# 0.1 Multiple Regression Models

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1 0.1 Multiple Regression Models We will introduce the multiple Regression model as a mean of relating one numerical response variable y to two or more independent (or predictor variables. We will see different models in order to accommodate numerical as well as categorical independent variables. How to use sample data to obtain estimates and confidence intervals based for the model parameters and how to interpret the these will be presented. We will discuss the assumption included with the model an how to use the sample data to check if they are met. The Multiple Linear Regression Model where y is the dependent variable x 1, x 2,..., x k are the independent variables y = β 0 + β 1 x 1 + β 2 x β k x k + e E(y) = β 0 + β 1 x 1 + β 2 x β k x k is the deterministic part of the model β i determines the contribution of the independent variable x i e is the random error, which is assumed to be normally distributed with mean 0 and standard deviation σ. We will now discuss different choices for the independent variables, then when building a model for a certain problem, we can choose out of those discussed First-Order-Model The term first indicates that the independent variables are only included in the first power, we later see how we can increase the order. The First-Order Model in Quantitative Variables y = β 0 + β 1 x 1 + β 2 x β k x k + e where x 1, x 2,..., x k are quantitative variables, which are not functions of each other. β 0 is the mean of y, when all independent variables equal 0. β i is the slope of the line relating y with x i when all other independent variables are held fixed. When choosing estimates for the parameters of the model, the criteria is the same as for the Simple linear regression model Make SSE = (y i ŷ i ) 2 as small as possible by choosing ˆβ 1,... ˆβ k, where ŷ = ˆβ 0 + ˆβ 1 x 1 + ˆβ 2 x ˆβ k x k. Finding the estimates involves solving k+1 equations for k+1 parameters. This is easy with methods from linear algebra, but tedious without. Here we will rely on the computer to find the estimates for us. The estimate for σ will be still the square root of the MSE. ˆσ = s = SSE MSE = n (k + 1) The degrees of freedom for Error are df = n (k + 1). 1

2 Example 1 Feeding of snow goslings Botanists were interested in predicting the weight change of snow geese goslings as a function of digestion efficiency, acid-detergent fibre (amount in the food) (all measured in percentage), and diet (plants or duck chow (duck food)). The acid-detergent fibre is the least digestible portion in plant food. Our goal will be to fit the first order model to the data, where we want to explain the weight change, E(y) = β 0 + β 1 x 1 + β 2 x 2 y = weight change, x 1 = digestion efficiency, x 2 = acid-detergent fibre. In order to assure that a linear model is reasonable first obtain scattergrams for 1. the response variable with each explanatory variable, and 2. each pair of explanatory variables. We hope to find that the response variable shows a linear relationship with the explanatory variables. At least we do not want to see a non linear relationship. When analyzing the scattergrams for the pairs of explanatory variables, we do not want to find a strong linear relationship. Consider they would relate in a perfect linear relationship, then in the Multiple Linear Regression Model they would bear the information on the response variable and would be redundant. The matrix plot shows that the relation ship between weight change and the other two variables show a linear trend, the linear model seem to be appropriate for describing the relationship between the variables. But the scattergram for digestion efficiency and fibre displays a strong negative linear relationship, we must fear that one of them will show to be redundant and we will have to check for this effect. The estimates of the coefficients and the confidence intervals for those produced by SPSS are: 2

