NETWORKING ESSENTIALS

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1 NETWORKING ESSENTIALS 1

2 What is a network? A network is a group of computers that are wired together in some fashion which enables sharing of information and services 2

3 Required network elements? At least two individuals who have some thing to share : - (Network Services) A method or pathway for connecting each other : - (Transmission Media) Rules so that two or more individuals can communicate : - (Protocols) 3

4 Network Services The capabilities that networked computers share. These are provided by numerous combinations of computer hardware and software 4

5 Two types of networks Peer to peer : - Allow any entity to both request and provide network services Server centric : - Places restrictions upon which entity may make requests or service them 5

6 Transmission Media The pathway networked entities use to contact each other Includes cable and wireless technologies 6

7 Protocols Rules required to help entities communicate or understand each other When both entities formally agrees to use a common language, there established a successful communication protocol 7

8 NETWORK SERVICES File Services Print Services Message Services Application Services Database Services 8

9 File Services Includes network apps designed to efficiently store, retrieve or move data files.its main functions are File transfer File storage and data migration File update synchronization File archiving 9

10 Print services Are network apps that control and manage access to printers and fax equipment.its functions are, Provide multiple access from limited interfaces Eliminate distance constraints Handle simultaneous requests and queue those requests Share specialized equipment 10

11 Message services Include storing, accessing and delivering text,binary,graphic,digitized video and audio data.its functions are, Electronic mail Integrated electronic mail and voice mail Object-oriented applications Workgroup applications 11

12 Application services Are network services that run software for network clients.its functions are, Specialization of servers Scalability and growth 12

13 Database Services Provides server-based database storage & retrieval that allow network clients to control data manipulation and presentation.they provide Data security Co-ordination of distributed data Replication 13

14 Cable Media : - using wires or fibers that conduct electricity or light Twisted pair cable Co-axial cable Fiber-optic cable Wireless media : -typically uses higher electromagnetic frequencies 14

15 Twisted Pair Cable Uses twisted copper wires of gauge Two types : - Unshielded Twisted Pair Shielded Twisted Pair 15

16 Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP) Composed of a set of twisted pairs with a simple plastic encasement. Uses RJ 45 connector Follows EIA s cable category standards i.e. CAT 1- CAT5 16

17 Features : - Cost : - extremely low Ease of installation and reconfiguration Capacity 1-100MBps Attenuation affects if the length is more than a 100 meters EMI the copper cable used is prone to EMI 17

18 Shielded Twisted Pair Insulated cable which includes bundled pairs wrapped in a foil shielding Extensively used by Apple and IBM in proprietary networks Features : - Cost moderately expensive Installation difficult 18

19 More bandwidth efficient and can use higher frequencies Up to 500MBps at 100m (common is 16MBps) Attenuation similar to UTP EMI very less due to shielding 19

20 Co-axial cable Is made of two conductors that share a common axis 4 types : - 50 Ohm RG-8 7 RG-11 (used in thick Ethernet) 50 Ohm RG-58 (Used in thin Ethernet) 75 Ohm RG-59 (Used for cable TV) 93 Ohm RG-63 (Used for ARC net) 20

21 Features : - Cost approx: same as UTP Installation simple Bandwidth only used in networks with 10MBps or less EMI - resists better than TP cables 21

22 Fiber Optic Cable Made of a light conducting glass or plastic core surrounded by cladding and a tough outer sheath Single mode : - allows only one light path Multi mode : - allows various paths 22

23 Common types : - 8.3micron core/125micron cladding (single) 62.5microncore/125 micron cladding (multi) 50micron core/125 micron cladding (multi) 100micron core/140micron cladding (multi) Features : - Cost relatively expensive Installation difficult Bandwidth-very high 100MBps to >2GBps Attenuation very low Interference more immune 23

24 Wireless media Transmits and receives signals without an electrical or optical conductor Common 3 types Radio wave Microwave Infrared light 24

25 Radio Frequency Resides between 10KHz to 1 GHz Can be broadcast omni directionally, or fine tuned for directional emissions from a variety of transmitting antennas Low attenuation Stations can be mobile or stationary 25

26 Exists in two forms Microwave Terrestrial systems (earth based) uses directional parabolic antennas.operates in 4-6 or GHz range, expensive, high bandwidth etc Satellite systems Uses directional parabolic antennas located on earth and geosynchronous orbiting satellites GHz, expensive, prone to atmospheric interference. 26

27 Infrared Most useful in small or open indoor environments Not capable of penetrating walls or other opaque objects Operates in 100GHz to 1,000 THz Two categories Point-to-point directed at specific targets Broadcast relaxes the focus to a wide area 27

