Western European Governments in the 17 th Century

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1 APEH Review Western European Governments in the 17 th Century The English Civil War & Restoration The Glorious Revolution The Dutch Republic Cardinals Richelieu & Mazarin in France England in the 17 th Century The Commercial Revolution English middle class increased proportionally the largest in Europe except for the Dutch Financed joint stock companies which played a role in colonizing North America English Society Gentry = wealthy landowners who dominated House of Commons Willing to pay taxes: burden was more equitable and demanded a role in determining expenses Religion Calvinists were the largest percentage and Puritans wanted change in the Anglican Church. 17 th Century English Government BIG PICTURE HOW AND WHY DOES THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE MONARCHY AND PARLIAMENT CHANGE? Monarchy Stuarts claimed Divine Right Parliament House of Commons = gentry, lawyers, merchants who wanted traditional privileges demanded a stronger voice Anglican Church Episcopalians wanted hierarchical arrangement of the king, Archbishop of Canterbury and bishops determining doctrine Puritans wanted a Presbyterian form more democratic 1

2 The Stuarts Divine Right of Kings James I (r ) claimed Divine Right and said even God calls the kings god Fought with Puritans in Parliament who wanted to purify the Church of England Charles I (r ) Divine right of kings, broke, opposed Puritans like his father Petition of Right 1628 Nobody should pay a tax without consent of Parliament Nobody should be imprisoned without due process Charles decides he won t call Parliament into session. 17 th Century England = Religious Mess Single most divisive issue The Archbishop of Canterbury, encouraged by Charles, attempts to transform Church of England and impose English Prayer Book on Scots. Scots form an army and occupy northern England. The Long Parliament, English need money to fight the Scots so Charles calls Parliament into session Parliament executes the Archbishop of Canterbury and limits royal power 2

3 English Civil War The Cavaliers Aristocrats, church officials who were loyal to the king and wanted a strong monarchy The Roundheads Puritans, townspeople, middle class favored a Parliamentary monarchy Led by Oliver Cromwell to defeat the Cavaliers Cromwell organized his New Model Army and executes Charles I Leadership under Cromwell Commonwealth & Protectorate Monarchy and House of Lords abolished Cromwell leads with the House of Commons Takes the title of Lord Protector and rules with the help of the army Cromwell s Tenure Foreign Policy Crushed uprising in Ireland and replaced Catholic property owners with Protestant landlords half of the Irish population dies from famine and plague Navigation Act of 1651 barred Dutch ships from carrying goods between other countries and England so England could control its colonies Waged wars against the Dutch to weaken them. 3

4 Cromwell s Domestic Policies Puritans impose strict moral code Rules until his death in Prince Charles Stuart returns from exile Crown is Restored! Charles II comes back to the same issues regarding the king and Parliament. Charles has no children so there s a problem with succession his brother James, a Catholic, is next in line. Division in Parliament over his successor: Whigs = no Catholics Tories = loyal to monarchy James II Takes the Throne! James is pro Catholic and that worries Protestants. His first wife was Protestant and their oldest daughter Mary was Protestant. She is married to William of Orange, a Dutch leader. His second wife is Catholic and gives birth to a son = Catholic successor 4

5 William of Orange and Mary an Invitation to the Throne Parliament invites William and Mary to overthrow James II, who goes to France. Parliament requires them to accept the Bill of Rights (1689) Parliament = free debate Taxation and laws = Parliamentary consent Monarch can t be Catholic Parliament holds frequent sessions and dissolved only with their consent No arrest or detainment without legal consent BIG PICTURE GLORIOUS REVOLUTION Divine Right is rejected. Glorious Revolution placed limits on the monarch s power. England becomes a constitutional monarchy controlled by aristocrats. The Enlightenment: the Beginning Hobbes Leviathan Humans selfcentered Strong government necessary for law and order Rulers should have absolute power. Locke Second Treatise of Government People are reasonable and have goodwill. Natural rights life, liberty, property Argued for limited government 5

6 The Dutch Republic Political Independence Not governed by an absolute ruler Tolerant Calvinism was dominant but others had religious freedom. Economically Prosperous Leading commercial power during 1600s especially Amsterdam Shipbuilding, replaced Italians as bankers, spice trade in the Indies Did start to decline after wars with England and France replaced by them as dominant powers Dutch Artists Protestant country with no absolute ruler made Dutch art different no Catholic Church or royals to commission art. Merchants bought paintings of themselves, families, possessions, land. Paintings focused on people and group portraits, landscapes. Frans Hals, Rembrandt, Jan Vermeer Golden Age for the Dutch The Start of Absolutism in France Henry IV a politique Edict of Nantes Made tax system more efficient Nobility was his biggest threat nobility of the sword based on inheritance and military service. Henry conferred nobility by selling it nobility of the robe 6

7 Louis XIII and Cardinal Richelieu Henry IV assassinated leaving his 9 year old son Louis XIII as the second Bourbon monarch. Louis appoints Cardinal Richelieu to be his chief minister he acts as the real ruler until Richelieu increased royal power by weakening nobility Intendant system replaced nobles with royal officials International affairs wanted to limit Habsburg power Supported the Protestants during the Thirty Years War The Fronde Richelieu and Louis XIII die five year old Louis XIV assumes the throne with chief minister Cardinal Mazarin Nobles rebel, sensing weakness. Rebellions known as the Fronde and were designed to limit power of monarchy, not overthrow it. Louis XIV flees to Paris, vowing to control the nobility. 7

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