Pathways: Civilizations Through Time

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1 Chapter 1 - p Better Classroom Guidebooks CROSS 5 nother term for Vikings. 6 It was home for many Vikings. 8 The city state that conquered Greece. 9 These people conquered Spain. 10 The Roman emperor who legalized Christianity. 12 (2 words) group that influenced the evolution of medieval European society

2 Chapter 1 - p n artifact associated with a saint. It is thought to have great powers. 18 The origin of the ruler who replaced the last Roman emperor. 20 person who travels to a holy place for religious reasons. 22 The head of the Catholic Church. 23 group that influenced the evolution of medieval European society 25 (2 words) The pope who crowned Charlemagne. 26 nything made by humans that extends our abilities. 27 group that influenced the evolution of medieval European society 28 king of the Franks. DOWN 1 (2 words) n example of a relic. 2 tern used to describe Viking ships. 3 The Viking word for "slave". 4 He ruled the Franks. 7 group that influenced the evolution of medieval European society 8 The Viking leader who settled in Normandy. 9 self-contained community of people who have taken religious vows. 11 city destroyed by Rome. 13 That which is passed down from one generation to another. 15 (2 words) The Frankish leader who stopped the Muslim invasion of Europe. 16 land attacked by the Vikings. 17 n indirect blow. 19 The leader of the Viking attack on Paris. 21 person training to become a monk or a nun. 24 people who sacked the city of Rome.

3 Solution: 8 R 6 D Pathways: Civilizations Through Time Chapter 1 - p F 2 D I R C E N M R K L V N 3 T O R T H M E N G G O I O M E O V K M 9 R U S L O R N I I O L 10 L B C O N S T N T I N E L O G J O 27 F 16 E N G L O S X O N S S R I M S 15 E L I C E E T R H N G G 18 G 19 E R 20 M N I C P 17 E U I L G R I M S R L C Y L 21 G Y N 22 N N P 24 D G N L E O P E C C V 25 L 23 E L T S E O I I I M M R O I N 26 T R N K S E C H N O L O G Y H E T 28 C H R L E M G N E R L

4 Chapter 1 - p Better Classroom Guidebooks CROSS 4 The capital of the Eastern Roman Empire. 7 fighter who did battle in public exhibitions. 11 The name of a 50,000 seat stadium in Rome. 13 The use of these to supply goods and services contributed to the fall of the Roman empire. 14 The Germanic people that conquered Rome in 410 CE 15 The arrival of new weakened the will of the Roman people to defend their empire.

5 Chapter 1 - p The major unit of the Roman army. 23 The art and science of designing buildings. 25 The Romans built extensive networks of these. 26 The Romans developed a system of these that have influenced the rules of justice in countries such as Canada. 27 The Mediterranean Sea helped spread these between the Middle East, sia, frica and Europe. 28 The Latin word for "peace". 29 Brought to Rome by soldiers, these killed thousands of people. DOWN 1 (3 words) Before the common era. 2 This Greek conquered many lands to the south and east of Greece. 3 These rulers of Rome paid less respect to the freedoms and rights of individuals that did the Roman Republic. 5 (2 words) Latin for "year of the Lord". 6 They were denied the rights of Roman citizenship. 7 The Teutones, Saxons and ngles all spoke this kind of language. 8 (2 words) term meaning "before Christ" that was used to number years. 9 They were denied the rights of Roman citizenship. 10 n environment that had fertile soil, plenty of rainfall and sunshine as well as moderate temperatures. 12 The language of Rome that was used by educated people in Europe. 16 Roman culture was preserved after the collapse of Rome by individuals who lived in these. 17 The Romans used them to transport water. 18 The search for wisdom and knowledge. 19 word that came to mean an "uncultured person". 20 n important early European civilization. 22 n important early European civilization. 24 The peoples who were displaced by invading Germanic peoples.

6 Solution: 14 G 19 B 13 S Pathways: Civilizations Through Time Chapter 1 - p B 11 C 9 S 1 B 4 C 2 3 E O N S T N T I N O P L E M E E P 10 M 6 W 7 G O L O S S E U M R L 5 X E L D I T O R O E N O D E M E S L V E S I N T R O T H S 21 L E T N I 18 P 15 R E L I G I O N S M R C R Q N 12 H R E G I O N O E S R L E M D T B 22 G 25 R O R C 20 D 17 U 16 O H I T E C T U R E O D S N E C R R E O L 27 I D E S C H D N E Y C 28 P 26 W S T I X T S E 29 I S E S E S S R