28 Network Connectivity Hardware Repeaters Hubs Bridges Multiplexers 28

29 Repeater Is an amplification device used to increase the medium s max: effective distance Two types Amplifier : - amplifies all incoming signals including undesirable noise (simple,fast) Signal regenerating repeater : - strips data out of the signal, reconstructs and retransmits the signal (complex,time consuming) 29

30 Hubs Provides a central point of connection between media segments are called hubs, multiport repeaters or concentrators Three types Passive Active intelligent 30

31 Passive Hub : - Connects medium segments together, no signal regeneration is performed Active Hub : - Like passive one but it regenerates or amplifies signals Intelligent Hubs : -In addition to signal regeneration and network management, it provides intelligent path selection, and can choose different paths for delivery 31

32 Bridge Extends the max: distance by connecting separate segments together. Selectively pass signals from one medium segment to another Used to minimize network traffic 32

33 Multiplexers Are used to combine two or more separate signals on single transmission media segment to make full use of the transmission media 33

34 Internetwork Connectivity Hardware Used to connect 2 individual networks without losing their separate identities Routers Brouters CSU/DSU 34

35 Routers : - Connect two or more logically separate networks (or sub networks) Brouters : - are routers which performs also as bridges Channel Service Unit/Digital Service Unit : - are devices that prepare electric pulse signals for transmission on WAN transmission media; protects from electrical noise and unsafe electric voltages 35

36 Physical layer addresses the following : - Connection types : -Point to Point or multipoint Physical topology : -Bus, Star,Ring, Mesh, Cellular Signaling : - Digital, Analog Bit Synchronization : - Sync, Asynchronous Bandwidth usage: - Broadband, Base band Multiplexing: -TDM, FDM, Stat TDM 36

37 Physical Topology Is the complete physical structure of the transmission media Things to be taken care during choosing a topology Ease of installation Ease of reconfiguration Ease of troubleshooting Number of units affected by media failure 37

38 Backbone Terminator Drop cable T connector Bus Topology 38

39 Bus Topology - features Uses a long cable called Backbone Short cables called Drop cables can be attached to backbone to connect nodes Backbone is terminated at both ends Relatively easy to install Requires less media than others Difficult to troubleshoot All units affected by media failure Difficult to reconfigure 39

40 Ring Topology 40

41 Ring Topology - features Is a circular, closed loop topology Signals are regenerated at each node ; so minimal degradation Cable faults can easily be identified More difficult to install and reconfigure Media failure can cause complete network failure in uni-directional rings 41

42 Drop Cable Hub Star Topology 42

43 Star Topology Uses a central device with drop cables extending in all directions Star topologies can be nested within other stars Each device is connected via a point to point link to the central device Easy to reconfigure, troubleshoot Requires more cable than others Media faults will not affect another segment 43

44 Mesh Topology 44

45 Mesh Topology - features Has point to point connection between every device in the network Excessive bandwidth is wasted for node to node signaling Easy to isolate faults, troubleshoot etc Extremely fault tolerant Difficult to install and reconfigure 45

46 Cellular Topology 46

47 Cellular Topology Combines wireless point to point and multipoint strategies Divides a geographic area into cells Devices within a cell communicates with a central station or hub Devices can roam from cell to cell while maintaining connection Easy to install, troubleshoot No need of media reconfiguration when adding or moving users 47

48 Broadband Systems Uses the media s capacity for a single channel Multiple channels are created using a process called Frequency Division Multiplexing 48

49 Multiplexing Allows multiple devices to communicate simultaneously over s single transmission media Equipment used for this purpose is called Multiplexer or mux 3 common methods used in mux Frequency Division Multiplexing (FDM) Time Division Multiplexing (TDM) Statistical Time Division Multiplexing (Stat TDM) 49

50 Frequency Division Multiplexing (FDM) Uses separate frequencies to establish multiple channels within a broadband medium Special carrier signals are created by mux and data signals are added to it during transmission and are removed at receiving end 50

51 Time Division Multiplexing (TDM) Divides a single channel into shorttime slots Time slots are of the same length and same order so also called Synchronous TDM 51

52 Statistical Time Division Multiplexing (Stat TDM) Dynamically allocates timeslots to active devices in priority basis Overcomes the wastage due to unused timeslotsm 52

53 MAC Address These are unique hardware addresses typically assigned by hardware vendors The format used depends on the media access method used so it it is called MAC address All devices in the network, like bridges require this address to transmit packets 53

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