A Brief Introduction to Design of Experiments


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1 J. K. TELFORD D A Brief Introduction to Design of Exeriments Jacqueline K. Telford esign of exeriments is a series of tests in which uroseful changes are made to the inut variables of a system or rocess and the effects on resonse variables are measured. Design of exeriments is alicable to both hysical rocesses and comuter simulation models. Exerimental design is an effective tool for maximizing the amount of information gained from a study while minimizing the amount of data to be collected. Factorial exerimental designs investigate the effects of many different factors by varying them simultaneously instead of changing only one factor at a time. Factorial designs allow estimation of the sensitivity to each factor and also to the combined effect of two or more factors. Exerimental design methods have been successfully alied to several Ballistic Missile Defense sensitivity studies to maximize the amount of information with a minimum number of comuter simulation runs. In a highly cometitive world of testing and evaluation, an efficient method for testing many factors is needed. BACKGROUND Would you like to be sure that you will be able to draw valid and definitive conclusions from your data with the minimum use of resources? If so, you should be using design of exeriments. Design of exeriments, also called exerimental design, is a structured and organized way of conducting and analyzing controlled tests to evaluate the factors that are affecting a resonse variable. The design of exeriments secifies the articular setting levels of the combinations of factors at which 224 the individual runs in the exeriment are to be conducted. This multivariable testing method varies the factors simultaneously. Because the factors are varied indeendently of each other, a causal redictive model can be determined. Data obtained from observational studies or other data not collected in accordance with a design of exeriments aroach can only establish correlation, not causality. There are also roblems with the traditional exerimental method of changing one factor Johns Hokins APL Technical Digest, Volume 27, Number 3 (2007)
2 A BRIEF INTRODUCTION TO DESIGN OF EXPERIMENTS at a time, i.e., its inefficiency and its inability to determine effects that are caused by several factors acting in combination. BRIEF HISTORY Design of exeriments was invented by Ronald A. Fisher in the 1920s and 1930s at Rothamsted Exerimental Station, an agricultural research station 25 miles north of London. In Fisher s first book on design of exeriments 1 he showed how valid conclusions could be drawn efficiently from exeriments with natural fluctuations such as temerature, soil conditions, and rain fall, that is, in the resence of nuisance variables. The known nuisance variables usually cause systematic biases in grous of results (e.g., batchtobatch variation). The unknown nuisance variables usually cause random variability in the results and are called inherent variability or noise. Although the exerimental design method was first used in an agricultural context, the method has been alied successfully in the military and in industry since the 1940s. Besse Day, working at the U.S. Naval Exerimentation Laboratory, used exerimental design to solve roblems such as finding the cause of bad welds at a naval shiyard during World War II. George Box, emloyed by Imerial Chemical Industries before coming to the United States, is a leading develoer of exerimental design rocedures for otimizing chemical rocesses. W. Edwards Deming taught statistical methods, including exerimental design, to Jaanese scientists and engineers in the early 1950s 2 at a time when Made in Jaan meant oor quality. Genichi Taguchi, the most well known of this grou of Jaanese scientists, is famous for his quality imrovement methods. One of the comanies where Taguchi first alied his methods was Toyota. Since the late 1970s, U.S. industry has become interested again in quality imrovement initiatives, now known as Total Quality and Six Sigma rograms. Design of exeriments is considered an advanced method in the Six Sigma rograms, which were ioneered at Motorola and GE. FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES The fundamental rinciles in design of exeriments are solutions to the roblems in exerimentation osed by the two tyes of nuisance factors and serve to imrove the efficiency of exeriments. Those fundamental rinciles are Randomization Relication Blocking Orthogonality Factorial exerimentation Randomization is a method that rotects against an unknown bias distorting the results of the exeriment. An examle of a bias is instrument drift in an exeriment comaring a baseline rocedure to a new rocedure. If all the tests using the baseline rocedure are conducted first and then all the tests using the new rocedure are conducted, the observed difference between the rocedures might be entirely due to instrument drift. To guard against erroneous conclusions, the testing sequence of the baseline and new rocedures should be in random order such as B, N, N, B, N, B, and so on. The instrument drift or any unknown bias should average out. Relication increases the samle size and is a method for increasing the recision of the exeriment. Relication increases the signaltonoise ratio when the noise originates from uncontrollable nuisance variables. A relicate is a comlete reetition of the same exerimental conditions, beginning with the initial setu. A secial design called a Slit Plot can be used if some of the factors are hard to vary. Blocking is a method for increasing recision by removing the effect of known nuisance factors. An examle of a known nuisance factor is batchtobatch variability. In a blocked design, both the baseline and new rocedures are alied to samles of material from one batch, then to samles from another batch, and so on. The difference between the