of the short time frame of the committee s study, an analysis sufficiently detailed to draw conclusions as to the value of these or other parameters was not possible. Miles Per Gallon Versus Gallons Per Mile and How to Measure The physics of vehicle design can form the basis for parameters that more accurately represent system energy efficiencies and could be used by EPA in fuel economy testing. Miles-per-gallon (mpg) is not by itself a sufficient parameter to measure efficiency since it is inherently higher for smaller vehicles and lower for larger vehicles (which can carry more passengers and a greater cargo load.) Although CAFE currently characterizes vehicles by miles driven per gallon (gal) of fuel consumed, the inverse, gallons per mile, would be more advantageous for several reasons. As shown in Figure 3A-1, gallons per mile measures fuel consumption and thus relates directly to the goal of decreasing the gallons consumed. Note that the curve is relatively flat beyond 3 or 35 mpg because fuel savings become increasingly smaller as mpg increases. Also, the use of fuel consumption (gal per mile) has analytical advantages as addressed in this appendix. To aid and clarify the analysis and make the numbers easier to comprehend, the term to be used is gal per 1 miles (gal/1 miles). A vehicle getting 25 mpg uses 4 gal/1 miles. For reproducibility reasons, fuel consumption measurements are made on a chassis dynamometer. The driving wheels are placed on the dynamometer rollers; other wheels do not rotate. Thus rolling resistance, as with aerodynamic drag, must be accounted for mathematically. Vehicle coast down times are experimentally determined (a measure of aerodynamic drag); an auxiliary power unit (APU) ensures that dynamometer coast down times are in reasonable agreement with road-tested coast down times. Test reproducibility is in the few percent range. The driver follows two different 3A-1

2 Fuel consumed (gallons per 1 miles) Fuel economy (miles per gallon) Series1 FIGURE 3A-1 Dependence of Fuel Consumption on Fuel Economy SOURCE: NRC, 2. specified cycles, city and highway, which were deduced from traffic measurements made some 3-4 years ago. A change in the test cycle is not a minor item much engineering know-how is based on the present cycle, which is also used for exhaust emissions measurements. Weight-Specific Fuel Consumption Figure 5A-4 plots gal/1 miles versus vehicle weight for model year (MY) 1999 vehicles. The vertical scatter along a line of constant weight reflects the fact that vehicles of the same weight may differ in the efficiency of their drive trains or rolling resistance or aerodynamic drag (and thus in the number of gallons used to travel a given distance). While gal/1 miles is a straightforward parameter for measuring fuel consumption, it does not reflect the load-carrying capacity of the vehicle. Smaller cars, with lower fuel consumption, are designed to carry smaller loads, and larger cars and trucks larger ones. For engineering analysis purposes, it is convenient to normalize the data in Figure 5A-4 in Appendix 5A, i.e., divide the y value (vertical scale) of each data point by its curb weight in tons. The resulting new vertical scale is the weight specific fuel consumption (WSFC). The units shown in Figure 3A-2 are gal/ton of vehicle weight/1 miles. The straight horizontal line is a reasonable representation of the average efficiency of fuel use data for a wide variety of vehicle types and weights. It shows that the 3A-2

3 4 WSFC VS. WEIGHT FOR ALL VEHICLES WSFC, Gallons/Ton of Vehicle Weight - 1 Miles 3 2 Cars Trucks 1 Near Luxury Small SUV Luxury Luxury Average Weight, lb FIGURE 3A-2 Weight-Specific Fuel Consumption vs. Weight For All Vehicles efficiency (WSFC) is approximately the same for this variety of different vehicle types (MY2 33 trucks and 44 cars) and weights. Note that some vertical scatter is to be expected; all vehicles having approximately the same weight do not necessarily have the same drive train efficiency. Figure 3A-3 shows on-the-road data taken by Consumer Report (April 21). Their measurements were based on a realistic mixture of express-way, country-road and city driving. Again the efficiency of fuel use for their on-the-road tests is reasonably represented by a horizontal straight line. This figure illustrates the analytical utility of this approach. The lowest car point at a little less than 3, lbs is a diesel engine; its WSFC is around 1.8 compared to around 2.7 for the average. The two hybrid points also show lower WSFC than the average but higher than the diesel. Figure 3A-4 illustrates possible realistic reductions in WSFC. EPA has fuelconsumed data for more than one thousand 2 and 21 model year vehicles. A horizontal line was drawn on a WSFC (highway) graph for these vehicles such that 125 vehicles were below this arbitrary line. The results for the 125 vehicles are shown in Figure 3A-4. The average WSFC value for all vehicles was 1.7; the average for the 125 vehicles was around 1.4. Since these were production vehicles it would appear that application of in-production technologies to the entire fleet could produce significant reductions in WSFC. 3A-3

4 CONSUMER REPORT FUEL EFFICIENCY DATA WSFC, gallons per ton per 1 miles AUTO LTR&SUV HYBRID vehicle weight (pounds) FIGURE 3A-3 Fleet Fuel Economy Based on information from Consumer Report (April, 21) 125 Vehicles With Lowest WFSC - HWY WSFC, gallons per ton per 1 miles AUTOS LT TRUCKS HYBRIDS vehicle weight (pounds) FIGURE 3A-4 Best in Class Fuel Efficiency Analysis of 2 and 21 Vehicles. 3A-4

