An Introduction to Anatomy and Physiology

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1 PowerPoint Lecture Slides prepared by Betsy C. Brantley Valencia College C H A P T E R 1 An Introduction to Anatomy and Physiology

2 Chapter 1 Learning Outcomes Section 1: A&P in Perspective 1.1 Define anatomy and physiology Explain the relationship between structure and function. Describe the levels of organization in the human body. 1.4 Identify the 11 organ systems of the human body, and describe the major functions of each.

3 Chapter 1 Learning Outcomes Section 2: Homeostasis 1.5 Explain the concept of homeostasis and discuss the roles of negative feedback and positive feedback in maintaining homeostasis. Section 3: Anatomical Terms Use correct anatomical terms to describe superficial and regional anatomy. Use correct directional terms and sectional planes to describe relative positions and relationships among body parts. Identify the major body cavities and the subdivisions of each.

4 Anatomy Is the Study of Form (1.1) Anatomy literally "a cutting open" Study of structures of the body And the physical relationships among body parts

5 Anatomy is the study of form Gross (macroscopic) anatomy Microscopic anatomy Pulmonary trunk Superior vena cava Ascending aorta Right atrium Left ventricle Left atrium Endocardium (inner lining of heart) Myocardium (heart muscle) Epicardium (outer surface of heart) Right ventricle Inferior vena cava Descending aorta Figure

6 Gross and Microscopic Anatomy (1.1) Gross anatomy (or macroscopic anatomy) Studying large structures, i.e., visible with the unaided eye Microscopic anatomy Studying structures that cannot be seen without magnification Limited by equipment Dissecting microscope can see tissues Light microscope can see basic cell structure Electron microscope can see individual molecules

7 Macroscopic anatomy Gross (macroscopic) anatomy Pulmonary trunk Superior vena cava Ascending aorta Left atrium Right atrium Left ventricle Right ventricle Inferior vena cava Descending aorta Figure

8 Microscopic anatomy Microscopic anatomy Endocardium (inner lining of heart) Myocardium (heart muscle) Epicardium (outer surface of heart) Figure

9 Specific Structures Specific Functions (1.1) Link between structure and function always present Link not always understood 200 years between description of heart anatomy and demonstration of its function as a pump

10 Physiology Is the Study of Function (1.1) Physiology Considers functions of human body Complex and more difficult to examine than anatomical structures Focuses on functional properties

11 Examples of Physiology Topics (1.1) Electrical events within the heart coordinating the heartbeat Measured by an electrocardiogram (ECG) Pressure changes within the heart and major arteries

12 Physiology is the study of function Electrocardiogram (ECG) 120 Valve to aorta opens Valve to aorta closes Pressure (mm Hg) Pressure in left ventricle 30 Pressure in left atrium Valve between atrium and ventricle closes Pressure in major arteries Valve between atrium and ventricle opens Pressure changes in the heart 400 Time (msec) Figure

13 Module 1.1 Review a. Define anatomy and physiology. b. What are the differences between gross anatomy and microscopic anatomy? c. Explain the link between anatomy and physiology.

14 Form and Function Are Interrelated (1.2) Anatomy and physiology are closely interrelated in theory and in practice One cannot be fully understood without the other

15 Example of Form and Function Relationship (1.2) Elbow joint Functions like a hinge Allows movement in one plane Forearm moves toward or away from shoulder, but does not twist Anatomical structures impose functional limits

16 Form and function are interrelated The elbow is a hinge joint. Radius Ulna Humerus Cylindrical surface on humerus Interlocking arrangement permits hinge-like movements Depression in the ulna holds the humerus in position. Figure

17 Module 1.2 Review a. Describe how structure and function are interrelated. b. Compare the functioning of the elbow joint with a door on a hinge. c. Describe the structural features that help prevent twisting at the elbow joint.