3 Coefficients Unstandardized Standardized Coefficients Coefficients 95% Confidence Interval for B Model B Std. Error Beta t Sig. Lower Bound Upper Bound (Constant) digeff adfiber a Dependent Variable: wtchng From the table we get: ˆβ 0 = 12.18, ˆβ 1 = 0.027, and ˆβ 2 = In the ANOVA table we find MSE = , which results in s = = Interpretation: β 1 = 0.27% gives the mean change in the weight difference for a one percent increase in the digestion efficiency when keeping the amount of fibre being fed to the gosling is kept constant. Based on the sample we estimate that the weight drops in average by percent if the digestion efficiency increases one percent and the acid detergent fibre remains the same. Caution: We estimate a drop in weight change when increasing the digestion efficiency, this is in contradiction to what we observe in the scattergram for weight change and digestion efficiency. The reason for the discrepancy between the two is the high correlation between digestion efficiency and the fibre variable, we already observed in the scattergram. Try the interpretation of β 2 is the value consistent with the scattergram? β 0 does not have a meaningful interpretation in this example, it would be the mean change in weight if the digestion efficiency is at 0 percent and the acid-detergent fibre is at 0 %. The Overall Model Utility and Inference about the Parameters The multiple coefficient of determination, R 2, is calculated by R 2 = SS yy SSE SS yy = Explained variability Total variability Just as in the simple linear regression model the coefficient of determination measures how much of the sample variability in y can be explained through the linear model applied. For the example the output shows an R 2 = About 53% of the variation in the weight change can be explained through different values in acid-detergent fibre and digestion efficiency. R 2 close to one indicates a very good fit of the model, and R 2 close to zero indicates lack of fit. One needs to be careful though, because if the sample size equals the number of parameters R 2 = 1, and a high number of parameters ensures a goof fit, even though the population might not be represented by the estimated model. In order to avoid this pitfall one should use a much larger sample than parameters when fitting a linear regression model. In order to adjust for a high number of parameters in relation to the sample size indicating a good fit, the adjusted-r 2 = R 2 a is used to measure the fit of the model, R 2 a = 1 n 1 n k 1 ( ) SSE R 2 a will not automatically increase when parameters are added to the model. Smaller models are preferred over larger models. Usually the adjusted coefficient of determination is reported for multiple regression models. 3 SS yy

4 For our example R 2 a = 0.502, which is only a little lower than R 2. Instead of just interpreting R 2 and R 2 a, we can test for model utility. If all slope parameters would be 0, then nothing could be learned about the response variable from the explanatory variables used. In a first step, we will try to disprove that they are all zero and test H 0 : β 1 = β 2 =... = β k. The test statistic is based on F = (SS yy SSE)/k SSE/(n k 1) which is the ratio of the (standardized) explained variability to the (standardized) unexplained variability. A large ratio indicates that most of the variability could be explained, and a small value indicates that barely any variability could be explained. To judge if the ratio is small or large we have to take the degrees of freedom into account. The F-Test for overall usefulness of the model 1. Hypotheses: H 0 : β 1 = β 2 =... = β k = 0 versus H a : at least one is not zero. Choose α. 2. Assumptions: The assumption of the multiple regression model hold up. 3. Test Statistic: F 0 = (SS yy SSE)/k SSE/(n k 1) with df n = k, df d = n k P-value = P (F > F 0 ) 5. Reject H 0 if P-value< α, other wise do not reject H Put into context. Continue example: 1. Hypotheses: H 0 : β 1 = β 2 = 0 versus H a : at least one is not zero. Choose α. 2. Assumptions: The assumption of the multiple regression model hold up, we checked that by looking at the scattergram that the model seems to fit reasonably well. 3. Test Statistic from output: ANOVA(b) Model Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig. Regression (a) Residual Total a Predictors: (Constant), adfiber, digeff b Dependent Variable: wtchng with df n = 2, df d = = 39. F 0 = (SS yy SSE)/k SSE/(n k 1) =

5 4. P-value = P (F > F 0 )= Reject H 0 since P-value< α = At significance level of 0.05 the test confirms our conclusion based on the coefficient of determination, we have sufficient evidence that the model is useful in explaining the weight change of snow geese goslings. Once we established that the model seems to describe the relationship between the response and the independent variables properly, we start asking questions about the values of the parameters, and which of them show a significant influence on the response variable. We can answer this question in two ways, we can find confidence intervals for the parameters, or conduct tests. A (1 α) 100% Confidence Interval for a slope parameter β i ˆβ i ± t s ˆβi The estimates ˆβ i and s ˆβi, should be obtained through SPSS, formulas are too complex to be presented here. Continue example: From SPSS: Confidence interval for β 1 : [-0.135, 0.082] Confidence interval for β 2 : [-0.717, ] Since 0 falls with in the 95% CI for β 1, we conclude that β 1 might be 0, and the digestion efficiency has no significant influence on the weight change. Since the confidence interval for β 2 does not include 0, we are 95% confident that β 2 0 and β 2 < 0, that is the less acid-detergent fibre in the food, the more the goslings gain weight. Another way of answering this question is the test of an individual slope parameter β i. 1. Hypotheses: Parameter of interest β i. test type hypotheses upper tail H 0 : β i 0 vs. H a : β i > 0 lower tail H 0 : β i 0 vs. H a : β i < 0 two tail H 0 : β i = 0 vs. H a : β i 0 Choose α. 2. Assumptions: Regression model is appropriate 3. Test statistic: t 0 = ˆβ i s ˆβi, df = n k 1 4. P-value: test type P-value upper tail P (t > t 0 ) lower tail P (t < t 0 ) two tail 2P (t > abs(t 0 )) 5. Decision: If P value < α reject H 0, otherwise do not reject H Put into context 5

