Architecture Differentiation Enterprise versus Solution Architecture

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1 Enterprise versus Solution Architecture Architecture Handbook core components (view model) View model is holistic, interlinked and takes EA into account Complementary material includes check-lists, training material, show cases, etc. Department of Computer Sciences University of Basel 1

2 Enterprise versus Solution Architecture Enterprise Architecture Life-Cycle Model Reference Architecture Model As-Is Architecture Perform Gap Analysis Derive and define Roadmaps Initiate, Guide and Govern Solutions Model To-Be <<Black Architecture Box>> Enterprise Architecture Solution Architecture Life-Cycle Define Enterprise Architecture Context Develop & Evaluate Alternatives Elaborate System Context Elaborate Architecture Vision Elaborate Application Architecture Elaborate Data Architecture Elaborate Technology Architecture Elaborate cross-cutting Architecture Perspectives Review Architecture Department of Computer Sciences University of Basel 2

3 Define Enterprise Architecture Context Step 1: Enterprise Architecture Context Objective Understand project and envisioned solution within Novartis broader Enterprise and Domain Architecture context Analyse impacts and changes to the As-Is Enterprise architecture landscapes based on envisioned solution s future shape Understand gaps, overlaps, deficiencies, strengths of As-Is Enterprise architecture context regarding Capabilities Services Processes Information Applications Technologies Roles - Solution Architect, Business Analyst, Enterprise Architect Department of Computer Sciences University of Basel 3

4 Define Enterprise Architecture Context Understand envisioned solution within broader Enterprise Architecture context Department of Computer Sciences University of Basel 4

5 Enterprise versus Solution Architecture Enterprise Architecture Life-Cycle Model Reference Architecture Model As-Is Architecture Perform Gap Analysis Derive and define Roadmaps Initiate, Guide and Govern Solutions Model To-Be <<Black Architecture Box>> Enterprise Architecture Solution Architecture Life-Cycle Define Enterprise Architecture Context Develop & Evaluate Alternatives Elaborate System Context Elaborate Architecture Vision Elaborate Application Architecture Elaborate Data Architecture Elaborate Technology Architecture Elaborate cross-cutting Architecture Perspectives Review Architecture Department of Computer Sciences University of Basel 5

6 Step 2: Refine Principles and Requirements Objective This step is about generating and documenting a common understanding of what is expected and possible under the given conditions, taking into account all factors driving the architecture. Describe the quality attributes of the Computer System, and the constraints that the solution must satisfy to deliver the business goals, objectives, or capabilities. Assess sizing, cost, and viability of the proposed Computer System, which is very much driven by given non-functional requirements. Crucial within this step is to differentiate those requirements that are architecture significant from the ones that are not. Roles - Solution Architect, Business Analyst, Enterprise Architect Department of Computer Sciences University of Basel 6

7 Problem Actors are external entities (human beings, systems) that use cases are targeted at. Use Case 1 Use Case 4 Use Case 2 Use Case Overviews provide at one glance overviews of the functional scope that a problem has Use Case 3 Use Case 5 Use Cases are a means to analyse as well as define functional requirements of a the problem at hand Department of Computer Sciences University of Basel 7

8 Problem Use Case Descriptions describe interactions between an Actor and the targeted system on that system s surface. Thus Use Case descriptions do only describe what the system does not how it does that. «System» message message message message Department of Computer Sciences University of Basel 8

9 Problem Use Case Descriptions describe interactions between an Actor and the targeted system on that system s surface. Thus Use Case descriptions do only describe what the system does not how it does that. «System» message message message message Department of Computer Sciences University of Basel 9

10 Problem Security Category Requirement Scale Quantification Performance Availability Extensibility Non-functional Requirements capture all those requirments that do not describe the functional end-points (aka: Use Cases) a System provides but rather how well those functions provide their respective service to the outside. Typical NFR categories are listed here. But there is a broad variety of further NFRs categories one can think of (e.g. reusability, interoperability, portability, scalability). Another important distinction is Use Case specific NFRs as opposed to system-wide NFRs that may exist for the problem at hand Maintainability Department of Computer Sciences University of Basel 10

11 Problem Security Category Requirement Scale Quantification Performance Availability Extensibility Non-functional Requirements capture all those requirments that do not describe the functional end-points (aka: Use Cases) a System provides but rather how well those functions provide their respective service to the outside. Typical NFR categories are listed here. But there is a broad variety of further NFRs categories one can think of (e.g. reusability, interoperability, portability, scalability). Another important distinction is Use Case specific NFRs as opposed to system-wide NFRs that may exist for the problem at hand Maintainability Department of Computer Sciences University of Basel 11

12 Create and document a common understanding of what is functionally expected and possible Department of Computer Sciences University of Basel 12