5 Load-Specific Fuel Consumption For a heavy-duty truck designed to carry a large payload, the most meaningful parameter would be normalized by the gallons per mile by the tons of payload, to arrive at a load-specific fuel consumption (LSFC), i.e. gallons per ton of payload per 1 miles. This number would be lowest for vehicles with the most efficient power train system and the least road load requirements (lightest weight, low accessory loads, low rolling resistance, and low drag) while moving the largest payload. Similarly, a reasonable parameter for a fuel-efficient bus would be gallons per passenger-mile. The parameter LSFC is more difficult to define for light-duty vehicles than for heavy-duty trucks or buses, because the payloads are widely different (and harder to define) for these vehicles. This report calculates a total weight capacity by multiplying passenger capacity (determined by the number of seat belts) by an average weight per person (15 lb) and adding cargo weight capacity which is the cargo volume multiplied by an average density (say 15 lb/ft 3 ) 1. For pickup trucks, the difference between GVW and curb weight was used to determine payload. The weight of the passengers and cargo could be added to the vehicle s weight, and the sum used in the EPA fuel economy test to determine engine loading for the test cycle. Alternatively, the present fuel economy data could be used with the above average passenger plus cargo weight. The fuel consumption on the city and highway cycle would be measured and be expressed as gallons/tons (passenger plus cargo weight)/1 mile. Figure 3A-5 plots fuel economy against payload in tons for heavy-duty and lightduty vehicles. Lines of constant mpg-tons are also shown, with larger numbers representing more efficient transport of payloads. LSFC, the inverse of mpg-tons, is also shown on the lines, with lower numbers representing lower normalized vehicle fuel consumption. The point representing the PNGV goal is also shown. Fuel economy measures based on this parameter would drive engineers to maximize the efficiency with which vehicles carry passengers and cargo while minimizing structural weight. This new fuel consumption parameter has the potential to be a better parameter to compare different types and sizes of vehicles Figures 3A-6 and 3A-7, respectively, graph the same light-duty vehicles fuel consumption (in gal/1 miles) and LSFC (in gal/ton of passengers plus cargo, using the payloads in Figure 3A-8. Figure 3A-6 shows the wide differences in fuel consumption between cars (2.5-4 gal/1 mi) and trucks ( gal/1 mi); the CAFE standards for both types of vehicles are included for reference. LSFC appears to normalize fuel consumption, bridging all types of vehicles. Both types of vehicles regardless of size and weight are represented above and below the average line. This finding suggests that LSFC is a good engineering parameter for both cars and trucks. 1 This is an estimated density for cargo space. GM uses about 11 lbs/ft 3 across a range of vehicles. Further study needs to be done to determine a representative design density to use. 3A-5

6 Figure 4 : FC VS. WEIGHT FOR ALL VEHICLES 1 9 Cars Trucks 8 FC, gallons/ 1 miles y =.1x R 2 = Near Luxury Small SUV Luxury 1 Luxury CAFE Standard for Cars CAFE Standard for Trucks Weight, lb FIGURE 3A-5 Fuel Economy vs. Payload for a variety of light- and heavy-duty vehicles. Figure 38: LSFC VS. WEIGHT FOR ALL VEHICLES 1 LSFC, gallons/ 1 miles - Tons of Passengers plus Cargo Cars Trucks 3 2 Near Luxury Small SUV Luxury 1 Luxury Average Weight, lb FIGURE 3A-6 Fuel Consumption vs. Weight for a Variety of Vehicles 3A-6

7 Figure 49: FUEL ECONOMY VS. PAYLOAD LSFC, gallons/payloadton-1 miles 9 8 PNGV 7 Fuel Economy, mpg Light-Duty Vehicles 3 2 Heavy-Duty Vehicles 1 mpg x 4Ton 24 mpg x.5ton 1mpg x 4Ton 1 1 mpg x 1 Ton Payload, tons 5 mpg x 4 Ton FIGURE 3A-7 LSFC vs. Weight for a Variety of Vehicles. 3A-7

8 24 Figure 41: PAYLOAD VS. VEHICLES y = 51.59x R 2 = Small SUV Near Luxury Luxury Luxury Payload, lb In order of increasing average weight FIGURE 3A-8 Payload vs. Vehicles. Comparing the Two Weight-Based Parameters The weight specific fuel consumption (WSFC) essentially normalizes the fuel consumed per 1 miles to take out the strong dependence on vehicle weight. Different weight vehicles can be compared more equitably. Lower WSFC parameters indicate lower road load requirements and/or higher power train efficiencies with lower accessory loads. Figure 3A-9 shows fuel economy versus vehicle curb weight for the 87 light-duty vehicles. Constant efficiency lines (in mpg multiplied [x] by tons of vehicle weight) are 3A-8

9 Figure 48: FUEL ECONOMY VS. WSFC WSFC, gallons/ton of Vehicle Weight -1 miles mpg x 2Ton 24 mpg x 2Ton 22 mpg x 2Ton 38 mpg x 1Ton 32 mpg x 1Ton 26 mpg x 1Ton Weight, lb Ave Ave Ave Small SUV Ave Ave Ave Near Luxury Ave Luxury Ave Ave Ave Ave Ave Ave Luxury Ave Fuel Economy, mpg Cars Near Luxury Luxury Trucks Small SUV Luxury FIGURE 3A-9 Fuel Economy vs. WSFC. also shown along with WFSC. Figure 3A-1 shows fuel economy versus vehicle payload for the 87 vehicles. The constant efficiency lines in mpg x tons of payload are also shown along with LSFC. The utility of this plot is that it shows the interrelationship of fuel economy, payload, and LSFC in gallons/payload ton-1 miles.lsfc and WSFC show similar utility in determining whether certain types of vehicles are either above or below the average lines in Figures A3-2 and A3-7. Using LSFC, however, would encourage manufacturers to consider all aspects of vehicle design, including materials, accessory power consumption, body design, and engine and transmission efficiency. The use of the LSFC number will show high-performance, heavy, two seat sports cars without much cargo space, and large luxury cars to be on the high side compared with vehicles designed to be fuel- and payload-efficient. WSFC does not account for the load carrying capacity of certain vehicles such as pick-ups, vans, and SUVs. The vans and large SUVs in Figure 3A-7 are shown below the average fit line and below the average WSFC line in Figure 3A-2 indicting they have highly efficient power train technologies and low road load/accessory load requirements. Pickups are above the average WSFC line in Figure 3A-2, showing that it is difficult to design a truck with load carrying capabilities that has low aerodynamic drag and is fuel 3A-9

10 Figure 47: FUEL ECONOMY VS. PAYLOAD LSFC, gallons/payload Ton -1 miles mpg x.5ton 4 mpg x.5ton 32 mpg x.5ton 24 mpg x.5ton 16 mpg x.5ton Payload, lb Ave Ave Ave Near Luxury Ave Luxury Ave Ave Ave Ave Small SUV Ave Ave Ave Luxury Ave Ave Ave Fuel Economy, mpg Cars Near Luxury Luxury Trucks Small SUV Luxury FIGURE 3A-1 Fuel Economy vs. Payload. efficient. When fuel consumption of these vehicles (vans, pickups and SUVs) are normalized to payload, they are below the average LSFC line in Figure 3A-7, indicating they are well designed for their intended use. Conclusion Both the WSFC and LSFC parameters have potential utility as fuel-efficieny parameters for vehicles but their applicability requires additional study. 3A-1

11 REFERENCES NRC, 2. Automotive Fuel Economy: How Far Should We Go? Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. p. 156 Riley Alternative Cars in the 21 st Century. Society of Automotive Engineers. 3A-11

DISCUSSION PAPER. Do Market Shares or Technology Explain Rising New Vehicle Fuel Economy? S h e f a l i Kh a n n a a n d J o s h u a L i n n