18 Multiple Levels of Organization in the Human Body (1.3) The human body is complex, representing multiple levels of organization Each level more complex than underlying one All can be broken down to similar chemical and cellular components

19 Levels of Organization Chemical (1.3) Chemical (or molecular) level (Chapter 2) Atoms combine to form molecules Functional property of molecule determined by its: Three-dimensional shape Atomic components

20 Levels of Organization Cellular (1.3) Cellular level (Chapter 3) Cells are the smallest living units in the body Functions depend on organelles (composed of molecules) Each organelle has a specific function For example, a mitochondrion provides energy for heart muscle cell contraction

21 Levels of Organization Tissue to Organ (1.3) Tissue level (Chapter 4) A tissue is a group of cells working together to perform specific functions For example, heart muscle cells form cardiac muscle tissue Organ level An organ is composed of two or more tissues working together to perform specific functions Layers of cardiac muscle tissue along with connective tissue form the heart A three-dimensional organ

22 Levels of Organization Organ System to Organism (1.3) Organ system level (Chapters 4 19) Organ systems consist of interacting organs The heart works with blood vessels and blood to form the cardiovascular system Organism level Highest level of organization Collection of organ systems working together to maintain life and health

23 Levels of organization Organism level Organ system level Organ level Tissue level Cellular level Cellular (or molecular) level Atoms in combination Complex protein molecules Protein filaments Figure 1.3

24 Module 1.3 Review a. Define organ. b. Name the lowest level of biological organization that includes the smallest living units in the body. c. List the levels of organization between cells and organisms.

25 Organs and Organ Systems (1.4) Organ Functional unit composed of more than one tissue type Organ system Organs interacting to perform specific functions

26 Eleven Major Organ Systems (1.4) 1. Integumentary 2. Skeletal 3. Muscular 4. Nervous 5. Endocrine 6. Cardiovascular 7. Lymphatic 8. Respiratory 9. Digestive 10. Urinary 11. Reproductive

27 Organ systems Organism level Organ level The heart is an organ containing many tissue types. Cardiovascular System Organ system level Skeletal Muscular Nervous Endocrine Lymphatic Respiratory Digestive Urinary Integumentary Reproductive The cardiovascular system includes the heart and other organs. Figure

28 Integumentary System (1.4) Protects the body from environmental hazards Controls body temperature

29 Integumentary system Integumentary Figure

30 Skeletal System (1.4) Supports Protects soft tissues Stores minerals Forms blood cells

31 Skeletal system Skeletal Figure

32 Muscular System (1.4) Moves and supports body Produces heat

33 Muscular system Muscular Figure

34 Nervous System (1.4) Directs immediate responses to stimuli Coordinates activities of other organ systems

35 Nervous system Nervous Figure

36 Endocrine System (1.4) Directs long-term changes in activities of other organ systems

37 Endocrine system Endocrine Figure

38 Cardiovascular System (1.4) Transports cells and dissolved materials internally Including nutrients, wastes, and gases

39 Cardiovascular system Cardiovascular System Figure

40 Lymphatic System (1.4) Defends against infection and disease

41 Lymphatic system Lymphatic Figure

42 Respiratory System (1.4) Delivers air to sites where gas exchange can occur between air and blood

43 Respiratory system Respiratory Figure

44 Digestive System (1.4) Processes food Absorbs organic nutrients, minerals, vitamins, and water

45 Digestive system Digestive Figure

46 Urinary System (1.4) Eliminates excess water, salts, and waste products Controls ph

47 Urinary system Urinary Figure

48 Reproductive System (1.4) Produces sex cells and hormones

49 Reproductive system Reproductive Figure

50 Figure

51 Module 1.4 Review a. List the 11 major organ systems of the body. b. Explain the relationship between the skeletal system and the digestive system. c. Using the table as a reference, describe how a compound fracture (bone break that protrudes through the skin) could affect at least six of your organ systems.

52 Homeostasis (Section 2) Homeostasis presence of a stable environment inside the body Failure to maintain homeostasis leads to illness or death Homeostatic regulation how body adjusts physiological systems to preserve homeostasis

53 An Example of Homeostasis (Section 2) Control of temperature in a living space This process involves: 1. A receptor or sensor (thermometer) Detects environmental change or stimulus 2. A control center or integration center (thermostat) Receives and processes information supplied by the receptor and sends out commands 3. An effector (air conditioner) Responds to commands by opposing stimulus

54 Homeostatic regulation Normal condition restored HOMEOSTASIS Normal room temperature Normal condition disturbed 3 EFFECTOR Air conditioner turns on RESPONSE: Room temperature drops STIMULUS: Room temperature rises 1 RECEPTOR Thermometer Sends commands to 2 CONTROL CENTER (Thermostat) ( C) Information affects Set point Figure 1 Section 2 1 1

55 Homeostasis Means Maintaining a Normal Range (Section 2) Control of room temperature, just like control of body temperature, not precise Temperature maintained in normal range around a set point

56 Homeostasis maintains a normal range Room temperature ( C) 22 Air conditioner turns on Normal range Air conditioner turns off Time Set point Figure 1 Section 2 2 2

