EAP 2014; 56 (2): doi: /sangyoeisei.E Burnout, Care worker, Job stress, Nurse, Psychiatric ward 2014; 56(2): 47 56

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1 2014; 56 (2): EAP EAP ; 56(2): doi: /sangyoeisei.E13001 Burnout, Care worker, Job stress, Nurse, Psychiatric ward J-STAGE I 3 1) ) 1 3 6) 7 9) 8, 10) 11, 12) 11, 13) 11) 12 14) 15) )

2 ) 17, 18) Emotional exhaustion Depersonalization Personal accomplishment 3 Maslach Burnout Inventory MBI 18, 19) 20) II the Brief Job Stress Questionnaire BJSQ 21)

3 MBI-Japanese version 18) Reduced personal accomplishment 5 SPSS PASW Statistics 17 5 t 2 t BJSQ MBI III 1 Table Table 1. Characteristic Comparison of psychiatric ward and internal medicine ward workers Psychiatric ward N=125 Internal medicine ward N=107 n % n % n % Age 20 30<yr < < < Total N=232 p value Mean age (SD) 44.7 (9.9) 40.0 (10.7) 42.5 (10.6) Length of service 0 3<yr < < Mean age (SD) 9.9 (8.3) 8.4 (8.0) 9.2 (8.2) Type of occupation Nurse Care worker Official position Yes No Night shift Currently Not now <0.001 p value of age and length of service determined by the t-test. p value of type of occupation, official position and night shift determined by the chi-square test.

4 Table 2. Means and the standard deviations of items of the brief job stress questionnaire and the Maslach burnout inventory of nurses and care workers in psychiatric wards Nurses N=85 Care workers N=40 Mean SD Mean SD p value Brief job stress questionnaire Job stressor Quantitative workload Qualitative workload Physical burden Human relationship Workplace environment Job control Skill utilization Job aptitude Worthwhileness of working life Job stress reaction Vigor Irritability Fatigue Anxiety Depressed mood Physical complaint Social support Support from superiors Support from colleagues Support from family/friend Satisfaction Satisfied with job Satisfied with home Maslach burnout inventory Emotional exhaustion Depersonalization Reduced personal accomplishment p value determined by the t-test BJSQ MBI Table 2, 3 3 BJSQ MBI Table 4 MBI

5 51 Table 3. Means and the standard deviations of items of the brief job stress questionnaire and the Maslach burnout inventory of nurses and care workers in internal medicine wards Nurses N=90 Care workers N=17 Mean SD Mean SD p value Brief job stress questionnaire Job stressor Quantitative workload Qualitative workload Physical burden Human relationship Workplace environment Job control Skill utilization Job aptitude Worthwhileness of working life Job stress reaction Vigor Irritability Fatigue Anxiety Depressed mood Physical complaint Social support Support from superiors Support from colleagues Support from family/friend Satisfaction Satisfied with job Satisfied with home Maslach burnout inventory Emotional exhaustion Depersonalization Reduced personal accomplishment p value determined by the t-test. IV )

6 Table 4. Means and the standard deviations of items of the brief job stress questionnaire and the Maslach burnout inventory of psychiatric ward and internal medicine ward workers Psychiatric ward Ns Cw N=125 Internal medicine ward Ns Cw N=107 Mean SD Mean SD p value Brief job stress questionnaire Job stressor Quantitative workload <0.001 Qualitative workload <0.001 Physical burden Human relationship Workplace environment <0.001 Job control Skill utilization Job aptitude Worthwhileness of working life <0.001 Job stress reaction Vigor <0.001 Irritability Fatigue Anxiety Depressed mood Physical complaint Social support Support from superiors Support from colleagues Support from family/friend Satisfaction Satisfied with job Satisfied with home Maslach burnout inventory Emotional exhaustion Depersonalization Reduced personal accomplishment <0.001 Ns = Nurses, Cw = Care workers. p value determined by analysis of covariance. Covariates are age, type of occupation and night shift. 4,22) 15) 2 23) 24) 12) 11)

7 53 11) 12, 13) 11) 12) 13) 12) 25) 11 23) 26) 3 5) 27) 28)

8 ) 3, 6) 21) Leiter & Maslach 29) 27) 30, 31) 32) 25) 11, 14, 33) BJSQ 34) 35) 1) [ ] ) ) 1995; 37: ) 2003; 13:

9 55 5) 2001; 16: ) 1991; 33: ) EBNRSNG 2004; 4: ) ) 2012; 21: ) ; ) 2009; 31: ) 2002; 25: ) 2008; 4: ) 2002; 21: ) 2008; 50: ) ) Maslach, C. Burnout. A multidimensional perspective. In W. B. Schaufeli., C. Maslach & T. Marek (Eds.), Professional burnout: Recent developments in theory and research. Washington DC: Taylor & Francis, 1993: ) ) 2012; 58: ) Ashtari Z, Farhady Y, Khodaee MR. Relationship between job burnout and work performance in a sample of Iranian mental health staff. Afr J Psychiatry 2009; 12: ) ) 2011; 2: ) 2009; 18: ) ; ) ; 28: ) ; ) 2004; 17: ) 2000; 6: ) Leiter MP, Maslach C. The impact of interpersonal environment on burnout and organizational commitment. J Organ Behav 1988; 9: ) Firth H, McIntee J, McKeown P, Britton P. Burnout and professional depression: related concepts? J Adv Nurs 1986; 11: ) 1992; 35: ) 2005; 25: ) 2012; 11: ) 1998; 11: ) Yada H, Abe H, Funakoshi Y, et al. Development of the Psychiatric Nurse Job Stressor Scale (PNJSS). Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 2011; 65:

10 Job Stress and Burnout among Nurses and Care Workers in Psychiatric Wards A Comparison with Internal Medicine Wards Toshiki Fukuzaki 1 and Hiroyuki Tanihara 1 1 Okayama EAP Counseling Room, Hayashi Foundation Psychiatric Research Institute, 472 Hama, Nakaku, Okayama , Japan Objectives: To demonstrate the actual state of job stress and burnout among nurses and care workers working in psychiatric wards by comparing them with those who serve in internal medicine wards. Methods: A survey was conducted of female ward nurses and care workers working at two psychiatric hospitals and two general hospitals in the Chugoku area using the brief job stress questionnaire and the Maslach burnout inventory-japanese version. A total of 232 female nurses and care workers were analyzed, 125 from psychiatric wards and 107 from internal medicine wards. Results: Job stressors of stress due to workplace environment, job control, skill utilization, job aptitude and worthwhileness of working life were significantly greater in psychiatric wards than in internal medicine wards. Stress of quantitative and qualitative workloads, however, was significantly lower in psychiatric wards than in internal medicine wards. For job stress reaction, vigor was significantly lower in psychiatric wards than in internal medicine wards. For burnout, psychiatric wards scored significantly higher in depersonalization and reduced personal accomplishment compared with internal medicine wards. Conclusions: Reviewing these results and their association with stress control policy in psychiatric wards, we suggest that three factors are important: maintaining working environment, enhancing conferences, and providing learning opportunities. (San Ei Shi 2014; 56: 47 56)

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