DISCUSSION PAPER. Do Market Shares or Technology Explain Rising New Vehicle Fuel Economy? S h e f a l i Kh a n n a a n d J o s h u a L i n n DISCUSSION PAPER September 2013 RFF DP 13-29 Do Market Shares or Technology Explain Rising New Vehicle Fuel Economy? S h e f a l i Kh a n n a a n d J o s h u a L i n n 1616 P St. NW Washington, DC 20036

More information

U.S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR FLEET ALTERNATIVE FUEL VEHICLE ACQUISITION REPORT FOR FISCAL YEAR 2009

U.S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR FLEET ALTERNATIVE FUEL VEHICLE ACQUISITION REPORT FOR FISCAL YEAR 2009 U.S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR FLEET ALTERNATIVE FUEL VEHICLE ACQUISITION REPORT FOR FISCAL YEAR 2009 February 2010 Office of the Assistant Secretary for Administration and Management 200 Constitution Avenue,

More information

Questions and Answers

Questions and Answers Fuel Economy Testing and Labeling 1. Why should I trust EPA s fuel economy values? The MPG estimates on the EPA/DOT Fuel Economy and Environment Label (or window sticker) are based on standardized laboratory

More information

Emission Facts. The amount of pollution that a vehicle emits and the rate at which

Emission Facts. The amount of pollution that a vehicle emits and the rate at which Average Annual Emissions and Fuel for Gasoline-Fueled Passenger Cars and Light Trucks The amount of pollution that a vehicle emits and the rate at which it consumes fuel are dependent on many factors.

More information

Light-Duty Automotive Technology, Carbon Dioxide Emissions, and Fuel Economy Trends: 1975 Through 2015. Executive Summary

Light-Duty Automotive Technology, Carbon Dioxide Emissions, and Fuel Economy Trends: 1975 Through 2015. Executive Summary Light-Duty Automotive Technology, Carbon Dioxide Emissions, and Fuel Economy Trends: 1975 Through 2015 Executive Summary EPA-420-S-15-001 December 2015 Executive Summary IntroductIon This report is the

More information

ECO-DRIVING: STRATEGIC, TACTICAL, AND OPERATIONAL DECISIONS OF THE DRIVER THAT IMPROVE VEHICLE FUEL ECONOMY

ECO-DRIVING: STRATEGIC, TACTICAL, AND OPERATIONAL DECISIONS OF THE DRIVER THAT IMPROVE VEHICLE FUEL ECONOMY UMTRI-2011-34 AUGUST 2011 ECO-DRIVING: STRATEGIC, TACTICAL, AND OPERATIONAL DECISIONS OF THE DRIVER THAT IMPROVE VEHICLE FUEL ECONOMY MICHAEL SIVAK BRANDON SCHOETTLE ECO-DRIVING: STRATEGIC, TACTICAL, AND

More information

Chapter 7 Fleet Vehicles and Characteristics

Chapter 7 Fleet Vehicles and Characteristics 7 1 Chapter 7 Fleet Vehicles and Characteristics Summary Statistics from Tables in this Chapter Source Figure 7.1 Fleet cars, 2014 4,443,236 Figure 7.1 Fleet trucks 19,500 lbs. GVW, 2014 4,322,797 Table

More information

Overview of the Heavy-Duty National Program. Need to Reduce Fuel Consumption and Greenhouse Gases from Vehicles

Overview of the Heavy-Duty National Program. Need to Reduce Fuel Consumption and Greenhouse Gases from Vehicles Submitted by United States of America Informal document WP.29-155-11 (155 th WP.29, 15-18 November 2011, agenda item 14) United States of America Environmental Protection Agency and National Highway Traffic

More information

The Revised ISO 362 Standard for Vehicle Exterior Noise Measurement

The Revised ISO 362 Standard for Vehicle Exterior Noise Measurement The Revised Standard for Vehicle Exterior Noise Measurement Douglas B. Moore, General Motors Corporation, Milford, Michigan The International Organization for Standardization () has developed a new measurement

More information

Light-Duty Vehicle Purchase Approval Form

Light-Duty Vehicle Purchase Approval Form Light-Duty Vehicle Purchase Approval Form Attachment II Requestor Name: Date: (As of date of application for vehicle to be replaced) Replacement (R) / New (N): (Enter R or N) Mileage (km): Department:

More information

Passenger Vehicle Occupant Fatality Rates by Type and Size of Vehicle

Passenger Vehicle Occupant Fatality Rates by Type and Size of Vehicle DOT HS 809 979 January 2006 Passenger Vehicle Occupant Fatality Rates by Type and Size of Vehicle By Rajesh Subramanian * Summary The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) has routinely

More information

Emission Facts. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from a Typical Passenger Vehicle

Emission Facts. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from a Typical Passenger Vehicle Office of Transportation and Air Quality EPA420-F-05-004 February 2005 Emission Facts Greenhouse Gas Emissions from a Typical Passenger Vehicle The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) developed

More information

EPA/NHTSA Phase 2 Fuel Efficiency and Greenhouse Gas Standards for Heavy-Duty Trucks: Projected Effect on Freight Costs

EPA/NHTSA Phase 2 Fuel Efficiency and Greenhouse Gas Standards for Heavy-Duty Trucks: Projected Effect on Freight Costs EPA/NHTSA Phase 2 Fuel Efficiency and Greenhouse Gas Standards for Heavy-Duty Trucks: Projected Effect on Freight Costs May 2014 Submitted to: Environmental Defense Fund 18 Tremont Street Boston, MA 02108

More information

Light-Duty Automotive Technology and Fuel Economy Trends: 1975 Through 2008

Light-Duty Automotive Technology and Fuel Economy Trends: 1975 Through 2008 Light-Duty Automotive Technology and Fuel Economy Trends: 1975 Through 2008 Light-Duty Automotive Technology and Fuel Economy Trends: 1975 Through 2008 Compliance and Innovative Strategies Division and

More information

ACCELERATION OF HEAVY TRUCKS Woodrow M. Poplin, P.E.

