Human Body Systems. Chapter 3 KNOWLEDGE OBJECTIVES. 5. Describe the primary functions of each of the eight body systems.

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1 KNOWLEDGE OBJECTIVES Chapter 3 Human Body Systems l. Describe the anatomical position. 2. Given two or more body parts, describe their relationship using anatomical terms. 3. Identify the five body cavities and the major structures in each cavity. 4. Identify the eight body systems and the major structures in each system. 5. Describe the primary functions of each of the eight body systems. 6. Give two examples of how body systems work together. 7. Describe what can happen to the body if a problem occurs in one or more of the body systems. 8. Define the key terms for this chapter. 21

2 OUTLINE Introduction 29 Anatomical Terms 29 Body Cavities 31 Body Systems 34 Respiratory system 34 Circulatory System 36 Nervous System 38 Musculoskeletal System 41 Integumentary System 43 Endocrine System 44 Digestive System 46 Genitourinary System 46 Interrelationships of Body Systems 50 22

3 KEY POINTS Body Systems Respiratory. Circulatory. Nervous. Musculoskeletal. Integumentary. Endocrine. Digestive. Genitourinary. LEARNING ACTIVITIES Matching Match each term with its definition. Write its letter on the line in front of the definition. Terms a. Endocrine Definitions 1. A collection of similar cells that performs a specific function 2. A body system that regulates and coordinates the activities of other body systems by producing chemicals that influence the activity of tissues 3. Farthest from the centre or midline 4. To breathe air out of the lungs 5. A body system that eliminates wastes and enables reproduction 6. A body system that plays a major role in temperature regulation and preventing infection 7. Lower; below in relation to another structure 8. In front of 9. A body system that directs movements and sensory function b. Exhale c. Inferior d. Nervous e. Tissue f. Genitourinary g. Distal h. Anterior i. Integumentary 23

4 Short Answer Read each statement or question and write the correct answer or answers in the space provided. 1. Describe the body in the "anatomical position." 2. Identify each body cavity. a. b. c. d. e. 3. List the major structures in the body cavities. a. b. c. d. e. 4. Identify the structures of the respiratory system. a. b. c. d. 24

5 5. Identify the directional terms for the body. 6. Identify the primary parts of the heart. 25

6 CASE STUDIES Read the case studies and answer the questions that follow. Case 3.1 While mowing her lawn, a woman runs over a piece of fence wire. The piece of wire is propelled backwards and makes a deep laceration on her lower leg. 1. Using correct medical terminology, describe the location of her injury in relation to these other body structures: Knee: Ankle: 2. Is the injury anterior or posterior? 3. Is the injury on the medial or lateral side of the leg? 4. Which two body systems will interact initially to alert the casualty to this injury? a. Circulatory, respiratory Case 3.2 Late one afternoon, a woman faints in her office. You are summoned to the scene. As you examine her, you see she is wearing a medical-alert bracelet that indicates that she is an insulin-dependent diabetic. A coworker tells you that the woman did take her insulin today but has not yet eaten, and twenty minutes ago worked out in the fitness centre. 1. Diabetes is a condition that results from a problem in the system. a. Circulatory b. Integumentary c. Endocrine d. Nervous 2. T F Most serious illnesses caused by malfunctions of this system develop slowly. 3. What kind of organs make up this system? 4. What is the primary function of these organs? b. Respiratory, musculoskeletal c. Integumentary, nervous 5. Many of these substances release their substances into the circulatory system to d. Nervous, respiratory influence tissue activity in various parts of the body. What are these substances called? 26