57 Negative Feedback Provides Stability (1.5) Feedback Stimulation of a receptor triggers response that changes environment at same receptor Negative feedback Triggered response corrects situation Effector opposes or negates the original stimulus Room temperature control When the temperature is too hot, an air conditioner is triggered to make the room cooler

58 Negative Feedback (1.5) Tends to minimize change Primary mechanism of homeostatic regulation Provides long-term control over body's internal conditions and systems Dynamic process Change in set point Small oscillations around set point

59 Negative feedback provides stability Homeostasis restored HOMEOSTASIS Start Homeostasis disturbed 3 EFFECTORS Smooth muscle in walls of blood vessels and sweat glands Homeostasis and body temperature 2 CONTROL CENTER Temperature control center 1 RECEPTORS Temperature receptors in skin and brain Figure

60 Positive Feedback Accelerates a Process to Completion (1.5) Positive feedback When a response exaggerates or enhances the original change (rather than opposing it) Tends to produce extreme responses Positive feedback loop An escalating cycle

61 Positive Feedback Loop (1.5) Found in the body when potentially dangerous or stressful process must be completed quickly Does NOT help maintain homeostasis Example, blood clotting Immediate danger to address preventing blood loss Stressful process must be completed quickly After process is complete, stimulus for positive feedback loop stops

62 Positive feedback loop A break in a blood vessel wall causes bleeding Clotting accelerates Positive feedback loop Chemicals Chemicals Blood clot Damage to cells in the blood vessel wall releases chemicals that begin the process of blood clotting. The chemicals start chain reactions in which cells, cell fragments, and soluble proteins in the blood begin to form a clot. As clotting continues, each step releases chemicals that further accelerate the process. This escalating process is a positive feedback loop that ends with the formation of a blood clot, which patches the vessel wall and stops the bleeding. Figure

63 Module 1.5 Review a. Identify the components of homeostatic regulation. b. Explain the function of negative feedback systems. c. Why is positive feedback helpful in blood clotting but unsuitable for regulating body temperature?

64 Anatomical Terms (Section 3) Anatomy uses special language Many terms based on Latin or Greek used by ancient anatomists Vocabulary continues to expand Some eponyms (things named after the discoverer or victim of a disease) persist; many replaced by more precise terms Knowing word roots and derivatives will help to understand the terms

65 Figure 1 Section 3

66 Anatomical Position (1.6) Anatomical position is the body with: The hands at the sides Palms facing forward Feet together and facing forward Eyes facing forward

67 Anatomical Position Terms (1.6) Supine lying face up in anatomical position Prone lying face down in anatomical position

68 Anterior body regions Frontal or forehead Otic or ear Buccal or cheek Cervical or neck Mental or chin Axillary or armpit Brachial or arm Antecubital or front of elbow Antebrachial or forearm Carpal or wrist Palmar or palm Nasal or nose Ocular or eye Cranial or skull Facial or face Cephalic or head Oral or mouth Thoracic or thorax, chest Mammary or breast Abdominal Umbilical or navel Pelvic Manual or hand Trunk Pollex or thumb Digits or phalanges or fingers Patellar or kneecap Crural or leg Tarsal or ankle Inguinal or groin Pubic Femoral or thigh Digits or phalanges or toes Hallux or great toe Anterior view Pedal or foot Figure

69 Posterior body regions Cephalic or head Acromial or shoulder Dorsal or back Cervical or neck Olecranal or back of elbow Upper limb Lumbar or loin Gluteal or buttock Popliteal or back of knee Lower limb Sural or calf Calcaneal or heel of foot Plantar or sole of foot Posterior view Figure

70 Abdominopelvic Quadrants (1.6) There are four abdominopelvic quadrants Formed by a pair of imaginary perpendicular lines intersecting at the umbilicus (navel) Used by clinicians to describe locations of: Aches Pains Injuries Location can help physicians determine possible cause of pain

71 Abdominopelvic quadrants Quadrants Right Upper Quadrant (RUQ) Right Lower Quadrant (RLQ) Left Upper Quadrant (LUQ) Left Lower Quadrant (LLQ) Figure

72 Abdominopelvic Regions (1.6) There are nine abdominopelvic regions Used by anatomists to describe location and orientation of internal organs More precise than abdominopelvic quadrants

73 Abdominopelvic regions Regions Right hypochondriac region Epigastric region Left hypochondriac region Right lumbar region Umbilical region Left lumbar region Right inguinal region Hypogastric (pubic) region Left inguinal region Figure

74 Internal organs in abdominopelvic quadrants and regions Internal organs Stomach Liver Spleen Gallbladder Large intestine Small intestine Appendix Urinary bladder Figure

75 Module 1.6 Review a. Describe a person in the anatomical position. b. Contrast the descriptions used by clinicians and anatomists when referring to the positions of injuries or internal organs of the abdomen and pelvis. c. A massage therapist often begins a massage by asking patrons to lie face down with their arms at their sides. What anatomical term describes that position?