7 Chapter 1 - p Better Classroom Guidebooks

8 Chapter 1 - p CROSS 3 The name of one of the apostles who is believed to have written one of the gospels in the Christian New Testament. 4 The religion of the Jews. 7 The birth place of Christianity. 9 Most of these people would not convert to Christianity until the end of the eleventh century. 14 The term used for the first 12 followers of Christ. 16 n early Christian martyr. 17 Muslim place of worship. 19 Roman emperor who persecuted the early Christians. 20 The name of one of the apostles who is believed to have written one of the gospels in the Christian New Testament. 22 This leader of the Byzantine Empire brought in reforms that gave women the right to keep any property they inherited. 24 It is the Jewish holy book. 25 One of the individuals most responsible for the spread of the Christian beliefs. 27 Those who are believers in Islam. 29 The title of the leader of the Roman Catholic Church. 30 One of the central beliefs of Judaism is the Jewish people are the chosen people of. 32 The Roman governors of Palestine feared that Jesus Christ might lead one of these against them. 33 One of the three major religions in North frica, the Middle East and Europe during the Middle ges. 34 The name of one of the apostles who is believed to have written one of the gospels in the Christian New Testament. 35 This leader of the Byzantine Empire drew up a law code that is the basis of laws in every western European country except England. 36 To sprinkle with or immerse in water as a sign of purification from sin or of admission into a Christian church. 39 Roman historian who wrote about the treatment of the early Christians in Rome. 40 The term used for a person who has changed religion. 42 (2 words) This Constantinople church featured a massive dome. 46 To harass someone - often because of their race, religion of politics. 48 The method used to execute Christ. 49 One of the three major religions in North frica, the Middle East and Europe during the Middle ges. 50 The name of one of the apostles who is believed to have written one of the gospels in the Christian New Testament. 51 (2 words) The only Christian church in western Europe until the 1500s.

9 Chapter 1 - p DOWN 1 They helped make Christianity stronger. 2 The Romans had allowed conquered people to keep their religions so long as they accepted Roman authority and paid. 3 person tortured or killed because of his or her religious beliefs. 5 This part of Europe was conquered by Muslims in (2 words) collection of written laws. 8 He was a missionary to England in the late sixth century. 10 The first four books of the Christian Bible's New Testament. 11 One of the three major religions in North frica, the Middle East and Europe during the Middle ges. 12 person sent out to convert people to a church's beliefs. 13 The term used to describe the type of Christianity that developed in the Eastern Roman Empire. 15 The official belief of a religion. 17 The term used by Jewish people for the religious leader who would be their saviour. 18 The holy book of Islam. 21 Muslims believe that God spoke to this Prophet. 22 It is a guide for Jewish life and belief. 23 term that refers to Rome's forcing the Jewish people to leave their homeland in Palestine. 26 n earlier name for Constantinople. 28 This Roman Emperor became a Christian in 313 CE. 29 person trained and authorized to perform religious ceremonies. 31 Someone rejected by a community. 37 The modern name for Constantinople. 38 This edict legalized Christianity throughout the Roman Empire. 41 picture made with many pieces of coloured stone or glass. 43 He is to Orthodox Christians as the Pope is to Roman Catholics. 44 One of the appeals of Christianity was that if people - even the poor and powerless - were baptized and led good lives, the would go to after death. 45 The original religion of Jesus and his apostles. 46 He was a missionary to the Irish in the fifth century. 47 The Romans had many of these.

10 Solution: 7 P 8 1 P E Pathways: Civilizations Through Time Chapter 1 - p M T T H E W 4 J 2 T U D I R X P S R L L E S T I N E V I K I N G E 5 S M 11 S I I U C Y G O N O G U R 15 U T C 14 S I R C M 19 T O N L P O S T L E S R L S O S Q 16 P 13 S E R P E T U 12 M U E H M I 20 E R O E U L I S I K E O O I N E D S R S D M N S D E S T N H E O D O R E I N X H R 32 U 36 B 42 H 23 D 24 T O R H I H B 29 P P U L Y 27 M 28 U S L I M S C O P E Y U M O S R Z G P R I S I N G U J 34 O E J O D E N 33 U D I O H N T T R S T C J P T 37 I S T Z E 41 M 39 T 38 M G I S O P H I 48 C 51 R 35 U S T S M I N I N I N C I T U S S C 40 O N V E R T L M T I N S N P 47 B G 43 P H 45 J N E R S E C U T E T D R U C I F I X I O N R T V L C D I R E I 49 C H R I S T I N I T Y N S O M N C T H O L I C K 50 R C M H R K

11 Chapter 1 - p Better Classroom Guidebooks CROSS 5 (2 words) He defeated a Muslim army that threatened to invade Europe. 7 contagious disease that runs out of control. 9 promise to marry. 10 The class of people that made up 60 percent of Frankish society. 12 The average life span of this group of Franks was 35 years. 14 Occurences that predict future events. 16 gold coin used by the Franks. It was worth between $50 and $100 in today's money. 17 Charlemagne governed his empire from his palace in this city. 18 This resident of Tours described events that occurred during the Merovingian era.

