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1 DATA COMMUNICATION AND NETWORKING 1. a.what computer networking. A system of interconnected computers and computerized peripherals such as printers etc. b. explain the four types of network. i. WAN ( Wide Area Network) As the name suggests, the Wide Area Network (WAN) covers a wide area which may span across provinces and even a whole country. Generally, telecommunication networks are Wide Area Network. These networks provide connectivity to MAN's and LAN's. Since they are equipped with very high speed backbone, WAN's use very expensive network equipment. ii. MAN (Metropolitan Area Network) The Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) generally expands throughout a city such as cable TV network. It can be in the form of Ethernet, Token-ring, ATM, or Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI). Metro Ethernet is a service which is provided by ISPs. This service enables its users to expand their Local Area Networks. For example, MAN can help an organization to iii. PAN: CAN A Personal Area Network (PAN) is smallest network which is very personal to a user. This may include Bluetooth enabled devices or infra-red enabled devices. PAN has connectivity range up to 10 meters. PAN may include wireless computer keyboard and mouse, Bluetooth enabled headphones, wireless printers, and TV remotes. iv. LAN (Local Area Network) A computer network spanned inside a building and operated under single administrative system is generally termed as Local Area Network (LAN). Usually, LAN covers an organization offices, schools, colleges or universities. c. what is communication media and give two examples. Communication media is the medium through which information is sent and received. Examples are Mobile phone devices Computers Television

2 d. list three kinds of cable and briefly explain their properties. a. twisted pair cable: A twisted pair cable consist s of four pairs of copper wires coated with an insulating material Like plastic or Teflon, twisted together. The twisting of wires reduces electromagnetic Interference from external sources. b. coaxial cable: Coaxial cable has two wires of copper. The core wire lies in the centre and it is made of solid conductor. The core is enclosed in an insulating sheath. The second wire is wrapped around over the sheath and that too in turn encased by insulator sheath. This all is covered by plastic cover. c. Optical Fibres Optical fibres are being used for transmission of information over large distances more cost effectively than the copper wire connection. Communication systems are now unthinkable without fibre optics. Optical fibre transmits data as light signals instead of electric signals. 2. What is topology of a computer network? A network topology is the arrangement through which computer system or network devices are connected to each other. And this may be also classified as the physical and logical aspect of network. b. explain the different types of computer topologies. Point to point topology: Point-to-point networks contains exactly two hosts such as computer, switches, routers, or servers connected back to back using a single piece of cable. Often, the receiving end of one host is connected to sending end of the other and vice versa. Bus topology In case of Bus topology, all devices share single communication line or cable. Bus Topology may have problem while multiple hosts sending data at the same time. Ring topology In ring topology, each host machine connects to exactly two other machines, creating a circular network structure. When one host tries to communicate or send message to a host which is not adjacent to it, the data travels through all intermediate hosts. Hybrid topology A network structure whose design contains more than one topology is said to be hybrid topology. Hybrid topology inherits merits and demerits of all the incorporating topologies. c. list the basic items required to setup computer network. d. what is the different between switch and router. Switch connects multiple computers in a network or different segment of the same network whiles router connects networks that use different technologies, different media and physical addressing schemes or frame formats.

3 3. With the aid of a diagram explain what a computer is. A computer is an electronic device that accepts data, process that data and generates or display a result as an output. b. state and explain the basic specification of a computer. c. briefly explain the following, i. Hardware: These are the physical components of the computer that can be seen our feel which carry specific operation in the computer system. ii. Software: Software is a set of programs that instructs the computer about the tasks to be performed. iii. Drivers: A driver acts as a translator between the hardware and the software that uses the devices iv. Operating system: This is a system software that intermediate between user of computer and computer hardware. It manages resources of the computer system and control execution of programs and provides a convenient interface to the user for use of the computer. d. explain the color codes system used in terminating network cables. Remembering the color coding is to simply switch the Green set of wires in place with the Orange set of wires. Specifically, switch the solid Green (G) with the solid Orange, and switch the.green/white with the orange/white

4 4. a. explain the process of input, output and storage with information processing with two examples each. Input: this is the means pf entering or capturing data into the computer for processing example of devices used as the mouse and keyboard. Output: this displays the result of a processed data and gives out required information to a user example of some devices like the printer and monitor. Storage: this saves the data being fed or captured into the computer and store it in a memory device example as the hard drive, the flash drive, b. state and explain the two main types of software i. Application software: These are softwares installed on the computer for a specific purpose and task like how the microsoft office, the VLC media player, Fifa game etc ii. System software: This is the software that is installed on the computer to let it come to live without system software the computer cannot do any application task and example is the operation system which lets the computer runs some application softwares. c. list four examples of operating system i. windows operating system ii. Linux operating system iii. Mac Operating System iv. UNIX operating system d. list ten examples application software i. avast antivirus ii. vlc media player iii. microsoft office iv. mozilla firefox v. UC browser vi. tally software vii. Mavis Beacon Teaching typing viii. Grand theft game ix. Winrar x. Power ISO

5 5. a. what is meant by mode of transmission The transmission mode decides how data is transmitted between two computers. The binary data in the form of 1s and 0s can be sent in two different modes: Parallel and Serial. b. list the different mode of transmission and explain them. paralell transmission: The binary bits are organized into groups of fixed length. Both sender and receiver are connected in parallel with the equal number of data lines. Both computers distinguish between high order and low order data lines. The sender sends all the bits at once on all lines. serial transmission: In serial transmission, bits are sent one after another in a queue manner. Serial transmission requires only one communication channel. c. what is NIC. Network Interface Card and it s a device that is required to connect a computer to the internet via LAN or high speed internet connection like cable modem or Digital Subscriber Line (DSL). d. explain peripheral of computer and state five examples Peripherals of computer are physical components or devices that are connected to computer externally. examples are 1. Pen drive 2. Speaker 3. Camera 4. Joystick 5. modem 6. design and draw a network diagram for a company with the following budget. three big offices which each office has 10 computers they all have a network printer installed three offices are connected to each other on a LAN

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