76 Directional Terms (1.7) All anatomical directions utilize anatomical position as standard point of reference Some terms used interchangeably Anterior or ventral Posterior or dorsal

77 Directional terms Cranial Superior Right Left Proximal Posterior or dorsal Anterior or ventral Lateral Medial Caudal Proximal Distal Inferior Distal Figure

78 Figure

79 Sectional Planes (1.7) Sectional views Sometimes the only way to show the relationship between parts of three-dimensional body Medical imaging techniques utilize sectional views

80 Sectional planes Frontal plane Sagittal plane Transverse plane Figure

81 Figure

82 Module 1.7 Review a. What is the purpose of directional and sectional terms? b. In the anatomical position, describe an anterior view and a posterior view. c. What type of section would separate the two eyes?

83 Body Cavities (1.8) Interior of body subdivided into regions called body cavities Two functions of these cavities 1. Protect delicate organs from shocks and impacts 2. Permit significant changes in size and shape of internal organs

84 Internal Organs (1.8) Internal organs partially or completely enclosed in body cavities are called viscera Viscera (visceral organs) are not floating, but are connected to the rest of the body For example, the heart is surrounded by the pericardial cavity

85 Pericardial cavity analogy The relationship between the heart and the pericardial cavity resembles that of a fist pushing into a balloon. Base of heart Pericardial lining prevents friction. Pericardial cavity Figure

86 Ventral Body Cavity (1.8) Single ventral body cavity, or coelom, forms during embryological development Contains organs of respiratory, cardiovascular, digestive, urinary, and reproductive systems Later subdivided into: Thoracic cavity everything deep to the chest wall Abdominopelvic cavity everything deep to the abdominal and pelvic walls

87 Ventral body cavity divisions THORACIC CAVITY Each lung is surrounded by a pleural cavity. Right lung in right pleural cavity Left lung in left pleural cavity BODY CAVITIES Mediastinum THORACIC CAVITY Diaphragm ABDOMINOPELVIC CAVITY ABDOMINOPELVIC CAVITY Diaphragm Peritoneum (red) showing the boundaries of the peritoneal cavity The abdominal cavity contains many digestive glands and organs Retroperitoneal area The pelvic cavity contains the urinary bladder, reproductive organs, and the last portion of the digestive tract; many of these structures lie posterior to, or inferior to, the peritoneal cavity. Figure

88 Ventral body cavities BODY CAVITIES THORACIC CAVITY Diaphragm ABDOMINOPELVIC CAVITY Figure

89 Thoracic Cavity (1.8) Contains lungs, heart, other structures Bounded by chest wall and diaphragm Subdivided into: Two pleural cavities (one around each lung) One pericardial cavity (around heart)

90 Thoracic cavity structures THORACIC CAVITY Each lung is surrounded by a pleural cavity. Right lung in right pleural cavity Left lung in left pleural cavity Mediastinum Figure

91 Abdominopelvic Cavity (1.8) Bounded by: Diaphragm Muscles of abdominal wall Trunk muscles Inferior portions of vertebral column Bones and muscles of the pelvis Subdivided into: Abdominal cavity Pelvic cavity

92 Peritoneal Cavity (1.8) Portion of original ventral cavity remains as peritoneal cavity Kidneys and pancreas are retroperitoneal Between peritoneal lining and muscular wall of abdominopelvic cavity

93 Abdominopelvic cavity structures ABDOMINOPELVIC CAVITY Diaphragm Peritoneum (red) showing the boundaries of the peritoneal cavity The abdominal cavity contains many digestive glands and organs Retroperitoneal area The pelvic cavity contains the urinary bladder, reproductive organs, and the last portion of the digestive tract; many of these structures lie posterior to, or inferior to, the peritoneal cavity. Figure

94 Module 1.8 Review a. Describe two essential functions of body cavities. b. Identify the subdivisions of the ventral body cavity. c. If a surgeon makes an incision just inferior to the diaphragm, which body cavity will be opened?

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