An Introduction to Anatomy & Physiology

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1 Essentials of Anatomy & Physiology, 4th Edition Martini / Bartholomew An Introduction to Anatomy & Physiology PowerPoint Lecture Outlines prepared by Alan Magid, Duke University Slides 1 to 73

2 Introduction All living organisms share the following characteristics: Responsiveness Growth Reproduction Movement Metabolism

3 Anatomy & Physiology Sciences Anatomists study: Internal and external structure Physical relationships among body parts Physiologists study: How organisms perform vital functions

4 Anatomy & Physiology Sciences Gross anatomy Naked eye anatomy Surface anatomy Regional anatomy Sectional anatomy

5 Anatomy & Physiology Sciences Microscopic anatomy Cytology: study of individual cells Histology: study of tissues

6 Anatomy & Physiology Sciences Human physiology: Study of human body function Cell physiology Special physiology System physiology Pathological physiology

7 Levels of Organization Life is built on successive levels of increasing complexity: Chemical (or Molecular) Cellular Tissue Organ Organ System Organism

8 Organism Level Organ System Level (Chapters 5 20) Integumentary Skeletal Muscular Nervous Endocrine Cardiovascular Lymphatic Respiratory Digestive Urinary Reproductive Organ Level The heart Atoms in combination Cardiac muscle tissue Complex protein molecule Heart muscle cell Tissue Level (Chapter 4) Chemical or Molecular Level (Chapter 2) Protein filaments Cellular Level (Chapter 3) Figure of 7

9 Atoms in combination Chemical or Molecular Level (Chapter 2) Complex protein molecule Figure of 7

10 Atoms in combination Chemical or Molecular Level (Chapter 2) Complex protein molecule Protein filaments Heart muscle cell Cellular Level (Chapter 3) Figure of 7

11 Atoms in combination Cardiac muscle tissue Chemical or Molecular Level (Chapter 2) Complex protein molecule Protein filaments Heart muscle cell Cellular Level (Chapter 3) Tissue Level (Chapter 4) Figure of 7

12 Organ System Level (Chapters 5 20) Cardiovascular The heart Organ Level Atoms in combination Cardiac muscle tissue Chemical or Molecular Level (Chapter 2) Complex protein molecule Protein filaments Heart muscle cell Cellular Level (Chapter 3) Tissue Level (Chapter 4) Figure of 7

13 Organ System Level (Chapters 5 20) Integumentary Skeletal Muscular Nervous Endocrine Cardiovascular Lymphatic Respiratory Digestive Urinary Reproductive Organ Level The heart Atoms in combination Cardiac muscle tissue Complex protein molecule Heart muscle cell Tissue Level (Chapter 4) Chemical or Molecular Level (Chapter 2) Protein filaments Cellular Level (Chapter 3) Figure of 7

14 Organism Level Integumentary Skeletal Muscular Nervous Organ System Level (Chapters 5 20) Endocrine Cardiovascular Lymphatic Respiratory Digestive Urinary Reproductive The heart Organ Level Atoms in combination Cardiac muscle tissue Chemical or Molecular Level (Chapter 2) Complex protein molecule Protein filaments Heart muscle cell Cellular Level (Chapter 3) Tissue Level (Chapter 4) Figure of 7

15 Overview of Organ Systems The human body is arranged in 11 organ systems: Integumentary Skeletal Muscular Nervous Endocrine Cardiovascular Lymphatic Respiratory Digestive Urinary Reproductive PLAY Organ Systems

16 The Integumentary System Figure 1-2(a)

17 The Skeletal System Figure 1-2(b)

18 The Muscular System Figure 1-2(c)

19 The Nervous System Figure 1-2(d)

20 The Endocrine System Figure 1-2(e)

21 The Cardiovascular System Figure 1-2(f)

22 The Lymphatic System Figure 1-2(g)

23 The Respiratory System Figure 1-2(h)

24 The Digestive System Figure 1-2(i)

25 The Urinary System Figure 1-2(j)

26 Male Reproductive System Figure 1-2(k)

27 Female Reproductive System Figure 1-2(l)

28 Introduction to Organ Systems Key Note The body can be divided into 11 organ systems, but all work together and the boundaries between them aren t absolute.

