Short Circuit Analysis Case study & Circuit Breaker Design. SUMIT K RATHOR M.E-EPS 3 rd Sem 09EE14 BVM VVNAGAR

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1 Short Circuit Analysis Case study & Circuit Breaker Design. SUMIT K RATHOR M.E-EPS 3 rd Sem 09EE14 BVM VVNAGAR

2 Introduction The case study provides the fault current for the 220kV substation at various bus for various voltage level. The result is useful for the designing of the power system as well as switchgear design and setting.

3 Short Circuit Analysis Basic Short circuit allows a current along different path from intended one. Is a low resistance connection between two nodes and zero impedance. Ideal S.C has Zero Resistance and voltage drop across S.C.

4 Use of results In order to select circuit breaker for faults interruption (Capacity) we can determine relay settings for operation of line Limitation of short-circuit currents, i.e., with currentlimiting fuses and fault current limiters. Short-circuit withstand ratings of electrical equipment like transformers, reactors, cables, and conductors. Transient stability of interconnected systems to remain in synchronism until the faulty section of the power system is isolated. Calculation of short-circuit currents required for protective relaying and coordination of protective devices.

5 Kind of Fault Symmetrical Fault Three Phase (LLL or LLL-G) Unsymmetrical Fault Shunt type fault Single line to ground Fault (L-G general occur) Line to Line Fault (L-L) Double Line to ground fault (LLG) Series Fault Open circuit Fault (Infinite Resistance)

6 Short Circuit Analysis S.C current depend on voltage and Impedance. LIMITING FACTOR of S.C current Power transformer design with certain amount of leakage reactance. In transmission line Impedance include feeder and transformer resistance and reactance. Generator are also earthed with resistance and reactance.

7 Short Circuit Analysis Finds? Fault Level (MVA). Fault current. (Isc. =E/Z) System protection by means of C.B operated by protective Relaying. Choice of C.B and Relaying. Design of Power system for Normal and Disturbance condition. Bus-Bar voltage level during Fault.

8 Symmetrical current If the envelopes of the positive and negative peaks of the current waveform are symmetrical around the zero axis, they are called

9 Total Short Circuit Current The total short-circuits current that has steady-state ac, decaying ac, and decaying dc current components. i = idc decay+iac steady state+iac decay

10 Analysis. The magnitude and duration of the asymmetrical current depends upon the following two Parameters: a) The X/R ratio of the faulted circuit b) The phase angle of the voltage waveform at the time the short circuit occurs The greater the fault point X/R ratio, the longer will be the asymmetrical fault current decay time. In a purely inductive circuit, the maximum dc current component is produced when the short circuit is initiated at the instant the applied voltage is zero (α = 0 or 180 when using sine functions). Maximum asymmetry for any circuit X/R ratio often occurs when the short circuit is initiated near voltage zero.

11 DC decaying component. The rate of decay of the dc component is a function of the resistance and reactance of the circuit. The dc component will also decay to zero as the energy represented by the dc component is dissipated as I2R heating losses in the circuit. The rate of decay of the dc component is a function of the resistance and reactance of the circuit. In practical circuits, the dc component decays to zero in one to 30 cycles.

12 CASE STUDY MiPower

13 Line Diagram of S/S

14 Result Fault at bus 38 Nominal Bus kv-132kv 3ph fault MVA Fault current 4.585kA Symmetrical Asymmetrical current- 1.41*1.4685*4.585=9.493

15 Fault current Graph

16 Circuit Breaker Design

17 Calculation of Circuit Breaker size: Depending on whether the user selects a 1- pole, 2- pole or a 3-pole circuit breaker the calculation for the circuit breaker varies.

18 The breaking current of a breaker depends upon the instant on the current wave when the contacts begin to open. As shown fig the contacts start to separate at XY. The symmetric breaking current is given by a/ 2amp and 2 the asymmetric breaking current is given by 2 a b 2

19 TRV VOLTAGE Transient Recovery Voltage (TRV) is the voltage across the opening contacts of a fault-interrupting circuit breaker immediately after the arc is extinguished. The actual shape of the transient is determined by the connected lumped and distributed inductive and capacitive parameters defined by the bus equipment connected. If the TRV peak value is above the breaker rating, the increasing TRV to the gap will re-strike the arc and break down the interrupting medium

20 TRV

21 PSCAD modeling for 132kV voltage level

22 TRV wave from

23 Thanks

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