Introduction to physiology overview of key concepts

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1 Introduction to physiology overview of key concepts Opening screen: What is physiology? Click the NEXT Button (Screen 2): What insight does physiology give you? Click the NEXT button (Screen 3): The body uses energy in the form of Click the NEXT Button (Screen 4): What organs are collectively referred to as the cardiorespiratory system?

2 Click the NEXT Button (Screen 5): The brains, nerves and muscles are collectively referred to as: Click the NEXT Button (Screen 6): What is the speed of the cardiorespiratory system is governed by? What is the role of the neuromuscular system? Click the NEXT Button (Screen 7): What is the prime reason for improved performance as the athlete gets older? The development of the physiological systems peak at approximately what time in the young athletes growth? You have completed this module

3 ATP and the three methods for producing it Opening screen: What is the energy currency the muscle uses to produce power, speed and endurance? Click continue (Screen 2): What is the structure of ATP? Where is the most accessible energy stored? Click Continue (Screen 3): What happens to ATP when the last phosphate is broken off? Click the Fuel Supply Button: The digestive system breaks down the food we eat into three types of fuel the body can use. What are these called? 1

4 Click the Continue Button (Screen 2): There are energy systems that remake ATP. These energy systems differ in their speed and also provide the athlete with the ability to have a different type of output. Click the Remake ATP Button: We have sufficient ATP in the muscle cells to produce seconds of activity. The store of ATP in the muscle cells permit what type of response? Click the Continue Button (Screen 2): Name the three types of energy systems responsible for remaking ATP Two of these are anaerobic which are anaerobic? What would happen if we could not remake ATP? Click the Continue Button (Screen 3): Where is the aerobic energy system housed? 2

5 Click the Continue Button (Screen 4) : List the speed on energy systems from fast to slow. What fuel source does the anaerobic phosphagen energy system use? What fuel source does the anaerobic glycolytic energy system use? What is the main fuel for the aerobic energy system? Click the Continue Button (Screen 5): What energy system is most important to: Power athletes? Speed endurance athletes? Endurance athletes? You have now completed this module 3

6 The Phosphocreatine Energy System Opening Screen: What is the timing of the three energy systems in terms of: When they begin to operate? How they gear up to speed? Click the Continue Button (Screen 2): What are the chemical ingredients for the PCr energy system? Why is the PCr energy system anaerobic? What events rely on the ATP-PCr energy system to power their performance? Click the PCr Energy Button: How long does the store of high energy creatine phosphate in the muscle cell last. The PCr energy system is of limited use after about seconds because the cell runs low on

7 Click the How PCr energy system works Button: How does the PCr Energy system work? What is the critical enzyme? Why does the athlete need to rest after a predominant use of the ATP PCr energy system? Click the Continue Button (Screen 2): How does the aerobic energy system relate to the reformation of creatine phosphate? How long does it take to reform a useable level of creatine phosphate? What is the level of activity that is necessary for the reformation of creatine phosphate? You have now completed this module

8 Glycolytic energy system Opening screen: The glycolytic energy system supplies about seconds of ATP supply depending on the intensity of effort. What is the problem with the glycolytic energy system? What is the fuel for the glycolytic energy system? Click the NEXT Button (Screen 2): Glycogen/glucose is broken down to Glycolysis always produces lactic acid (T/F) Click the NEXT Button (Screen 3): When is excess pyruvate converted to lactate and hydrogen ions? Click the NEXT Button (Screen 4): What energy system(s) does the hammer thrower use? What energy system(s) do sprinter predominately use? You have now completed this module

9 The Aerobic Energy System Opening Screen: What energy system produces the most ATP? Click the Continue Button (Screen 2): The mitochondria are also know as the of the cell. Click the Continue Button (Screen 3): What are the two disadvantages of the aerobic energy system? Click the How it Works Button: Mitochondria can use two types of fuels. What are these and at what exercise intensity are they used? When is pyruvate converted into lactic acid? The Krebs cycle makes 2ATP plus that go to the

10 Click the Continue Button (Screen 2): Where is the electron transport chain located? Click the Continue Button (Screen 3): What is the purpose of the electron transport chain? What happens to the hydrogen ions that are pumped up into the intermembrane space? Where is oxygen used? Click the Continue Button (Screen 4): How does ATP synthase remake ATP from ADP and phosphate? Click the Continue Button (Screen 5): What is the speed the athlete must run to completely clear pyruvate? What is the advantage of the mitochondria? What is the disadvantage of the mitochondria? You have now completed this module

