Chapter 1: The Human Body: An Organization

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1 Chapter 1: The Human Body: An Organization Objectives: 1. Define anatomy and physiology and describe their subdivisions. 2. Explain the principle off complementarity. 3. Name the different levels of structural organization that make up the human body, and explain their relationship. 4. List the 11 organ systems of the body, identify their components, and briefly explain the major function(s) of each system. 5. List the functional characteristics necessary to maintain life in humans. 6. List the survival needs of the body. 7. Define homeostasis and explain its significance. 8. Describe how negative and positive feedback maintain body homeostasis. 9. Describe the relationship between homeostatic imbalance and disease. 10. Describe the anatomical position. 11. Use correct anatomical terms to describe body directions, regions, and body planes or sections. 12. Locate and name the major body cavities and their subdivisions, and list the major organs contained within them. 13. Name the serous membranes and indicate their common function. I. An Overview of Anatomy and Physiology A. Anatomy the structure of body parts and their relationships B. Physiology the function of the body FORM = FUNCTION C. Topics of Anatomy 1. Gross or Macroscopic Anatomy study of large body structures visible to the naked eye a. Regional Anatomy all structures in a region of the body b. Systemic Anatomy all structures in a system of the body c. Surface Anatomy study of the internal structures as they relate to the over lying skin surface 1

2 2. Microscopic Anatomy study of structures too small to be seen with the naked eye a. Cytology study of cells b. Histology study of tissues 3. Developmental Anatomy traces structural changes that occur throughout a lifetime a. Embryology development changes that occur before birth D. Topics of Physiology 1. Topics consider operations of specific systems a. Renal Physiology kidney function and urine production b. Neurophysiology workings of the nervous system c. Cardiovascular Physiology operation of heart & blood vessels E. Complementarity of Structure and Function 1. Form = Function II. Levels of Structural Organization A. atoms molecules organelles cells tissues organs organ systems organism B. Tissues groups of cells that have a similar function 1. Epithelium 2. Muscle 3. Nervous 4. Connective C. Organ groups of tissues that perform a specific function D. Organ System groups of organs that work together to accomplish a common purpose III. Maintaining Life A. Necessary Life Functions 1. Maintain Boundaries a. Inside needs to remain separate from outside b. Control of what goes in and out 2. Movement 3. Responsiveness a. Ability to sense and respond to changes in the environment 4. Digestion 5. Metabolism a. all chemical reactions that occur within body cells 2

3 b. Catabolism breaking down substances c. Anabolism synthesizing complex structures from simple substances d. Cellular Respiration using nutrients and oxygen to produce ATP to power cellular activities 6. Excretion 7. Reproduction a. can occur at the cellular level or the organismal level 8. Growth & Development a. Growth increase in size b. Development change in structure B. Survival Needs 1. Nutrients a. contain chemical substances used for energy and cell building b. most important nutrient is oxygen 2. Water a. provides necessary environment for chemical reactions 3. Normal Body Temperature 4. Atmospheric Pressure a. force air exerts on the surface of the body IV. Homeostasis A. Ability to maintain a stable internal environment B. Unchanging Balanced C. Dynamic Equilibrium internal conditions vary but within narrow limits D. Hemostatic Control Mechanisms 1. Variable factor or event being regulated 2. Receptor 1 st component a. monitors environment and responds to changes (stimuli) b. sends information (input) to 2 nd component 3. Control Center 2 nd component a. determines set point b. level or range at which variable is to be maintained c. determines appropriate response 4. Effector 3 rd component a. provides the means for the control centers response (output) b. results of response feedback to influence stimulus 3

4 1. negative - depressing stimulus so control mechanism shuts off 2. positive enhancing stimulus so reaction continues at faster rate E. Negative Feedback Mechanism 1. results in a change of the variable opposite of initial change, returns variable to ideal value 2. body regulating temperature F. Positive Feedback Mechanism 1. enhances the original stimulus so the activity is accelerated 2. blood clotting V. The Language of Anatomy A. Anatomical Position and Directional Terms 1. Anatomical Position standard body position to give an anatomical reference point 2. DIRECTIONS ALWAYS REFER TO THE PATIENT S BODY, NOT THE OBSERVER B. Regional Terms 1. 2 Divisions of the Body a. Axial Part head, neck, trunk b. Appendicular Part appendages or limbs C. Body Planes and Sections 1. Sagittal Plane divides the body into right and left sections a. Midsagittal plane cut directly on the midline b. Parasagittal plane cut offset of midline 2. Frontal Plane divide the body into front and back sections a. also called a Coronal Plane 3. Transverse or Horizontal Plane cuts body into upper and lower sections a. also called Cross Section 4

5 D. Body Cavities and Membranes DORSAL CAVITY VENTRALCAVITY CRANIAL CAVITY VERTEBRAL CANAL THORACIC CAVITY ABDOMINOPELVIC CAVITY brain spinal cord lungs heart esophagus trachea ABDOMINAL CAVITY stomach liver spleen gallbladder intestine kidneys adrenals pancreas PELVIC CAVITY rectum urinary bladder internal reprod. organs **Note: The diaphragm muscle separates the thoracic from the abdominopelvic cavity 1. Viscera organ 2. Pleural lungs 3. Pericardial heart 4. Mediastinum region that contains the heart E. Membranes of the Ventral Body Cavity 1. Serosa a. Serous Membrane b. thin double-layered membrane covers walls of cavity and outer surface of organs c. Parietal serosa lines wall d. Visceral serosa covers organs e. Serous Fluid thin layer of lubricating fluid secreted by both membranes 2. Serous Membranes of the Heart 5

6 a. Visceral Pericardium membrane on the surface of the heart b. Parietal Pericardium membrane lines the mediastinum c. Pericardial Cavity space between the 2 membranes 3. Serous Membranes of the Lungs a. Visceral Pleura membrane on the surface of the lung b. Parietal Pleura membranes lines the pleural cavity c. Pleural Cavity space between two membranes 4. Serous Membranes of the Abdominal Organs a. Visceral Peritoneum membrane on surface of stomach, liver, etc. b. Parietal Peritoneum membrane lines the surface of the abdominal cavity c. Peritoneal Cavity space between two membranes F. Terms Referring to Direction/Relative Position 1. Superior = above Inferior = below 2. Anterior = front Posterior = back 3. Ventral = front Dorsal = back 4. Medial = center Lateral = side 5. Cephalad = head Caudal = tail 6. Proximal = closer to trunk Distal = further from trunk 7. Superficial = surface Deep = internal 6

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