29 Homeostatic Regulation Homeostasis Maintains stable internal conditions Temperature Ionic concentrations Blood sugar levels, etc. Utilizes negative feedback mechanisms

30 Homeostatic Regulation Regulation depends on: Receptor sensitive to a particular stimulus Effector that affects the same stimulus

31 Normal condition disturbed RECEPTOR Thermometer STIMULUS: Room temperature rises Information affects HOMEOSTASIS Normal room temperature CONTROL CENTER (Thermostat) Normal condition restored RESPONSE: Room temperature drops EFFECTOR Air conditioner turns on 20 o 30 o 40 o Sends commands to Figure of 6

32 HOMEOSTASIS Normal room temperature Figure of 6

33 Normal condition disturbed RECEPTOR Thermometer STIMULUS: Room temperature rises HOMEOSTASIS Normal room temperature Figure of 6

34 Normal condition disturbed RECEPTOR Thermometer STIMULUS: Room temperature rises Information affects HOMEOSTASIS Normal room temperature CONTROL CENTER (Thermostat) 20 o 30 o 40 o Figure of 6

35 Normal condition disturbed RECEPTOR Thermometer STIMULUS: Room temperature rises Information affects HOMEOSTASIS Normal room temperature CONTROL CENTER (Thermostat) 20 o 30 o 40 o EFFECTOR Air conditioner turns on Sends commands to Figure of 6

36 Normal condition disturbed RECEPTOR Thermometer STIMULUS: Room temperature rises Information affects HOMEOSTASIS Normal room temperature CONTROL CENTER (Thermostat) Normal condition restored RESPONSE: Room temperature drops EFFECTOR Air conditioner turns on 20 o 30 o 40 o Sends commands to Figure of 6

37 Homeostatic Regulation Negative Feedback: Variation outside normal limits triggers automatic corrective response Response negates disturbance

38 STIMULUS RECEPTOR Body s temperature sensors Information affects CONTROL CENTER Information affects RECEPTOR Body s temperature sensors STIMULUS Body temperature rises above 37.2 o C (99 o F) Body temperature falls below 37.2 o C (99 o F) RESPONSE Increased blood flow to skin Increased sweating Stimulus removed Homeostasis restored Control mechanism when body temperature rises Control mechanism when body temperature falls RESPONSE Decreased blood flow to skin Decreased sweating Shivering Stimulus removed Homeostasis restored EFFECTOR Thermoregulatory center in brain EFFECTOR Negative feedback Blood vessels and sweat glands in skin Sends commands to Sends commands to Blood vessels and sweat glands in skin Skeletal muscles Negative feedback Figure of 10

39 STIMULUS CONTROL CENTER Body temperature rises above 37.2 o C (99 o F) Control mechanism when body temperature rises Thermoregulatory center in brain Figure of 10

40 STIMULUS Body temperature rises above 37.2 o C (99 o F) RECEPTOR Body s temperature sensors Control mechanism when body temperature rises Information affects CONTROL CENTER Thermoregulatory center in brain Figure of 10

41 STIMULUS Body temperature rises above 37.2 o C (99 o F) RECEPTOR Body s temperature sensors Control mechanism when body temperature rises Information affects CONTROL CENTER EFFECTOR Blood vessels and sweat glands in skin Thermoregulatory center in brain Sends commands to Figure of 10

42 STIMULUS Body temperature rises above 37.2 o C (99 o F) RESPONSE Increased blood flow to skin Increased sweating Stimulus removed Homeostasis restored RECEPTOR Body s temperature sensors Control mechanism when body temperature rises Information affects CONTROL CENTER Negative feedback EFFECTOR Blood vessels and sweat glands in skin Thermoregulatory center in brain Sends commands to Figure of 10

43 CONTROL CENTER Control mechanism when body temperature falls STIMULUS Body temperature falls below 37.2 o C (99 o F) Thermoregulatory center in brain Figure of 10

44 CONTROL CENTER Information affects RECEPTOR Body s temperature sensors Control mechanism when body temperature falls STIMULUS Body temperature falls below 37.2 o C (99 o F) Thermoregulatory center in brain Figure of 10