new and baseline rocedures is not influenced by the batchtobatch differences. Blocking is a restriction of comlete randomization, since both rocedures are always alied to each batch. Blocking increases recision since the batchtobatch variability is removed from the exerimental error. Orthogonality in an exeriment results in the factor effects being uncorrelated and therefore more easily interreted. The factors in an orthogonal exeriment design are varied indeendently of each other. The main results of data collected using this design can often be summarized by taking differences of averages and can be shown grahically by using simle lots of suitably chosen sets of averages. In these days of owerful comuters and software, orthogonality is no longer a necessity, but it is still a desirable roerty because of the ease of exlaining results. Factorial exerimentation is a method in which the effects due to each factor and to combinations of factors are estimated. Factorial designs are geometrically constructed and vary all the factors simultaneously and orthogonally. Factorial designs collect data at the vertices of a cube in dimensions ( is the number of factors being studied). If data are collected from all of the vertices, the design is a full factorial, requiring 2 runs. Since the total number of combinations increases exonentially with the number of factors studied, fractions of the full factorial design can be constructed. As the number of factors increases, the fractions become smaller and smaller ( 1 / 2, 1 / 4, 1 / 8, 1 / 16, ). Fractional factorial designs collect data from a secific subset of all ossible Johns Hokins APL Technical Digest, Volume 27, Number 3 (2007) 225
3 J. K. TELFORD vertices and require 2 2q runs, with 2 2q being the fractional size of the design. If there are only three factors in the exeriment, the geometry of the exerimental design for a full factorial exeriment requires eight runs, and a onehalf fractional factorial exeriment (an inscribed tetrahedron) requires four runs (Fig. 1). Factorial designs, including fractional factorials, have increased recision over other tyes of designs because they have builtin internal relication. Factor effects are essentially the difference between the average of all runs at the two levels for a factor, such as high and low. Relicates of the same oints are not needed in a factorial design, which seems like a violation of the relication rincile in design of exeriments. However, half of all the data oints are taken at the high level and the other half are taken at the low level of each factor, resulting in a very large number of relicates. Relication is also rovided by the factors included in the design that turn out to have nonsignificant effects. Because each factor is varied with resect to all of the factors, information on all factors is collected by each run. In fact, every data oint is used in the analysis many times as well as in the estimation of every effect and interaction. Additional efficiency of the twolevel factorial design comes from the fact that it sans the factor sace, that is, uts half of the design oints at each end of the range, which is the most owerful way of determining whether a factor has a significant effect. USES The main uses of design of exeriments are Discovering interactions among factors Screening many factors Establishing and maintaining quality control Otimizing a rocess, including evolutionary oerations (EVOP) Designing robust roducts Interaction occurs when the effect on the resonse of a change in the level of one factor from low to high deends on the level of another factor. In other words, when an interaction is resent between two factors, the combined effect of those two factors on the resonse variable cannot be redicted from the searate effects. The effect of two factors acting in combination can either be greater (synergy) or less (interference) than would be exected from each factor searately. Frequently there is a need to evaluate a rocess with many inut variables and with measured outut variables. This rocess could be a comlex comuter simulation model or a manufacturing rocess with raw materials, temerature, and ressure as the inuts. A screening exeriment tells us which inut variables (factors) are causing the majority of the variability in the outut (resonses), i.e., which factors are the drivers. A Figure 1. Full factorial and onehalf factorial in three dimensions. screening exeriment usually involves only two levels of each factor and can also be called characterization testing or sensitivity analysis. A rocess is out of statistical control when either the mean or the variability is outside its secifications. When this haens, the cause must be found and corrected. The cause is found efficiently using an exerimental design similar to the screening design, excet that the number of levels for the factors need not be two for all the factors. Otimizing a rocess involves determining the shae of the resonse variable. Usually a screening design is erformed first to find the relatively few imortant factors. A resonse surface design has several (usually three or four) levels on each of the factors. This roduces a more detailed icture of the surface, esecially roviding information on which factors have curvature and on areas in the resonse where eaks and lateaus occur. The EVOP method is an otimization rocedure used when only small changes in the factors can be tolerated in order for normal oerations to continue. Examles of EVOP are otimizing the cracking rocess on crude oil while still running the oil refinery or tuning the welding ower of a welding robot in a car manufacturing assembly line. Product robustness, ioneered by Taguchi, uses exerimental design to study the resonse surfaces associated with both the roduct means and variances to choose aroriate factor settings so that variance and bias are both small simultaneously. Designing a robust roduct means learning how to make the resonse variable insensitive to uncontrollable manufacturing rocess variability or to the use conditions of the roduct by the customer. MATHEMATICAL FORMULATION AND TERMINOLOGY The inut variables on the exeriment are called factors. The erformance measures resulting from the exeriment are called resonses. Polynomial equations 226 Johns Hokins APL Technical Digest, Volume 27, Number 3 (2007)
