AVR32415: AVR32 AP7 Linux PS/2 keyboard and mouse. 32-bit Microcontrollers. Application Note. Features. 1 Introduction

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1 AVR32415: AVR32 AP7 Linux PS/2 keyboard and mouse Features Linux serio driver using the PSIF module. Supports PS/2 keyboard and mouse. Supports multiple devices. 1 Introduction PS/2 protocol is a very common interface for input devices such as keyboard and mouse to a computer. Linux already supports both PS/2 keyboards and mice, and for AVR 32 AP7 devices with a PSIF peripheral this can be enabled in the Linux kernel. To add PS/2 devices to an AVR32 device a kernel driver must be enabled and the PS/2 device must be connected to the PSIF clock and data lines. More about how to enable the kernel driver and wire up a PS/2 port in this application note. 32-bit Microcontrollers Application Note Rev.

2 2 Linux PS/2 input layer 2.1 Input device nodes 2.2 Linux keyboard driver The Linux kernel has support for different PS/2 devices. All source code is located in drivers/input directory, where keyboard, mouse and serio are the most vital part. There is already support for AT keyboards, and a generic PS/2 mouse implementation which detects some features on the different kinds of PS/2 mice available. PS/2 mouse support is limited in the kernel itself, and it usually relies on a mouse driver which reads the events from the input layer in the kernel. Many popular GUI systems like X, Qt, DirectFB, SDL, etc. include various mouse drivers. PS/2 keyboards follow a given protocol, and the input layer will translate the pushed buttons to corresponding key codes. The application can read data directly from the input layer, for example on a virtual console. Applications accessing input devices will expect to find the device nodes in the /dev directory, more specific in the /dev/input sub directory. It is recommended that the system uses a utility to generate the device nodes. For embedded systems the mdev application suits well. Mdev is provided with Busybox, which is a collection of common UNIX utilities. For more information about Busybox see AVR32 users are recommended to use Buildroot as AVR32 build system, which includes mdev and a configuration file (/etc/mdev.conf) which makes sure device nodes are put in proper sub directories. More information about Buildroot for AVR32 is available in the application note AVR32003: Buildroot for AVR32. The keyboard drivers in the Linux kernel support the standard AT keyboards, and in addition there are some specific keyboard drivers for embedded devices. Normally a user who wants input from a standard PS/2 keyboard should enable the AT keyboard driver in the kernel. The driver can be enabled in menuconfig at following location: [*] Keyboards ---> < > AT keyboard If compiled as a module it will be called atkbd. The keyboard driver will provide input directly to the console, and users should enable the Virtual terminal support in menuconfig: Character devices ---> [ ] Virtual terminal This will create /dev/ttyn device nodes, where N is a number from 0 and up. The /dev/ttyn node is used by applications to get input from the keyboard. 2 AVR32415

3 AVR Linux mouse driver A PS/2 mouse driver is provided in the kernel input system, although it only supports the most basic functions like movement, up to three buttons and the mouse wheel. The PS/2 mouse driver can be enabled in menuconfig: [*] Mice ---> < > PS/2 mouse If compiled as a module it will be called psmouse. It is also recommended to enable the Mouse interface driver in menuconfig: < > Mouse interface If compiled as a module it will be called mousedev. The PS/2 mouse driver will probe for a mouse on the PS/2 ports, and enable various features it supports. The mouse interface driver will make device nodes in the /dev/input directory, more specific mice and mousen nodes, where N is a number from 0 and up. The mice node is a combination of all mouse input, while the mousen represents a specific mouse. User applications can use the output from /dev/input/mice to get mouse input. If the applications want to use the legacy /dev/psaux interface, then this has to be enabled after enabling the Mouse interface driver in menuconfig: <m> Mouse interface [*] Provide legacy /dev/psaux device This will then be automatically enabled when the Mouse interface driver is loaded. 2.4 Event interface driver The input system has an event interface driver which can be enabled in menuconfig: < > Event interface If compiled as a module it will be called evdev. This driver will make raw event device nodes which the application can use to read raw data from an input device. The nodes are created in the /dev/input directory and are called eventn, where N is a number starting at 0. 3 AVR32 PSIF PS/2 driver 3.1 Linux driver To aquire data from the PSIF peripheral an input serio driver has been made, this is enabled in menuconfig: 3

