Mineral Nutrient Deficiencies and Toxicities

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1 Mineral Nutrient Deficiencies and Toxicities Jim Owen, Jr. North Willamette Research and Extension Center

2 Key to Nutrient Deficiencies Base of plant mobile (N, P, K, Mg) Whole (mid) plant partially mobile (S, Mo) Top of plant immobile (Ca, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, B) Chlorosis (Mn, Fe) Interveinal chlorosis with tan flecks (Mn) Interveinal chlorosis yellow - necrosis (Fe) Necrosis & distortion (Ca, B)

3 Mobile Nutrient at base -N

4 Immobile Nutrient at top

5 Partially Mobile entire plant

6 Mobile (at base) N, P, K, Mg Chlorosis is main early symptom Uniform chlorosis N or P Interveinal chlorosis Mg Rapid necrosis K Maple

7 Nitrogen vs. Phosphorus Uniform Chlorosis lower leaves Uniform chlorosis then necrosis on older leaves Stunting N Early flowering Leaf abscission P Chlorosis then necrosis old leaves Severe stunting Deep green foliage Possible purpling Roots longer & fewer

8 N Deficiency Symptoms l Uniform chlorosis of older leaves. l Necrosis of older leaves. l Abscission of older leaves if possible. l Red pigment - old leaves - some species l Earlier flowering with marginal N deficiency (later flowering if severe).

9 Nitrogen deficiency uniform chlorosis of lower leaves Azalea -N

10 Nitrogen deficiency stunting Maple grams of N applied in poly-coated urea

11 Nitrogen Deficiency Uniform Chlorosis Followed by Necrosis Tobacco here #2

12 N Deficiency Early Flowering, Severe Stunting

13 Nitrogen Deficiency Red Pigmentation on Older Leaves Blueberry Marigold

14 Phosphorus Deficiency l Deeper green foliage. l Heavy stunting (compact form). l Purple (or red) pigmentation in several species. l Fewer & longer roots, more root mass at first, less when deficiency intense. l Lower leaf chlorosis à necrosis

15 P Deficiency: deep green Impatiens Chamaecyparis

16 Phosphate vs.compactness P 2 O 5 as a % of N in post-plant fertilizer P 2 O 5 = 50% of N 15% 7.5% 0% (e.g ) ( )

17 Phosphate vs.compactness Thuja -P +P

18 Phosphorus Deficiency longer but fewer roots

19 Phosphorus Deficiency lower leaf chlorosis

20 Phosphorus Deficiency lower leaf necrosis

21 Nitrogen Toxicity l Wilting l Leaf desiccation l Root tip burn l Reduced uptake of K, Ca, Mg

22 Ammonium Toxicity Leaf desiccation Bud necrosis Root burn Plant death

23 Ammonium Toxicity Increasing Urea Rate (0 to 60 g)

24 Ammonium Toxicity Older plant pot mum lower leaf chlorosis & necrosis root tip death

25 Magnesium - Mobile (symptoms originate at the base) Interveinal chlorosis on older leaves Necrosis of older leaves Possible red on older leaves

26 Magnesium - Mobile chlorosis (Chamaecyparis ) (Viburnum) (Maple)

27 Chrysanthemum Mg Deficiency Interveinal Chlorosis Older Leaves Dogwood

28 Magnesium - Mobile Necrosis grape leaves

29 Magnesium - Mobile Red Older Foliage Blueberry

30 Potassium Mobile (symptom originates on old leaves) Chlorosis might occur briefly at tip and margin of old leaves. Rapid necrosis of margins or spotting across old leaf blades. Seedlings are often compact and deeper green prior to above symptoms.

31 Potassium Mobile Necrosis (Ginko) (Viburnum) (Maple)

32 K Deficiency Necrotic Spotting poinsettia pepper

33 Sulfur - Partially Mobile (symptoms originate throughout entire plant) Uniform chlorosis on entire plant

34 Sulfur - Partially Mobile (symptoms originate throughout entire plant) Necrosis

35 Sulfur - Partially Mobile (symptoms originate throughout entire plant) nemesia Chlorosis and Necrosis of Young Leaves Chlorosis of Stem and Leaves, Flowers Faded and Necrotic

36 Immobile Nutrient at top Chlorosis Fe or Mn Necrosis and Distortion Ca or B Young and Recently Mature Leaves Affected Cu or Zn

37 Immobile Nutrient at top Chlorosis Interveinal, uniform, or marginal on young leaves Fe Chlorosis Chlorosis clears to yellow to white Necrosis Mn Chlorosis Tan Flecking

38 Immobile Nutrient Fe vs Mn (Rose)

39 Immobile Nutrient Fe vs Mn Maple

40 Immobile Nutrient Fe vs Mn tan flecking tobacco

41 Immobile Nutrient Ca vs B Necrosis and Distortion Ca Distortion, necrosis, chlorosis Incomplete flower formation Roots short, densely branched, & thick B Distortion, necrosis,(chlorosis) Incomplete flower formation Roots short, densely branched, & thick Short internodes rosetting Thick leaves, corking Abortion, branching

42 Immobile Nutrient Calcium Ca caused chlorosis Viburnum Azalea

43 Immobile Nutrient Calcium Ca caused meristem distortion and necrosis

44 Immobile Nutrient Boron B caused meristem distortion

45 Immobile Nutrient Boron B induced Crinkling of young leaves due to patches of cells not developing in the leaf blade.

46 Immobile Nutrient Boron Roots shorter, fewer, thicker, and highly branched.

47 Birch Nickel Mouse ear

48 Immobile Nutrient Cu vs Zn Young and Recently Mature Leaves Affected Cu Leaves roll and curl Variable chlorosis Rapid necrosis of young fully expanded leaves Smaller lighter colored flowers or none Zn Leaves may roll Variable chlorosis Rapid necrosis of young fully expanded leaves Small leaves & short internodes

49 Immobile Nutrient Copper Sudden death of young leaves. Azalea

50 Immobile Nutrient Zinc Interveinal necrosis Beet

51 Immobile Nutrient Zinc Young Leaf Chlorosis Recently Mature Leaf Necrosis Beet

52 Additional Toxicities

53 Salt / Sodium Toxicity necrosis Grape

54 Salt / Chloride Toxicity defoliation Grape

55 Fluoride Toxicity necrosis Grape

56 Thanks Theo Aendekerk Paul Nelson Jim Green Harrell s Fertilizer, Inc.

57 North Willamette Research and Extension Center

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