11 Energy System Review Opening Screen: When are the energy systems stimulated to start? Click the NEXT Button (Screen 2): Name the three energy systems The main energy system used depends on what? Click the NEXT Button (Screen 3): Energy used by our bodies originally comes from the Click the NEXT Button (Screen 4): What is the chemical structure of ATP? How much ATP is stored in muscle cells? 1

12 Click the NEXT Button (Screen 5): ATP is made from ADP plus? Click the NEXT Button (Screen 6): List the energy systems in terms of their power output. The energy systems are activated at different times (T/F) The energy systems gear up to speed at different times (T/F) Click the NEXT Button (Screen 7): Play the animation and make sure you understand the timing of the energy systems. What energy system is the most important during the recovery process? You have now completed this module 2

13 Cardiorespiratory system: O2 and CO2 transportation Opening Screen: What energy system needs oxygen to work? The lungs, heart and blood vessels are collectively known as Click the Continue Button (Screen 2): Two processes are used to move oxygen from the lungs to the tissues than need it. What are these two processes? Click the Continue Button (Screen 3): The surface area of the lungs alveoli is around the size of What advantage do elite athletes have in terms of their lungs? Is there evidence that training increases the actual size of the lungs after adulthood? Click the Oxygen Transport Button: What is the advantage of hemoglobin? 1

14 Click Continue (Screen 2): How many sites for oxygen does hemoglobin have? What is the average life span of a red blood cell? Click the Carbon Dioxide Transport Button: Carbon dioxide is the waste product of what energy system? Click the NEXT Button (Screen 2): Carbon dioxide is transported back to the lungs in three ways. List these three methods. What is the most important method for transporting carbon dioxide to the lungs? 2

15 Click the NEXT Button (Screen 3): What happens to the bicarbonate ion when it reaches the lungs? Click the NEXT Button (Screen 4): At the end of a race the athlete will continue to breathe deeply until what happens? You have now completed this module 3

16 Cardiorespiratory system: Mechanics Opening screen: The blood enters the right ventricle. From there what is its path? When the athlete starts exercising what two things happen? Click the CO, SV and HR Button: What is cardiac output (CO)? What is average CO at rest? What is average CO during intense exercise? Cardiac output depends on two variables. What are these? CO increases up to what point? Click the NEXT Button (Screen 2): What is stroke volume? At what point does stroke volume reach its highest point? Click the NEXT Button (Screen 3): When does Heart rate reach its maximum? After about 40-60% of VO 2 max what is CO due to? 1

17 Click the NEXT Button (Screen 4): Cardiac output = When does SV peak? Max HR is generally increase up until Can stroke volume increase with training? Does Max heart rate increase with training? What is the larger CO of an athlete due to? Click the Venous Return Button: What mechanisms increase the speed of return of blood toward the heart? Click the Blood Redistribution Button: What happens to redistribution of the blood during exercise? What happens when the weather is hot? You have now completed this module 2

18 Nerves, muscle structure and fiber type Opening Screen: When the muscle receives a signal the smallest functioning unit in the muscle called the contracts. The tube like structure surrounding the myofibril is called the Click the Muscle Structure Button: What is the central nervous system? What is the peripheral nervous system? What are the divisions of the PNS? What do organs do each serve? The somatic branch has two divisions afferent and efferent. What is the role of each? Click the NEXT Button (Screen 2): What is a sarcomere? Click the NEXT Button (Screen 3): What is the thick filament of a sarcomere called? What is the thin filament of a sarcomere called? 1

19 Click the NEXT Button (Screen 4): A motor nerve synapses at a site on the muscle called the junction. Click the NEXT Button (Screen 5): When a muscle nerve is activated what happens to the calcium channels? What does calcium do? Click the NEXT Button (Screen 6): What is the function of the sarcoplasmic reticulum? Click the NEXT Button (Screen 7): What role does calcium play when it is released from the sarcoplasmic reticulum? How do the actin and myosin interact with each other? What is rigor? 2

20 Click the NEXT Button (Screen 8): What role does ATP play? When the nerve impulse stop what happens to the calcium? What happens to the sarcomere? Click the Fiber Types Button: All muscles contract at the same speed (T/F) What are the two groups of muscle fibers? What fibers have a lower rate of force production? What energy system do slow twitch fibers rely on to produce ATP? Click the NEXT Button (Screen 2): Where is glycogen and fat droplets located? Glycogen and lipids are important for ATP production (T/F) Lipids are only used under conditions. Click the NEXT Button (Screen 3): What are the two types of fast twitch fibers? What are the characteristics of the FOG fibers? What are the characteristics of the FG fibers? 3