7 SELF-ASSESSMENT Circle the letter of the best answer. 1. Which vessels carry blood from the heart to the rest of the body? a. Arterioles b. Arteries c. Venules 4. The three primary functions of the nervous system are a. Sensory, motor, and integrated. b. Consciousness, memory, and emotions. c. Visual, olfactory, and auditory. d. Consciousness, regulation, and language. d. Veins 5. Which structure in the airway prevents liquids and solids from entering the 2. In comparison to the neck, the head is lungs? described as, whereas the pelvis is. a. Epiglottis a. Inferior, superior b. Proximal, distal c. Superior, inferior d. Distal, proximal 3. In reaction to cold, the skin becomes pale and shows what is called "goosebumps" or "gooseflesh." Which two systems are interacting with the skin to maintain body temperature? b. Uvula c. Trachea d. Esophagus 6. One of the main functions of the integumentary system is to a. Transmit information to the brain. b. Produce blood cells. c. Prevent infection. a. Nervous, musculoskeletal d. Secrete hormones. b. Respiratory, integumentary 7. Which structure is not in the thoracic c. Circulatory, musculoskeletal cavity? d. Nervous, circulatory a. Liver b. Heart c. Lungs d. Rib cage 27

8 8. A person in the anatomical position is standing a. Arms out, palms facing downward. b. Arms at side, palms facing backward. c. Arms out, palms facing forward. d. Arms at side, palms facing forward. 9. The two body systems that work together to provide oxygen for the cells of the body are a. Musculoskeletal and integumentary. b. Respiratory and circulatory. c. Integumentary and respiratory. d. Circulatory and musculoskeletal. 10. Transporting nutrients and oxygen to body cells and removing waste products are functions of the a. Circulatory system. b. Respiratory system. c. Digestive system. d. Endocrine system. 11. In which structure of the respiratory system do oxygen and carbon dioxide pass in and out of the blood? 12. The pain that accompanies a burn from hot water is an example of the interrelationship of which body systems? a. Respiratory, musculoskeletal. b. Circulatory, respiratory. c. Musculoskeletal, integuinentary. d. Integtumentary, nervous. 13. In comparison to the chest, the neck is said to be whereas the pelvis is a. Anterior, posterior. b. Distal; proximal. c. Superior; inferior. d. Lateral; medial. 14. Which system has primary responsibility for getting oxygen to each cell in the body, a. Nervous. b. Circulatory. c. Respiratory. d. Integumentary. a. Pharynx. b. Trachea. c. Bronchi. d. Alveoli. 28

9 15. The heart, blood, and blood vessels are major components of which body system? a. Nervous. b. Integumentary. c. Musculoskeletal. d. Circulatory. 29

10 Answers to Exercises Unit 3-Human Body Systems Matching: (Pg. 28) 1. e 2. a 3. g 4. b 5. f 6. i 7. c 8. h 9. d. Short Answer: 1. Standing facing front, arms at side, palms facing to the front. (Pg. 29) 2. a. Cranial (Pg. 31) b. Spinal; c. Thoracic d. Abdominal e. Pelvic. 3. a. Brain; (Pg. 31) b. Spinal cord c. Heart and lungs d. Liver, pancreas, intestines, stomach, kidneys, and spleen e. Bladder, rectum, and female reproductive organs. 4. a. Epiglottis; (Pg. 34) b. Esophagus; c. Lungs; d. Trachea. 5. a. Proximal (Pg. 30) b. Distal c. Medial d. Lateral e. Right f. Left; g. Superior (Cephalic) h. Anterior (Ventral) i. Posterior (Dorsal) j. Inferior (Caudal). 6. a. Aorta; (Pg. 38) b. Right Atrium c. Right Ventricle d. Left Atrium e. Left Ventricle. Case Study 3.1: 1. Distal; Proximal. (Pg. 29) 2. Anterior (Pg. 29) 3. Lateral (Pg. 29) 4. c (Pg. 45) Case Study 3.2: 1. c (Pg. 44) 2. T (Pg. 44) 3. Glands (Pg. 44) 4. To release fluid and other substances into the blood or onto the skin (Pg. 44) 5. Hormones (Pg. 44) Self Assessment: 1. b (Pg. 37) 2. c (Pg. 29) 3. d (Pg. 45) 4. a (Pg. 38) 5. a (Pg. 34) 6. c (Pg. 43) 7. a (Pg. 31) 8. d (Pg.??) 9. b (Pg.??) 10. a (Pg.??) 11. a (Pg.??) 12. c (Pg.??) 13. d (Pg.??) 14. d (Pg.??) 15. c (Pg.??) 16. b (Pg.??) 17. b (Pg.??) 18. d (Pg.??) 19. d (Pg.??) 30

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