13 Create and document a common understanding of what is functionally expected and possible Use Case Brief Description Source Create Architecture Initial development of a solution architecture VOC/CTQ that meets given requirements and constraints Change and evolve Architecture Communicate and explain Architecture Review and assess Architecture Analyze impact of Architecture Update domain landscape based on Architecture Refactor solution architecture that already exists to meet requirements that have changed in the meanwhile Communicate solution architecture, its key assumptions and decisions to different stakeholder groups Review given architecture regarding its fitness for purpose Analyze impact architecture has to the broader domain-, or enterprise context Update the broader domain-, or enterprise context based on changes provoked by the given solution architecture VOC/CTQ VOC/CTQ VOC/CTQ VOC/CTQ VOC/CTQ Department of Computer Sciences University of Basel 13

14 Create and document a common understanding of what is functionally expected and possible Name Brief Description Actor Descriptions Preconditions Create Architecture Initial development of a solution architecture that meets given requirements and constraints Solution Architect Solution Architect is involved in pre-project as well as earliest project phases Basic Flow of Events 1. Solution Architect (SA) takes filled-in standard templates as input 2. SA gets empty Architecture Handbook (AH) template (TP) 3. SA uses Architecture Handbook process description (PD) a. SA performs Step 1 in AH PD and updates AH TP b. SA performs Step 2 in AH PD and updates AH TP c.... d. SA performs Step 12 in AH PD and updates AH TP 4. SA applies checklists to verify sufficient completeness 5. SA communicates AH to stakeholders and seeks approval 6. Use Case ends successfully Alternative Flows Alternative Flow: Solution Architecture is not approved 6.If SA could not gain approval by key stakeholders, the UC continues at UC step 3 Post-conditions Solution Architecture is developed and described Extension Points Checklists, Concepts, References, Model and Notations, Example ANs, etc. Department of Computer Sciences University of Basel 14

15 Describe the quality attributes of the Computer System, and the constraints that the solution must satisfy to deliver the business goals, objectives, or capabilities. NFR Brief Description Source Focus on IT-System quality One of the key focus areas (beyond functional VOC/CTQ coverage) should be a system s quality attributes (e.g. Security, Availability & Reliability, Performance & Scalability, Extensibility) Architecture description to travel with the System Beyond benefitting the project as such, the architecture description is a system document and VOC/CTQ Encourage iterative development approach Keep approach adaptive to non-ice contexts should travel with it, accordingly Even though the standard PM metholdogy has a strong waterfall/v-model tendency built into it, the solution architecture practice should encourage an iterative, incremental and evolutionary architecture development process Even though developed for standard PM methodology as well as integrated into this framework, the solution architecture practice should be kept open to be applied in non-pm methodology contexts as well VOC/CTQ VOC/CTQ Department of Computer Sciences University of Basel 15

16 Enterprise versus Solution Architecture Enterprise Architecture Life-Cycle Model Reference Architecture Model As-Is Architecture Perform Gap Analysis Derive and define Roadmaps Initiate, Guide and Govern Solutions Model To-Be <<Black Architecture Box>> Enterprise Architecture Solution Architecture Life-Cycle Define Enterprise Architecture Context Develop & Evaluate Alternatives Elaborate System Context Elaborate Architecture Vision Elaborate Application Architecture Elaborate Data Architecture Elaborate Technology Architecture Elaborate cross-cutting Architecture Perspectives Review Architecture Department of Computer Sciences University of Basel 16

17 Develop & Evaluate Alternatives Step 3: Develop Architecture Alternatives Objective Based on the driving factors that were identified in the previous step and taking into account the architecture context, this step supports the identification of architecture candidates which could potentially cope with the problem at hand Broaden the view to not overlook appealing but exceptional approaches to solve the actual business problem Create holistic information basis to be able to take sufficiently broad as well as grounded preferred solution -decision Document the alternative selection process so that it can be communicated to different stakeholder groups Roles - Solution Architect, Business Analyst, Enterprise Architect Department of Computer Sciences University of Basel 17

18 Develop & Evaluate Alternatives Step 4: Evaluate Alternatives Objective Roles For selected business applications and tools it is very likely that architectural alternatives exist for implementing them in the Novartis context. Systematic evaluation of different Architecture Alternatives. Explication of evaluation criteria to allow reflection on the selection process as well its ultimate outcome (i.e. finally selected Architecture Alternative). Provide traceability of the Architecture Alternative selection process. - Solution Architect, Business Analyst, Enterprise Architect Department of Computer Sciences University of Basel 18

19 Enterprise versus Solution Architecture Enterprise Architecture Life-Cycle Model Reference Architecture Model As-Is Architecture Perform Gap Analysis Derive and define Roadmaps Initiate, Guide and Govern Solutions Model To-Be <<Black Architecture Box>> Enterprise Architecture Solution Architecture Life-Cycle Define Enterprise Architecture Context Develop & Evaluate Alternatives Elaborate System Context Elaborate Architecture Vision Elaborate Application Architecture Elaborate Data Architecture Elaborate Technology Architecture Elaborate cross-cutting Architecture Perspectives Review Architecture Department of Computer Sciences University of Basel 19