ACCELERATION OF HEAVY TRUCKS Woodrow M. Poplin, P.E. ACCELERATION OF HEAVY TRUCKS Woodrow M. Poplin, P.E. Woodrow M. Poplin, P.E. is a consulting engineer specializing in the evaluation of vehicle and transportation accidents. Over the past 23 years he has

More information

Testimony to the U.S. Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources NEAR TERM OPTIONS TO INCREASE FUEL ECONOMY AND DECREASE PETROLEUM DEMAND

Testimony to the U.S. Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources NEAR TERM OPTIONS TO INCREASE FUEL ECONOMY AND DECREASE PETROLEUM DEMAND Testimony to the U.S. Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources NEAR TERM OPTIONS TO INCREASE FUEL ECONOMY AND DECREASE PETROLEUM DEMAND 9:45 am Wednesday, July 23, 2008 Dirksen Senate Office Building,

More information

Test method of Heavy Duty Vehicle's Fuel Consumption in Japan

Test method of Heavy Duty Vehicle's Fuel Consumption in Japan IEA Freight Truck Fuel Economy Workshop Challenge Bidendum, 20-21 May 2011, Berlin Test method of Heavy Duty Vehicle's Fuel Consumption in Japan May 21, 2011 Japan Automobile Research Institute Hiroshi

More information

K. G. Duleep President, H-D Systems Presented at the Michelin Bibendum Berlin, May 2011

K. G. Duleep President, H-D Systems Presented at the Michelin Bibendum Berlin, May 2011 K. G. Duleep President, H-D Systems Presented at the Michelin Bibendum Berlin, May 2011 Light-duty vehicles have received a lot of attention in the last 10 years and GHG reduction cost is understood. Only

More information

Introduction. Why Focus on Heavy Trucks?

Introduction. Why Focus on Heavy Trucks? Introduction Heavy-duty long-haul trucks are critical to the movement of the Nation s freight. These vehicles, which currently consume about 10 percent of the Nation s oil, are characterized by high fuel

More information

Advanced Light-Duty Powertrain and Hybrid Analysis (ALPHA) Tool User s Guide for Off-Cycle Credit Evaluation

Advanced Light-Duty Powertrain and Hybrid Analysis (ALPHA) Tool User s Guide for Off-Cycle Credit Evaluation Advanced Light-Duty Powertrain and Hybrid Analysis (ALPHA) Tool User s Guide for Off-Cycle Credit Evaluation Advanced Light-Duty Powertrain and Hybrid Analysis (ALPHA) Tool User s Guide for Off-Cycle Credit

More information

THE TECHNOLOGY TO REACH 60 MPG BY 2025

THE TECHNOLOGY TO REACH 60 MPG BY 2025 THE TECHNOLOGY TO REACH 60 MPG BY 2025 Putting Fuel-Saving Technology to Work to Save Oil and Cut Pollution Increasing the fuel efficiency of new cars and trucks is a critical step towards cutting America

More information

Research Report. Impact of Vehicle Weight Reduction on Fuel Economy for Various Vehicle Architectures

Research Report. Impact of Vehicle Weight Reduction on Fuel Economy for Various Vehicle Architectures Impact of Vehicle Weight Reduction on Fuel Economy for Various Vehicle Architectures Research Report Conducted by Ricardo Inc. for The Aluminum Association 2008-04 Impact of Vehicle Weight Reduction on

More information

Fleet Characterization Data for MOBILE6:

Fleet Characterization Data for MOBILE6: United States Environmental Protection Agency Air and Radiation EPA420-R-01-047 September 2001 M6.FLT.007 Fleet Characterization Data for MOBILE6: Development and Use of Age Distributions, Average Annual

More information

Proposed Local Law No. 3 Of 2015. County Of Ulster

Proposed Local Law No. 3 Of 2015. County Of Ulster BE IT ENACTED, by the Legislature of the County of Ulster, as follows: SECTION 1. LEGISLATIVE INTENT AND PURPOSE. The Ulster County Legislature finds that government must be innovative, efficient, and

More information

Chapter 3 HEAVY TRUCKS

Chapter 3 HEAVY TRUCKS Chapter 3 HEAVY TRUCKS Contents Page What Types of Trucks Are in Each Truck Class?... 99 Heaviest Trucks Consume an Average of 6.5 Gallons per Thousand Ton-Miles... 100 Medium and Heavy Truck Assembly

More information

Greenhouse Gas Management for Medium-Duty Truck Fleets

Greenhouse Gas Management for Medium-Duty Truck Fleets Greenhouse Gas Management for Medium-Duty Truck Fleets Table of Contents Introduction 3 Select lower-carbon vehicles 4!!"!! # "$ % Spec for efficiency 6 & # ' '!! ' ( ) * +! + ( +,! +! " + + Engage drivers

More information

Canadian Vehicle Use Study: Electronic Data Collection

Canadian Vehicle Use Study: Electronic Data Collection Proceedings of Statistics Canada Symposium 2014 Beyond traditional survey taking: adapting to a changing world Canadian Vehicle Use Study: Electronic Data Collection Émile Allie 1 Abstract The Canadian

More information

VIA Motors. Introducing the World s Most Economical Work Trucks & Vans. VIA Motors Game Changing erev Technology. jeff@viamotors.

VIA Motors. Introducing the World s Most Economical Work Trucks & Vans. VIA Motors Game Changing erev Technology. jeff@viamotors. VIA Motors A New Kind of Electric Vehicle Company Introducing the World s Most Economical Work Trucks & Vans VIA Motors Game Changing erev Technology Jeffrey Esfeld, Director National Fleet Sales & Business

More information

The Relative Safety of Large and Small Passenger Vehicles

The Relative Safety of Large and Small Passenger Vehicles The Relative Safety of Large and Small Passenger Vehicles NHTSA Mass-Size Safety Symposium Washington, DC February 25, 2011 Adrian Lund, Ph.D. Overview What is the history of motor vehicle crash safety

More information

ICCT mission and activities

ICCT mission and activities Global Best Practices in Fuel Efficiency Policies Anup Bandivadekar CSE Workshop on Transport and Climate 24-25 July 2013, New Delhi ICCT mission and activities The mission of ICCT is to dramatically improve

More information

Light-Duty Automotive Technology, Carbon Dioxide Emissions, and Fuel Economy Trends: 1975 Through 2013. Report

Light-Duty Automotive Technology, Carbon Dioxide Emissions, and Fuel Economy Trends: 1975 Through 2013. Report LightDuty Automotive Technology, Carbon Dioxide Emissions, and Fuel Economy Trends: 1975 Through 2013 Report EPA420R13011 December 2013 NOTICE: This technical report does not necessarily represent final

More information

A P P E N D I X E-1 R E V I S E D E M I S S I O N R E D U C T I O N S C A L C U L A T I O N M E T H O D O L O G I E S

A P P E N D I X E-1 R E V I S E D E M I S S I O N R E D U C T I O N S C A L C U L A T I O N M E T H O D O L O G I E S A P P E N D I X E-1 R E V I S E D E M I S S I O N R E D U C T I O N S C A L C U L A T I O N M E T H O D O L O G I E S Appendix E-1 Revised Emission Reductions Calculation Methodologies INTRODUCTION The