6 Continue example: Let us test 1. Hypotheses: Parameter of interest β 2. lower tail H 0 : β 2 0 vs. H a : β 2 < 0 Choose α = Assumptions: Regression model is appropriate, checked before. 3. Test statistic: t 0 = 3.569, df = P-value: The two tailed is 0.001, since we are doing a lower tailed test and the test statistic is negative, the P-value=0.001/2= Decision: Since P value < α reject H The test gives the same result as the confidence interval, we found significant evidence that increasing the acid-detergent fibre in the food results in a drop in the weight change. Be careful interpreting the result, when failing to reject H 0 : β i = 0. This could be due to 1. there is no relationship between y and x i, or 2. there is a relationship, but it is not linear, or 3. a type II error occurred. practise question (pg.678) Residual Analysis Before we can apply the model for predicting and estimating we should check if the assumption in the model are met. We have to assume that the error, e, in the regression model is normally distributed with mean 0 and standard deviation σ. In order to check these assumptions the residuals should be obtained and 1. be displayed in a histogram and/or QQ-Plot, to asses if the assumption that they come from a normal distribution is reasonable, and 2. residual plots for all predictor variables (scattergram of predictor and residuals) should be obtained to illustrate that the standard deviation of the error does not depend on the value of the predictors. 6

7 Continue example: 1. The histogram and QQ-plot for the residuals in our example: Both graphs do not indicate a strong deviation from normality. They are no cause for concerns, about the assumptions in the model not being met. 2. In addition we need to check that the values of the predictor variables do not influence the spread: Both graphs display even scatter around zero, which is not changing for different values of digeff, and adfibre. The Residual Analysis support that the assumptions of the model are met, and for that reason our conclusion derived so far are valid. Now that we established that the model is appropriate to describe the relationship between y and the predictor variables and know which of the variables significantly influences the response variable, we 7

8 can use the model to predict future values of y and estimate E(y) for certain values of the predictor variables. Estimation and Prediction Using the Model Remember the difference between estimating the mean of y, E(y), for given values of x 1,..., x p, and predicting a future value of y for given values of x 1,..., x p. For both cases we give an interval: when estimating E(y), we give a confidence interval that includes the mean of y with a given degree of confidence for the chosen values of x 1,..., x p. when predicting y, we give a prediction interval which shall include a certain proportion of measurements of y for the chosen values of x 1,..., x p. Continue example: To predict the weight change in a gosling, for which has a digestion efficiency of x 1 = 21% and was fed food including x 2 = 23% acid-detergent fibre we use SPSS (use the Save button within Linear Regression). The 95% prediction interval (from SPSS) is given to be [ , ]. 95% of weight changes of goslings with x 1 = 21 and x 2 =23 fall between -6.2% and 8.3%. The mean weight change of a gosling with 21% digestion efficiency and was 23% acid-detergent fibre is estimated through a 95% CI to fall between -.31 % and 2.5%. From this confidence interval we can not conclude that the weight changes significantly for snow goslings with 21% digestion efficiency and 23% of acid-detergent fibre Interaction Models As in ANOVA we can use the Regression model to see if explanatory variables interact. The First order model implies, that the response variable depends on 2 or more predictor variables in a linear fashion. For simplicity assume only 2 predictors. Then when we know the value of x 2 = x 2p, then E(y) = β 0 + β 1 x 1 + β 2 x 2p which is a line in x 1 with slope β 1 and intercept β 0 + β 2 x 2p. In conclusion: E(y) depends on x 1 with the same slope for all values of x 2 8