20 Elaborate System Context Step 5: Elaborate System Context Objective This step describes the solution as a whole and from a black-box perspective by capturing its highest level solution structures as well as relationships which exist between these and external entities crossing the given system s boundaries. To provide an overview of interfaces to be considered in the solution design. To verify that the information flows between the system and its external factors (i.e. external systems and actors) are in alignment with the external system owners expectations and commitments. To communicate at a high level the system boundaries to respective stakeholder groups. Roles - Solution Architect, Business Analyst, Enterprise Architect Department of Computer Sciences University of Basel 20

21 Elaborate System Context Context The System under design is not white-box zoomed into here. Its context as well as how the system under design relateds to its context is the interesting bit here. External System External Systems are mentioned not described in greatest detail either. Interfaces are those elements that are of interest when it comes to external systems External System System under design External System External System Department of Computer Sciences University of Basel 21

22 Elaborate System Context Context The System under design is not white-box zoomed into here. Its context as well as how the system under design relateds to its context is the interesting bit here. External System External Systems are mentioned not described in greatest detail either. Interfaces are those elements that are of interest when it comes to external systems External System System under design External System External System Department of Computer Sciences University of Basel 22

23 Elaborate System Context Create a description of the solution s immediate context Department of Computer Sciences University of Basel 23

24 Elaborate System Context Detail the solution s immediate context further Department of Computer Sciences University of Basel 24

25 Enterprise versus Solution Architecture Enterprise Architecture Life-Cycle Model Reference Architecture Model As-Is Architecture Perform Gap Analysis Derive and define Roadmaps Initiate, Guide and Govern Solutions Model To-Be <<Black Architecture Box>> Enterprise Architecture Solution Architecture Life-Cycle Define Enterprise Architecture Context Develop & Evaluate Alternatives Elaborate System Context Elaborate Architecture Vision Elaborate Application Architecture Elaborate Data Architecture Elaborate Technology Architecture Elaborate cross-cutting Architecture Perspectives Review Architecture Department of Computer Sciences University of Basel 25

26 Elaborate Architecture Vision Step 6: Elaborate Architecture Vision Objective Where the System Context provides a black box view on the system(s) in scope of the solution, the Architecture Vision provides a very highlevel first white box view on it. Primary focus of this step is to provide the Architect a handy tool for communicating with a broad variety of different stakeholder groups. The Architecture Vision viewpoint combines multiple aspects which are captured in a more focussed fashion throughout the following steps. Be able to communicate a comprehensive overview of the envisioned architecture s future shape, its advantages, functional coverage, implications, and consequences to different stakeholder groups. Roles - Solution Architect Department of Computer Sciences University of Basel 26

27 Enterprise versus Solution Architecture Enterprise Architecture Life-Cycle Model Reference Architecture Model As-Is Architecture Perform Gap Analysis Derive and define Roadmaps Initiate, Guide and Govern Solutions Model To-Be <<Black Architecture Box>> Enterprise Architecture Solution Architecture Life-Cycle Define Enterprise Architecture Context Develop & Evaluate Alternatives Elaborate System Context Elaborate Architecture Vision Elaborate Application Architecture Elaborate Data Architecture Elaborate Technology Architecture Elaborate cross-cutting Architecture Perspectives Review Architecture Department of Computer Sciences University of Basel 27

28 Elaborate Data Architecture Step 7: Elaborate Application Architecture Objective Roles In this step the architect develops a model, which depicts the solution s core functional building blocks (i.e. Application s) as well as their inter-dependencies. Beyond the solution s functional decomposition, this step also elaborates the realization of use cases which were captured by use case descriptions in the functional requirements step. Identify potential or final Application s that will be responsible to provide the required functionality. Outline the relationships that exist between Application s. - Solution Architect Department of Computer Sciences University of Basel 28

29 Elaborate Data Architecture IT Solution Business Architecture Processes Services Capabilities Application Architecture Client Presentation Business Logic Integration Persistence Technology Architecture Data Architecture Information Information Relation Information Flow Application Infrastructure Client Infrastructure Presentation Infrastructure Business Logic Infrastructure Integration Infrastructure Persistence Infrastructure OS Hypervisor IT-Infrastructure Computing (Client & Server Devices) Network & NOS Storage Data Centres Department of Computer Sciences University of Basel 29

30 Elaborate Data Architecture Application Architecture Client Presentation Business Logic Integration Persistence Application Architecture Client Presentation Business Logic Integration Persistence Application P(A) Application UI(A) Application AL(A) Application DA(A) Application P(A) message message message message message Department of Computer Sciences University of Basel 30

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