12 Chapter 1 - p Known as "the Short", he overthrew the last of the Merovingian kings. 21 Charlemagne forced these people to become Christians. 23 The Roman province that would become France. 24 The vapours given off by "warm springs". 27 Frankish royal family. 28 rebirth or revival of the arts. DOWN 1 The name given to the form of hunting in which nobles took part. 2 This type of source regarding historical information is based on a first hand account of an event. 3 The average life span of this group of Franks was 45 years. 4 He founded the country of France. 5 The name given to Charlemagne's empire. 6 (2 words) The collection of Frankish laws. 8 The capital of Clovis I. 11 fine that had to be paid as a consequence for causing injury or theft. It was equal to the value attached to a particular person or an item of property. 13 The group in society to which one belongs. Often based on parentage, wealth, or role in a society. 15 Charlemagne encouraged these. 19 Charlemagne encouraged this. 22 The throwing axe carried by many Franks. 25 Intentionally setting fire to property. 26 The meaning of the name the Franks used.

13 Chapter 1 - p Solution: C P M C H C H R L E S M R T E L L I N O S R M P L G U E P V B E T R O T H L I I L R C S E R F S I Y C W I W O M E N C P O R T E N T S G L D R S O L I D I C H E N G R E G O R Y S I D T P E P I N S X O N S L U S F D C R G U L E X H L T I O N S I C R F O I S M E R O V I N G I N S O E C R E N I S S N C E T N

14 Chapter 1 - p Better Classroom Guidebooks CROSS 1 nglo-saxons were skilled. 4 western European culture. 6 made-up story. 8 Celts found refuge here after they were driven from their homes by Germanic invaders. 10 The title of an nglo-saxon epic poem. 13 Trust. 14 writing material made from dried sheepskins. 16 Celts found refuge here after they were driven from their homes by Germanic invaders. 17 To change a text from one language to another. 18 One of the important products of the Irish monasteries. 19 These became centres for learning in Ireland. DOWN 2 long poem telling about heroic deeds. 3 Celts found refuge here after they were driven from their homes by Germanic invaders. 5 Celts found refuge here after they were driven from their homes by Germanic invaders. 7 Thriving. 9 This nglo-saxon leader united western and southern England in the face of Viking attacks. 11 Many of these fled to Ireland's monasteries to escape the Germanic invasions of Europe. 12 The original religion of the Celts. 15 Irish missionaries helped spread Christianity throughout this region.

15 Chapter 1 - p Solution: M E T L W O R K E R S P C E L T I C F I G M E N T O O C T R P W L E S L N R L B E O W U L F O S F D N S C R C R E D I T L P R C H M E N T U L E E O D I R E L N D U R L D R O T R N S L T I O N B O O K S U R S P S S M O N S T E R I E S

16 Chapter 1 - p Better Classroom Guidebooks CROSS 6 Viking raiders ranged as far as this city. 8 The letters of the Viking alphabet. 11 The most severe Viking legal penalty was to declare someone an - who could then be killed on sight. 12 Poets and singers who told of Viking history. 15 This Viking leader was given the part of France now referred to as Normandy. 16 One of the primary occupations of Vikings. 17 Viking raiders sought this. 19 Vikings may have taken up raiding because their population had outgrown the supply of this commodity.

17 Chapter 1 - p The Vikings of Denmark and Norway would adopt this religion in the 11th century. 22 common Viking beverage consumed by men, women and children. 23 Viking slaves - they were without any rights. 24 It means "land of the Northmen". DOWN 1 The half of England given to Viking lords to rule and protect - from other Vikings. 2 long narrow bay with steep mountains on all sides. 3 (3 words) The site of a Viking settlement in Newfoundland. 4 The place of origin of the Viking raiders. 5 Vikings attacked and plundered this city on Easter Sunday in 855 CE. 7 (2 words) The Viking official who had memorized all the laws and could recite it as needed during trials. 9 The term used to describe the bribe paid to Viking invaders to go away. 10 Viking raiders sought this. 13 This sister of Leif the Lucky led an expedition to Newfoundland in the 11th century. 14 The Viking parliament where all free adults could speak their opinion. 18 They were a characteristic of Viking legal proceedings. 20 One of the primary occupations of Vikings.

18 Chapter 1 - p Solution: D F L S J P C O N S T N T I N O P L E N E R R U N E S N L D D W G I E D O U T L W S K L D S I W N P O U N F E T E R O L L O X F R M I N G H Y M V E E I K E I Y P L U N D E R J D D G R F R M L N D U I F S O C H R I S T I N I T Y W B E E R I S S S T H R L L S I N O R M N D Y G

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