More information

Propane as the Alternate Fuel for Fleets

Propane as the Alternate Fuel for Fleets Propane as the Alternate Fuel for Fleets Company Profile Located in Quincy, Illinois since 1848 Fifth Generation, Family Company Nation s largest manufacturer of service, platform and utility van bodies

More information

EPA/NHTSA Phase 2 Fuel Efficiency & GHG Standards for Freight Trucks:

EPA/NHTSA Phase 2 Fuel Efficiency & GHG Standards for Freight Trucks: EPA/NHTSA Phase 2 Fuel Efficiency & GHG Standards for Freight Trucks: Projected Effect on Freight Costs U P D A T E M A Y 2 0 1 5 Dana Lowell 978-405-1275 dlowell@mjbradlley.com PURPOSE Analyze the effect

More information

When are Alternative Fuel Vehicles a Cost-Effective Option for Local Governments? Christopher R Sherman

When are Alternative Fuel Vehicles a Cost-Effective Option for Local Governments? Christopher R Sherman by Christopher R Sherman A paper submitted to the faculty of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Public Administration

More information

White Paper fall 2012. Saving Through

White Paper fall 2012. Saving Through White Paper fall 2012 Saving Through Sustainability Initiatives The Road to Going Green In today s economy, companies are constantly striving to identify opportunities that optimize their return on investment.

More information

Vision Fleet: Fleet Assessment Overview Alternative fuel vehicles for fleets: Low Cost, Low Carbon, Low Hassle

Vision Fleet: Fleet Assessment Overview Alternative fuel vehicles for fleets: Low Cost, Low Carbon, Low Hassle Vision Fleet: Fleet Assessment Overview Alternative fuel vehicles for fleets: Low Cost, Low Carbon, Low Hassle Overview: A Vision Fleet Opportunity Assessment is both quantitative and qualitative and will

More information

VEHICLE SURVIVABILITY AND TRAVEL MILEAGE SCHEDULES

VEHICLE SURVIVABILITY AND TRAVEL MILEAGE SCHEDULES DOT HS 809 952 January 2006 Technical Report VEHICLE SURVIVABILITY AND TRAVEL MILEAGE SCHEDULES Published By: NHTSA s National Center for Statistics and Analysis This document is available to the public

More information

Bridging the gap between test cycle(s) and real life fuel economy

Bridging the gap between test cycle(s) and real life fuel economy Bridging the gap between test cycle(s) and real life fuel economy Development of a realistic fuel consumption and pollutant labelling system of light-duty vehicles Current situation, important issues,

More information

R.A.Giannelli and E.Nam U.S. EPA NVFEL Ann Arbor, MI MEDIUM AND HEAVY DUTY DIESEL VEHICLE MODELING USING A FUEL CONSUMPTION METHODOLOGY

R.A.Giannelli and E.Nam U.S. EPA NVFEL Ann Arbor, MI MEDIUM AND HEAVY DUTY DIESEL VEHICLE MODELING USING A FUEL CONSUMPTION METHODOLOGY RAGiannelli and ENam US EPA NVFEL Ann Arbor, MI MEDIUM AND HEAVY DUTY DIESEL VEHICLE MODELING USING A FUEL CONSUMPTION METHODOLOGY Abstract Recent efforts of the EPA MOVES emission modeling team include

More information

Drive It Green. Time Frame: 3 class periods

Drive It Green. Time Frame: 3 class periods Drive It Green Lesson Overview: Millions of people around the globe are moving every day, creating a myriad of energy challenges and opportunities for new innovation. In this three-part lesson, students

More information

Overview of UPS Strategy for Deployment of Alternative Fuel and Advanced Technology Vehicles

Overview of UPS Strategy for Deployment of Alternative Fuel and Advanced Technology Vehicles Overview of UPS Strategy for Deployment of Alternative Fuel and Advanced Technology Vehicles Panel Presentation (Natural Gas Fuels G205) Jim Bruce, V.P. UPS Corporate Public Affairs Washington, D.C. Presentation

More information

Strategic Use of Electric Vehicle Charging to Reduce Renewable Energy Curtailment on Oahu

Strategic Use of Electric Vehicle Charging to Reduce Renewable Energy Curtailment on Oahu Strategic Use of Electric Vehicle Charging to Reduce Renewable Energy Curtailment on Oahu An analysis of the use of electric vehicle charging to mitigate renewable energy curtailment based on detailed

More information

Fuel Consumption Challenges and Solutions for North American Fleet Vehicle Operations

Fuel Consumption Challenges and Solutions for North American Fleet Vehicle Operations automotive fleet & leasing association white paper series volume 11 Fuel Consumption Challenges and Solutions for North American Fleet Vehicle Operations Fuel Consumption Challenges and Solutions for North

More information

Commercial vehicles and CO 2

Commercial vehicles and CO 2 Commercial vehicles and European Automobile Manufacturers Association ACEA position Fuel Efficiency is Market Driven Fuel efficiency is one of the most important competitive factors in developing and selling

More information

RUF climate solutions

RUF climate solutions RUF climate solutions Palle R Jensen, RUF International, prj@ruf.dk, www.ruf.dk Resumé Recent studies (Stern 2006) have shown that in order to avoid catastrophic climate effects, the equivalent CO2 emission

More information

GAO VEHICLE FUEL ECONOMY

GAO VEHICLE FUEL ECONOMY GAO United States Government Accountability Office Report to the Chairman, Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation, U.S. Senate August 2007 VEHICLE FUEL ECONOMY Reforming Fuel Economy Standards

More information

Fuel Efficiency for the Long Haul An overview of proposed standards for medium- and heavy-duty vehicles

Fuel Efficiency for the Long Haul An overview of proposed standards for medium- and heavy-duty vehicles Fuel Efficiency for the Long Haul An overview of proposed standards for medium- and heavy-duty vehicles Clean Energy Initiative Our goal is to accelerate the clean energy economy for its national security,

More information

Canadian Automotive Fuel Economy Policy Regulatory Policies Economic Instruments Labeling References

Canadian Automotive Fuel Economy Policy Regulatory Policies Economic Instruments Labeling References Canadian Automotive Fuel Economy Policy Regulatory Policies Economic Instruments Labeling References 1.1Background Vehicles in Canada are required to comply with emission standards for a defined full useful