9 The lines for different values of x 2 are parallel! We will now include an interaction term with the model, that will permit to check if this assumption is true. We will permit that the slopes of the lines relating x 1 with y differ for different values of x 2, we call this interaction in the regression model. A Multiple Linear Regression Model including interaction for two predictors y = β 0 + β 1 x 1 + β 2 x 2 + β 3 x 1 x 2 + e where y is the dependent variable x 1, x 2 are the independent (predictor) variables E(y) = β 0 + β 1 x 1 + β 2 x 2 + β 3 x 1 x 2 is the deterministic part of the model β 1 + β 3 x 2 represents the change in y for a 1 unit increase in x 1 β 2 + β 3 x 1 represents the change in y for a 1 unit increase in x 2 9

10 e is the random error, which is assumed to be normally distributed with mean 0 and standard deviation σ. For fitting such a model with SPSS, a new variable is created x 3 = x 1 x 2 and included in the model. This means we find for each observation in our sample the product of their measurement for x 1 and times it by the measurement for x 2, this gives us a third predictor variable to be included in the model. We then analyze the data in the same way we did for the first order model. Continue example: The model to predict the weight change of snow goslings through their digestion efficiency and the amount of acid-detergent fibre they were fed, including an interaction term is: y = β 0 + β 1 x 1 + β 2 x 2 + β 3 x 1 x 2 + e y = weight change, x 1 = digestion efficiency, and x 2 = acid-detergent fibre In a first step we find again the estimates for the model parameters (using SPSS) Coefficients Unstandardized Standardized Coefficients Coefficients 95% Confidence Interval for B Model B Std. Error Beta t Sig. Lower Bound Upper Bound (Constant) digeff adfiber eff-fiber a Dependent Variable: wtchng gives ˆβ 0 = 9.561, ˆβ 1 = 0.024, ˆβ 2 = 0.357, and ˆβ 3 = For finding an estimate for σ we need to look at the ANOVA table and find SSE, or MSE ANOVA(b) Model Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig. Regression (a) Residual Total a Predictors: (Constant), adfiber, digeff, eff-fibre b Dependent Variable: wtchng We get MSE = , so s = = Now check the utility, for this we will first report the coefficient of determination R 2 = and the adjusted coefficient of determination R 2 a = 0.498, both indicate that about 50% of the variation in the weight change can be explained through digestion efficiency and the amount of fibre fed. To assure the model is meaningful, we conduct a model utility test 1. Hypotheses: H 0 : β 1 = β 2 = β 3 = 0 versus H a : at least one is not zero. Choose α. 2. Assumptions: The assumption of the multiple regression model hold up, we checked that by looking at the scattergram that the model seems to fit reasonably well. 10

11 3. Test Statistic from the ANOVA table: with df n = 3, df d = = P-value = P (F > F 0 )= Reject H 0 since P-value< α = 0.05 F 0 = (SS yy SSE)/k SSE/(n k 1) = At significance level of 0.05 the test confirms our conclusion based on the coefficient of determination, we have sufficient evidence that the model is useful in explaining the weight change of snow geese goslings. In order to decide, if interaction is present, and which variable (beyond the interaction) influences the weight change, we test if the slope parameters (coefficients) are significantly different from Hypotheses: H 0 : β 1 = 0 vs. H a : β 1 0, H 0 : β 2 = 0 vs. H a : β 2 0, H 0 : β 3 = 0 vs. H a : β 3 0 Choose α = Assumptions: Regression model is appropriate, checked before. 3. Test statistic (from SPSS, see above): For β 1 : t 0 = 0.270, df = 39 For β 2 : t 0 = 1.845, df = 39 For β 3 : t 0 = 0.702, df = P-value: For β 1 : P value = 0.788, For β 2 : P value = For β 3 : P value = Decision: None of the P-values is smaller than 0.05 we can not reject any of the null hypotheses. 6. The tests are non conclusive, we could not find interaction none of the two factors is shown to have a significant influence on the weight change of the goslings. In our model building process, we should decide, not to include the interaction with the model and go back to the first order model only including the amount of fibre as a predictor, because digestion efficiency neither showed a significant main effect nor interaction with the amount of fibre on the weight change of gosling when correcting for the influence of the amount of fibre. 11

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