21 What is the value of the FOG fibers? What is the value of the FG fibers? Why do the fast twitch fibers fatigue more quickly than the slow twitch fibers? Which of the fast twitch fiber category produces the highest force? If you are an endurance runner you want to train the FOG fibers to act like fibers. Click the NEXT Button (Screen 4): What is the order of muscle recruitment? FG fibers are high threshold fibers how do you enhance the athlete s ability to recruit these fibers? Click the NEXT Button (Screen 5): Test your knowledge by answering the questions. You have now completed this module 4

22 Motor units and stretch reflex Opening screen: What is the definition of a motor unit? Click the NEXT Button (Screen 2): What is the relationship between the number of fibers in a motor unit and the force it can produce? Click the NEXT Button (Screen 3): When a muscle contracts all the muscle fibers in the muscle contract (T/F) Click the NEXT Button (Screen 4): When larger forces are needed the CNS will increase the number of An increase in the number of motor units is called 1

23 Click the NEXT Button (Screen 5): Muscle strength is related to: Click the NEXT Button (Screen 6): Strength gains during the first 4 to 6 weeks of training is due to How long does it take to see muscle hypertrophy? Click the NEXT Button (Screen 6): What is the effect of pre-stretching of a muscle on its force production? How does titin contribute to a muscle s force production? Click the NEXT Button (Stretch 7): What is active force due to? What is passive force due to? When does the force plateau? Force production involves 2

24 Click the NEXT Button (Screen 8): Provide examples of where the stretch reflex is used in track and field? What are the three important points regarding the stretch shortening cycle? You have now completed this module 3

25 Youth physiological issues Opening screen: In this module we will answer the following questions: At what age do children respond to aerobic training? At what age do they respond to anaerobic training? Is it safe to use resistance training? Click the At what age do children respond to aerobic training button: What happens to oxygen and carbon dioxide as it passes through the muscle tissues? What does a VO2max test measure? Click the NEXT Button (Screen 2): What happens to VO2max with age? How do the boys and girls differ? Click the NEXT Button (Level 3): When does the amount of oxygen consumed per kilogram of body weight plateau for boys? What happens to the VO2max after about age 10 for girls? Where do the future elite endurance runners fall? What about elite sprinters?

26 Click the NEXT Button Screen 4): What is the difference in oxygen usage between the different ages? What is the training implication? Click the At what age do they respond to anaerobic training Button: Make sure you know the difference between the anaerobic energy system and aerobic energy system. Click the NEXT Button (Screen 2): When is pyruvate cleared into the mitochondra? When is pyruvate converted to lactic acid? What is the effect of the hydrogen ions? Click the NEXT Button (Screen 3): What is anaerobic power? What is the normal ph of the blood? What ph can elite athletes handle? What happens to the anaerobic enzymes when the blood becomes acidic?

27 Click the NEXT Button (Screen 4): When does it appear that the anaerobic energy system in children mature? Click the NEXT Button (Screen 5): What does the lower anaerobic power in children appear to be due to? Can you train the anaerobic power in children? Where does the improvement in speed and power in children under age 14 to 15 derive? Click the: Is it safe to use resistance training Button: What is the effect of resistance training in children? You have now completed this module

28 Stretch-shortening cycle Opening Screen: What are the two main components of the stretch-shortening cycle? What effect does the eccentric contraction phase of a muscle have on the power output during the concentric contraction phase? Click the Part 2 Button: What is concentric contraction? Why is the sarcomere shortening? What is the role of the eccentric contraction of the biceps muscle? What is isometric contraction? Click the Part 3 Button: What is one important use of eccentric contraction? What is the proposed reason for muscle soreness when a lot of eccentric contraction of a muscle is performed? Click the NEXT Button (Screen 2): How do you illustrate the stretch-shortening cycle? What is the training program developed to train the stretch-shortening cycle? What is the importance of pre-activation of the quads? 1

29 Click the NEXT Button (Screen 3): What is the proposed role of the muscletendon spring? Why is less ATP energy used during an eccentric contraction of the muscle? Click the Stretch-Reflex Button: Explain how the stretch-reflex works to concentrically contract a muscle fiber Click the SSC Integration Button: Explain how the muscle-tendon unit and the stretch-reflex work together. Explain the rationale behind the 4 main theories to explain why the stretch-shortening cycle works What is the relevance of each theory? Click the NEXT Button: We will discuss these questions in Sacramento. The goal is to help you understand why understanding basic physiology concepts are critical to your ability to develop training programs appropriate for your athletes. 2

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