More information

Hydraulic Hybrids from Rexroth: Hydrostatic Regenerative Braking System HRB

Hydraulic Hybrids from Rexroth: Hydrostatic Regenerative Braking System HRB Electric Drives and Controls Hydraulics Linear Motion and Assembly Technologies Pneumatics Service Hydraulic Hybrids from Rexroth: Hydrostatic Regenerative Braking System HRB Recover Energy Reduce Emissions

More information

September 9, 2015. Mr. John Eichberger Executive Director Fuels Institute 1600 Duke Street, Suite 700 Alexandria, Virginia 22314

September 9, 2015. Mr. John Eichberger Executive Director Fuels Institute 1600 Duke Street, Suite 700 Alexandria, Virginia 22314 September 9, 2015 Mr. John Eichberger Executive Director Fuels Institute 1600 Duke Street, Suite 700 Alexandria, Virginia 22314 RE: CMU Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Study for Light Duty Vehicles Dear John:

More information

The Role of Electric Drive Transit Technologies in Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions

The Role of Electric Drive Transit Technologies in Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions The Role of Electric Drive Transit Technologies in Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions A. Kolpakov 1 and S. L. Reich 2 Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Urban Public Transportation Systems

More information

West Virginia University. Center for Alternative Fuels, Engines and Emissions. Modeling Heavy duty Vehicle Fuel Economy Based on Cycle Properties

West Virginia University. Center for Alternative Fuels, Engines and Emissions. Modeling Heavy duty Vehicle Fuel Economy Based on Cycle Properties West Virginia University. Center for Alternative Fuels, Engines and Emissions. Modeling Heavy duty Vehicle Fuel Economy Based on Cycle Properties Nigel Clark, Ph.D.; Gregory Thompson Ph.D.; Oscar Delgado,

More information

Meet Clean Diesel. Improving Energy Security. Fueling Environmental Progress. Powering the Economy

Meet Clean Diesel. Improving Energy Security. Fueling Environmental Progress. Powering the Economy Meet Clean Diesel Improving Energy Security Fueling Environmental Progress Powering the Economy What is Clean Diesel? Diesel power is cleaner and more vital to the U.S. economy than ever before. The diesel

More information

CONSUMER INFORMATION TRUCK-CAMPER LOADING

CONSUMER INFORMATION TRUCK-CAMPER LOADING 2015 MODEL YEAR GENERAL MOTORS INFORMATION REGARDING CONSUMER INFORMATION TRUCK-CAMPER LOADING PUBLISHED JANUARY 2014 Page 1 2015 MODEL YEAR GENERAL MOTORS TRUCKS CONSUMER INFORMATION TRUCK-CAMPER LOADING

More information

Hawaii Transportation Energy Analysis: Vehicle Efficiency Options

Hawaii Transportation Energy Analysis: Vehicle Efficiency Options Hawaii Transportation Energy Analysis: Vehicle Efficiency Options Anup Bandivadekar Josh Miller Alan Lloyd 8 January, 2015 ICCT mission and activities The mission of ICCT is to dramatically improve the

More information

Are we being asked to pay enough to support our national highway and transit network?

Are we being asked to pay enough to support our national highway and transit network? Are we being asked to pay enough to support our national highway and transit network? Highlights: Last year, the average American driver traveled 11,400 miles in their car or light truck, bought 529 gallons

More information

Environmental Defense Fund NAFA Fleet Management Association

Environmental Defense Fund NAFA Fleet Management Association August 2009 Introduction About Our Organizations Highway Emissions Carbon Dioxide Methane and Nitrous Oxide Refrigerants (HFCs) Non-highway Emissions Sample Calculations Private light-duty fleet Private

More information

ClimatE leaders GrEENHOUsE Gas inventory PrOtOCOl COrE module GUidaNCE

ClimatE leaders GrEENHOUsE Gas inventory PrOtOCOl COrE module GUidaNCE United States Environmental Protection Agency may 2008 EPa430-r-08-006 www.epa.gov/climateleaders Office of air and radiation ClimatE leaders GrEENHOUsE Gas inventory PrOtOCOl COrE module GUidaNCE Optional

More information

30 Years of Energizing Efficiency

30 Years of Energizing Efficiency WORKING PAPER Segmentation and Flexibility in Fuel Economy Standards for Tractor-Trailers Therese Langer Siddiq Khan April 2010 30 Years of Energizing Efficiency American Council for an Energy-Efficient

More information

Why Some Fuel-Efficient Vehicles Are Not Sold Domestically

Why Some Fuel-Efficient Vehicles Are Not Sold Domestically Why Some Fuel-Efficient Vehicles Are Not Sold Domestically Bill Canis Specialist in Industrial Organization and Business August 17, 2012 CRS Report for Congress Prepared for Members and Committees of Congress

More information

Green Fleet Policy Ordinance

Green Fleet Policy Ordinance Green Fleet Policy Ordinance Section 1 Basis for ordinance 1. The total energy bill in for the City and/or County of was $ million and in projected to increase by percent to about $ million by. 2. Public

More information

Regulatory Announcement

Regulatory Announcement EPA and NHTSA Set Standards to Reduce Greenhouse Gases and Improve Fuel Economy for Model Years 2017-2025 Cars and Light Trucks The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Department of Transportation

More information

COMMERCIAL FLEET IN CANADA:

COMMERCIAL FLEET IN CANADA: COMMERCIAL FLEET IN CANADA: Outline: 1. Canadian heavy duty vehicle context 2. FleetSmart defined 3. Delivering FleetSmart 4. FleetSmart measurement/impacts 1. CANADIAN CONTEXT Approx. 600k mediumheavy

More information

FLEET MANAGEMENT POLICY / PROCEDURE

FLEET MANAGEMENT POLICY / PROCEDURE Department of Environmental Services City Hall Room 300B, 30 Church Street Rochester, New York 14614-1290 www.cityofrochester.gov Paul Holahan Commissioner NUMBER 9.1 FLEET MANAGEMENT POLICY / PROCEDURE

More information

US Postal Service Alternative Fuels Program. February 22, 2006 Hilton San Diego Resort San Diego, CA

US Postal Service Alternative Fuels Program. February 22, 2006 Hilton San Diego Resort San Diego, CA US Postal Service Alternative Fuels Program February 22, 2006 Hilton San Diego Resort San Diego, CA USPS General Overview 700,000 employees 38,000 post offices 200 processing centers 36 airport mail centers

More information

Carbon emissions. A practical guide for fleet operators and drivers. Photography by Bob McCaffrey on Flickr