4 Hardware I/O ports ---> < > AVR32 PSIF PS/2 keyboard and mouse controller If compiled as a module it will be called at32psif. The driver will be invisible for the user after it has been compiled into the kernel or probed as a driver. The main function for this driver is to read and write data to PS/2 devices and interface with the other input drivers in the kernel. The user will have to enable keyboard and mouse drivers to get the input needed for the application, see chapter 2 on page Platform device To be able to probe the PSIF driver the Linux kernel must have the platform device loaded before probing the driver. The platform device is loaded in the board initialization code and consists of basic information about the PSIF peripheral. The platform device contains the base register address, interrupt line and GPIO setup for each instance of the peripheral. Adding the platform device is done with the function: struct platform_device * at32_add_device_psif(unsigned int id) This function must be called in the board initialization function. For the ATSTK 1002 kit this can be done by adding the following lines to the function atstk1002_init(void): at32_add_device_psif(0); at32_add_device_psif(1); This will load the platform device for both PSIF instances available in the AT32AP7000 device. 4 Wiring up a PS/2 device to the AVR32 PSIF module 4.1 Level conversion example schematics The PSIF module must have two pins enabled for each PS/2 device connected. The pins are called PSIF-CLOCK and PSIF-DATA, and both pins are bidirectional. Wiring of PS/2 devices to the PSIF peripheral I/O pins need an additional circuit. This is due to the I/O pads are normally 3.3 volts, while the PS/2 I/O should be 5.0 volts. This conversion can be done by using a bidirectional level translator. In chapter 4.1 on page 4 a PCA9306 device is used as an example. As an example for level conversion the device PCA9306 is used, for more details about this device see The PC9306 is a bidirectional voltage translator mainly targeted for TWI and SMBus. An example schematic for using the PC9306 for PS/2 can be seen in Figure 4-1 below. 4 AVR32415

5 AVR32415 Figure 4-1. Level conversion example schematics VCC_5V0 R2 1k VCC_3V3 R3 1k 2 U1 Vref 1 EN 8 Vref 2 7 R1 200k C1 R4 1.6k R5 1.6k 100n PSIF-CLOCK PSIF-DATA 3 4 SCL1 SDA1 GND SCL2 SDA2 6 5 PCA VCC_5V0 C2 100n J1 SHIELD NC1 VCC NC2 PS/2 SDA 1 GND 3 5 SCL 5

6 Disclaimer Headquarters International Atmel Corporation 2325 Orchard Parkway San Jose, CA USA Tel: 1(408) Fax: 1(408) Atmel Asia Room 1219 Chinachem Golden Plaza 77 Mody Road Tsimshatsui East Kowloon Hong Kong Tel: (852) Fax: (852) Atmel Europe Le Krebs 8, Rue Jean-Pierre Timbaud BP Saint-Quentin-en- Yvelines Cedex France Tel: (33) Fax: (33) Atmel Japan 9F, Tonetsu Shinkawa Bldg Shinkawa Chuo-ku, Tokyo Japan Tel: (81) Fax: (81) Product Contact Web Site Technical Support Sales Contact Literature Request Disclaimer: The information in this document is provided in connection with Atmel products. No license, express or implied, by estoppel or otherwise, to any intellectual property right is granted by this document or in connection with the sale of Atmel products. EXCEPT AS SET FORTH IN ATMEL S TERMS AND CONDITIONS OF SALE LOCATED ON ATMEL S WEB SITE, ATMEL ASSUMES NO LIABILITY WHATSOEVER AND DISCLAIMS ANY EXPRESS, IMPLIED OR STATUTORY WARRANTY RELATING TO ITS PRODUCTS INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTY OF MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE, OR NON-INFRINGEMENT. IN NO EVENT SHALL ATMEL BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, CONSEQUENTIAL, PUNITIVE, SPECIAL OR INCIDENTAL DAMAGES (INCLUDING, WITHOUT LIMITATION, DAMAGES FOR LOSS OF PROFITS, BUSINESS INTERRUPTION, OR LOSS OF INFORMATION) ARISING OUT OF THE USE OR INABILITY TO USE THIS DOCUMENT, EVEN IF ATMEL HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES. Atmel makes no representations or warranties with respect to the accuracy or completeness of the contents of this document and reserves the right to make changes to specifications and product descriptions at any time without notice. Atmel does not make any commitment to update the information contained herein. Unless specifically provided otherwise, Atmel products are not suitable for, and shall not be used in, automotive applications. Atmel s products are not intended, authorized, or warranted for use as components in applications intended to support or sustain life Atmel Corporation. All rights reserved. Atmel, logo and combinations thereof, AVR, STK and others, are the registered trademarks or trademarks of Atmel Corporation or its subsidiaries. Other terms and product names may be trademarks of others.

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