45 CONTROL CENTER Information affects RECEPTOR Body s temperature sensors Control mechanism when body temperature falls STIMULUS Body temperature falls below 37.2 o C (99 o F) Thermoregulatory center in brain Sends commands to EFFECTOR Blood vessels and sweat glands in skin Skeletal muscles Figure of 10

46 CONTROL CENTER Information affects RECEPTOR Body s temperature sensors Control mechanism when body temperature falls STIMULUS Body temperature falls below 37.2 o C (99 o F) RESPONSE Decreased blood flow to skin Decreased sweating Shivering Stimulus removed Homeostasis restored Thermoregulatory center in brain Sends commands to EFFECTOR Blood vessels and sweat glands in skin Skeletal muscles Negative feedback Figure of 10

47 STIMULUS RECEPTOR Body s temperature sensors Information affects CONTROL CENTER Information affects RECEPTOR Body s temperature sensors STIMULUS Body temperature rises above 37.2 o C (99 o F) Body temperature falls below 37.2 o C (99 o F) RESPONSE Increased blood flow to skin Increased sweating Stimulus removed Homeostasis restored Control mechanism when body temperature rises Control mechanism when body temperature falls RESPONSE Decreased blood flow to skin Decreased sweating Shivering Stimulus removed Homeostasis restored EFFECTOR Thermoregulatory center in brain EFFECTOR Negative feedback Blood vessels and sweat glands in skin Sends commands to Sends commands to Blood vessels and sweat glands in skin Skeletal muscles Negative feedback Figure of 10

48 Homeostatic Regulation Positive Feedback: Stimulus produces response that reinforces the stimulus Response rapidly completes critical process

49 Homeostatic Regulation Figure 1-5

50 Homeostatic Regulation Homeostasis and Disease Failure of homeostatic regulation Symptoms appear Organ system malfunction

51 Homeostatic Regulation Key Note Physiological systems work together to maintain a stable internal environment. They monitor and adjust internal conditions.

52 The Language of Anatomy Surface Anatomy Anatomical Position Hands at side Palms forward Feet together Supine: Face up Prone: Face down

53 The Language of Anatomy Figure 1-6(a)

54 The Language of Anatomy Figure 1-6(b)

55 The Language of Anatomy Anatomical Regions Two methods to map abdominal and pelvic regions Four abdominopelvic quadrants Nine abdominopelvic regions

56 The Language of Anatomy Figure 1-7(a)

57 The Language of Anatomy Figure 1-7(b)

58 The Language of Anatomy Figure 1-7(c)

59 The Language of Anatomy A few anatomical directions: Anterior (= ventral) Posterior (= dorsal) Superior (= cranial) Inferior (= caudal) Lateral Medial Proximal Distal

60 The Language of Anatomy Figure 1-8

61 The Language of Anatomy Sectional Anatomy: Planes and Sections Transverse plane Transverse section Frontal plane Frontal section Sagittal plane Sagittal section

62 The Language of Anatomy Figure 1-9

63 The Language of Anatomy Ventral body cavity Protects delicate organs Permits organ growth and movement Surrounds: Respiratory Cardiovascular Digestive Urinary Reproductive organs

64 The Language of Anatomy Diaphragm subdivides ventral cavity: Thoracic cavity Pleural cavities (R and L) Pericardial cavity Abdominopelvic cavity Abdominal cavity Pelvic cavity Peritoneal membrane

65 The Language of Anatomy Key Note Anatomical descriptions refer to an individual in the anatomical position: standing, with the hands at the sides, palms facing forward, and feet together.

66 The Language of Anatomy Figure 1-10(a)

67 The Language of Anatomy Radiological Procedures X-rays CT Scans MRIs Ultrasound

68 X-Rays Figure 1-11(a)

69 X-Rays Figure 1-11(b)

70 Common Scanning Techniques Figure 1-12(a)

71 Common Scanning Techniques Figure 1-12(b)

72 Common Scanning Techniques Figure 1-12(c)

73 Common Scanning Techniques Figure 1-12(d)

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