Carbon emissions. A practical guide for fleet operators and drivers. Photography by Bob McCaffrey on Flickr Carbon emissions A practical guide for fleet operators and drivers Photography by Bob McCaffrey on Flickr Road haulage carbon emissions With the Government highly-focused on reducing the UK s carbon emission

More information

Global Light-duty Vehicles: Fuel Economy and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Standards

Global Light-duty Vehicles: Fuel Economy and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Standards International Council on Clean Transportation Global Passenger Vehicles Program April 2011 Update Global Light-duty Vehicles: Fuel Economy and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Standards The ICCT developed a methodology

More information

Vehicle Trends & Maintenance Costs Survey

Vehicle Trends & Maintenance Costs Survey Vehicle Trends & Maintenance Costs Survey This survey analyzed the parts and labor costs of fleets in North America, with an emphasis on alternative fueled vehicles such as fully electric and plug-in hybrid

More information

Fuel and technology alternatives for commercial vehicles

Fuel and technology alternatives for commercial vehicles Fuel and technology alternatives for commercial vehicles European Biofuels Technology Platform 6th Stakeholder Plenary Meeting Dr. Nils-Olof Nylund VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Outline Energy

More information

Efficiency & Reducing CO2

Efficiency & Reducing CO2 Technologies for Improving Truck Fuel Efficiency & Reducing CO2 Making Transportation and Goods Movement tleaner, Cleaner & Greener June 17, 2011 Sponsored by the Diesel Technology Forum Volvo Group Business

More information

Including details of the 2015 emissions-based changes, Vehicle Excise Duty and fuel allowances.

Including details of the 2015 emissions-based changes, Vehicle Excise Duty and fuel allowances. BMW Fleet & Business Sales bmwcorporate.co.uk The Ultimate Driving Machine Company Car tax. 2015/2016. Including details of the 2015 emissions-based changes, Vehicle Excise Duty and fuel allowances. Whille

More information

Fuel Economy Sensitivity to Vehicle Mass for Advanced Vehicle Powertrains

Fuel Economy Sensitivity to Vehicle Mass for Advanced Vehicle Powertrains 26-1-665 Sensitivity to Vehicle Mass for Advanced Vehicle Powertrains Copyright 26 Society of Automotive Engineers, Inc S. Pagerit, P. Sharer, A. Rousseau Argonne National Laboratory ABSTRACT In 22, the

More information

Improving Fuel Economy in Heavy-Duty Vehicles

Improving Fuel Economy in Heavy-Duty Vehicles Date Issue Brief # I S S U E B R I E F Improving Fuel Economy in Heavy-Duty Vehicles Winston Harrington and Alan Krupnick March 2012 Issue Brief 12-01 Resources for the Future Resources for the Future

More information

Executive Guide to Fleet Fuel Economy... 1. Part 1 of 2: Vehicle Configuration and Operating Factors... 1. Emphasizing Fuel Economy Pays Off...

Executive Guide to Fleet Fuel Economy... 1. Part 1 of 2: Vehicle Configuration and Operating Factors... 1. Emphasizing Fuel Economy Pays Off... 1 Table of Contents Executive Guide to Fleet Fuel Economy... 1 Part 1 of 2: Vehicle Configuration and Operating Factors... 1 Introduction... 3 Emphasizing Fuel Economy Pays Off... 4 ENGINE EFFICIENCY...

More information

Presentation of Vehicle Energy consumption Calculation TOol (VECTO)

Presentation of Vehicle Energy consumption Calculation TOol (VECTO) Presentation of Vehicle Energy consumption Calculation TOol (VECTO) Dimitrios Savvidis DG CLIMA Transport and Ozone Unit C2 Stakeholder Meeting Brussels, 16 th of September 2014 Simulation tool to calculate

More information

The Effects of User Costs at Highway Work Zones on the Incentive and Disincentive Values of Highway Construction Projects

The Effects of User Costs at Highway Work Zones on the Incentive and Disincentive Values of Highway Construction Projects The Effects of User Costs at Highway Work Zones on the Incentive and Disincentive Values of Highway Construction Projects Jiang, Y. Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana (email: jiang2@purdue.edu)

More information

Recreational Vehicle Towing Guide

Recreational Vehicle Towing Guide Recreational Vehicle Towing Guide TABLE OF CONTENTS HOW TO DETERMINE THE GROSS VEHICLE WEIGHT RATING FOR RECREATIONAL VEHICLES Terms and Definitions... 2 Conversion... 3 Net Weight... 4 Manufacturer Gross

More information

ECONOMIC INDICATORS AS PREDICTORS OF

ECONOMIC INDICATORS AS PREDICTORS OF UMTRI-2009-27 JULY 2009 ECONOMIC INDICATORS AS PREDICTORS OF THE NUMBER AND FUEL ECONOMY OF PURCHASED NEW VEHICLES MICHAEL SIVAK BRANDON SCHOETTLE ECONOMIC INDICATORS AS PREDICTORS OF THE NUMBER AND FUEL

More information

Factors and Considerations for Establishing a Fuel Efficiency Regulatory Program for Commercial Medium- and Heavy-Duty Vehicles

Factors and Considerations for Establishing a Fuel Efficiency Regulatory Program for Commercial Medium- and Heavy-Duty Vehicles DOT HS 811 XXX October 2010 Factors and Considerations for Establishing a Fuel Efficiency Regulatory Program for Commercial Medium- and Heavy-Duty Vehicles This publication is distributed by the U.S. Department

More information

Unhooking California: Eleven Things Californians Can Do NOW to Save Gasoline (and Money)

Unhooking California: Eleven Things Californians Can Do NOW to Save Gasoline (and Money) Unhooking California: Eleven Things Californians Can Do NOW to Save Gasoline (and Money) Kathryn Phillips Center for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Technologies March 25, 2004 I. INTRODUCTION California

More information

Tire Basics: What Drivers Should Know About Tires

Tire Basics: What Drivers Should Know About Tires Tire Basics: What Drivers Should Know About Tires 1. The Function of Tires Today s passenger-vehicle and light-truck tires contain over 200 separate materials and are engineered to deliver a varying combination

More information

NHTSA and EPA Set Standards to Improve Fuel Economy and Reduce Greenhouse Gases for Passenger Cars and Light Trucks for Model Years 2017 and Beyond

NHTSA and EPA Set Standards to Improve Fuel Economy and Reduce Greenhouse Gases for Passenger Cars and Light Trucks for Model Years 2017 and Beyond NHTSA and EPA Set Standards to Improve Fuel Economy and Reduce Greenhouse Gases for Passenger Cars and Light Trucks for Model Years 2017 and Beyond The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA)

More information

School Bus Types There are seven vehicle types that can be manufactured to federal motor vehicle safety standards for

School Bus Types There are seven vehicle types that can be manufactured to federal motor vehicle safety standards for School Bus Types There are seven vehicle types that can be manufactured to federal motor vehicle safety standards for school buses. Plus one style of vehicle that is often used for school transportation

More information

Green Fleet Policy PURPOSE

Green Fleet Policy PURPOSE PURPOSE The purpose of this policy is to document the process for purchasing and managing the City s diverse vehicle fleet, which include both vehicles and heavy equipment, in a manner that minimizes greenhouse

More information

Driver Job Description

Driver Job Description Driver Job Description Statements in this job description do not necessarily represent an exhaustive list of all responsibilities, skills, duties requirements, efforts or working conditions associated

More information

Systems of Linear Equations in Three Variables

Systems of Linear Equations in Three Variables 5.3 Systems of Linear Equations in Three Variables 5.3 OBJECTIVES 1. Find ordered triples associated with three equations 2. Solve a system by the addition method 3. Interpret a solution graphically 4.

More information

International Experience and Trends: Vehicle fuel economy and CO2 measurement

International Experience and Trends: Vehicle fuel economy and CO2 measurement International Experience and Trends: Vehicle fuel economy and CO2 measurement Stuart Rayner: National Association of Automobile Manufacturers of South Africa/Ford Motor Company: July 2013 Presentation

More information

Fleet Sustainability: It s not just about alternative fuel vehicles and technology

Fleet Sustainability: It s not just about alternative fuel vehicles and technology Fleet Sustainability: It s not just about alternative fuel vehicles and technology NAFA 2012 Institute & Expo St Louis, MO Paul Lauria Q: What do FedEx and government jurisdictions have in common? A: Neither

More information

CNG and LNG: What s Best for Your Fleet?

CNG and LNG: What s Best for Your Fleet? The global leader in natural gas engines. Powering transportation. Driving change. CNG and LNG: What s Best for Your Fleet? A Westport and Clean Energy Webinar June 20, 2013 Your Natural Gas Experts John

More information

Technical Report Documentation Page. 2. Government Accession No. 3. Recipient's Catalog No. 1. Report No. FHWA/TX-13/0-6737-1

Technical Report Documentation Page. 2. Government Accession No. 3. Recipient's Catalog No. 1. Report No. FHWA/TX-13/0-6737-1 1. Report No. FHWA/TX-13/0-6737-1 4. Title and Subtitle EXECUTIVE REPORT: TOLL ROADS, TOLL RATES, AND DRIVER BEHAVIOR 2. Government Accession No. 3. Recipient's Catalog No. Technical Report Documentation

More information

AAA Association Communication 1000 AAA Drive Heathrow, FL

AAA Association Communication 1000 AAA Drive Heathrow, FL AAA Association Communication 1000 AAA Drive Heathrow, FL 32746-5063 www.aaa.com AAA acknowledges Runzheimer International for help in preparing the automotive costs presented in this booklet. Contents

More information

What Happened to Toyota?

What Happened to Toyota? What Happened to Toyota? Robert E. Cole Professor Emeritus Haas School of Business University of California, Berkeley Visiting Researcher, ITEC Doshisha University 1 How Many Quality Problems Do They Have?

More information

City of Asheville Green Fleet Initiatives Chris Dobbins, Fleet Projects Manager NC Project Green Workshop October 17, 2008 City of Asheville Covers 44square miles 75,000 residents; MSA population 215,000

More information

Methods to Find the Cost-Effectiveness of Funding Air Quality Projects

Methods to Find the Cost-Effectiveness of Funding Air Quality Projects Methods to Find the Cost-Effectiveness of Funding Air Quality Projects For Evaluating Motor Vehicle Registration Fee Projects and Congestion Mitigation and Air Quality Improvement (CMAQ) Projects Emission

More information

HRB Hydrostatic Regenerative Braking System: The Hydraulic Hybrid Drive from Bosch Rexroth

HRB Hydrostatic Regenerative Braking System: The Hydraulic Hybrid Drive from Bosch Rexroth HRB Hydrostatic Regenerative Braking System: The Hydraulic Hybrid Drive from Bosch Rexroth Contact Eric Lindzus, Bosch Rexroth AG Bosch Rexroth AG Product Management Sales Mobile Hydraulics Innovative

More information

NEW YORK STATE TON-MILE TAX ANALYSIS: ESTIMATION OF UNTAXED COMMERCIAL VEHICLE MILES TRAVELLED

NEW YORK STATE TON-MILE TAX ANALYSIS: ESTIMATION OF UNTAXED COMMERCIAL VEHICLE MILES TRAVELLED NEW YORK STATE TON-MILE TAX ANALYSIS: ESTIMATION OF UNTAXED COMMERCIAL VEHICLE MILES TRAVELLED American Transportation Research Institute Arlington, Virginia February 2008 INTRODUCTION In most cases, the

More information

LIGHT TRUCKS, TRUCKS, BUSES, TRAILERS AND MULTI-PURPOSE PASSENGER VEHICLES

LIGHT TRUCKS, TRUCKS, BUSES, TRAILERS AND MULTI-PURPOSE PASSENGER VEHICLES COMMERCIAL TRUCK TIRES AND DEFINITIONS OF TERMS LIGHT TRUCKS, TRUCKS, BUSES, TRAILERS AND MULTI-PURPOSE PASSENGER VEHICLES Tire Selection Light Truck and Truck/Bus Tires Selection of size and load range

More information

Electric Vehicle Survey Methodology and Assumptions American Driving Habits, Vehicle Needs, and Attitudes toward Electric Vehicles

Electric Vehicle Survey Methodology and Assumptions American Driving Habits, Vehicle Needs, and Attitudes toward Electric Vehicles Electric Vehicle Survey Methodology and Assumptions American Driving Habits, Vehicle Needs, and Attitudes toward Electric Vehicles December 2013 2013 Union of Concerned Scientists All Rights Reserved The

More information

GREENHOUSE GAS MANAGEMENT FOR MEDIUM-DUTY TRUCK FLEETS

GREENHOUSE GAS MANAGEMENT FOR MEDIUM-DUTY TRUCK FLEETS GREENHOUSE GAS MANAGEMENT FOR MEDIUM-DUTY TRUCK FLEETS A Framework for Improving Efficiency and Reducing Emissions automotive fleet & leasing association white paper series volume 25 Greenhouse Gas Management

More information