4 A BRIEF INTRODUCTION TO DESIGN OF EXPERIMENTS are Taylor series aroximations to the unknown true functional form of the resonse variable. An often quoted insight of George Box is, All models are wrong. Some are useful. 3 The trick is to have the simlest model that catures the main features of the data or rocess. The olynomial equation, shown to the third order in Eq. 1, used to model the resonse variable Y as a function of the inut factors X s is Y = 0 + i + ij X j + ijk X j X k + L, (1) where i = 1 i = 1 j = 1 i j β 0 = the overall mean resonse, i = 1 j = 1 k = 1 i j k β i = the main effect for factor (i = 1, 2,..., ), β ij = the twoway interaction between the ith and jth factors, and β ijk = the threeway interaction between the ith, jth, and kth factors. Usually, two values (called levels) of the X s are used in the exeriment for each factor, denoted by high and low and coded as 11 and 21, resectively. A general recommendation for setting the factor ranges is to set the levels far enough aart so that one would exect to see a difference in the resonse but not so far aart as to be out of the likely oerating range. The use of only two levels seems to imly that the effects must be linear, but the assumtion of monotonicity (or nearly so) on the resonse variable is sufficient. At least three levels of the factors would be required to detect curvature. Interaction is resent when the effect of a factor on the resonse variable deends on the setting level of another factor. Grahically, this can be seen as two nonarallel lines when lotting the averages from the four combinations of high and low levels of the two factors. The β ij terms in Eq. 1 account for the twoway interactions. Twoway interactions can be thought of as the corrections to a model of simle additivity of the factor effects, the model with only the β i terms in Eq. 1. The use of the simle additive model assumes that the factors act searately and indeendently on the resonse variable, which is not a very reasonable assumtion. Exerimental designs can be categorized by their resolution level. A design with a higher resolution level can fit higherorder terms in Eq. 1 than a design with a lower resolution level. If a high enough resolution level design is not used, only the linear combination of several terms can be estimated, not the terms searately. The word resolution was borrowed from the term used in otics. Resolution levels are usually denoted by Roman numerals, with III, IV, and V being the most commonly used. To resolve all of the twoway interactions, the resolution level must be at least V. Four resolution levels and their meanings are given in Table 1. Table 1. Resolution levels and their meanings. Resolution level Meaning II Main effects are linearly combined with each other (b i 1 b j ). III Main effects are linearly combined with twoway interactions (b i 1 b jk ). IV Main effects are linearly combined with threeway interactions (b i 1 b jkl ) and twoway interactions with each other (b ij 1 b kl ). V Main effects and twoway interactions are not linearly combined excet with higherorder interactions (b i 1 b jklm and b ij 1 b klm ). IMPLEMENTATION The main stes to imlement an exerimental design are as follows. Note that the subject matter exerts are the main contributors to the most imortant stes, i.e., 1 4, 10, and State the objective of the study and the hyotheses to be tested. 2. Determine the resonse variable(s) of interest that can be measured. 3. Determine the controllable factors of interest that might affect the resonse variables and the levels of each factor to be used in the exeriment. It is better to include more factors in the design than to exclude factors, that is, rejudging them to be nonsignificant. 4. Determine the uncontrollable variables that might affect the resonse variables, blocking the known nuisance variables and randomizing the runs to rotect against unknown nuisance variables. 5. Determine the total number of runs in the exeriment, ideally using estimates of variability, recision required, size of effects exected, etc., but more likely based on available time and resources. Reserve some resources for unforeseen contingencies and followu runs. Some ractitioners recommend using only 25% of the resources in the first exeriment. 6. Design the exeriment, remembering to randomize the runs. 7. Perform a ro forma analysis with resonse variables as random variables to check for estimability of the factor effects and recision of the exeriment. 8. Perform the exeriment strictly according to the exerimental design, including the initial setu for each run in a hysical exeriment. Do not swa the run order to make the job easier. Johns Hokins APL Technical Digest, Volume 27, Number 3 (2007) 227
5 J. K. TELFORD 9. Analyze the data from the exeriment using the analysis of variance method develoed by Fisher. 10. Interret the results and state the conclusions in terms of the subject matter. 11. Consider erforming a second, confirmatory exeriment if the conclusions are very imortant or are likely to be controversial. 12. Document and summarize the results and conclusions, in tabular and grahical form, for the reort or resentation on the study. NUMBER OF RUNS NEEDED FOR FACTORIAL EXPERIMENTAL DESIGNS Many factors can be used in a screening exeriment for a sensitivity analysis to determine which factors are the main drivers of the resonse variable. However, as noted earlier, as the number of factors increases, the total number of combinations increases exonentially. Thus, screening studies often use a fractional factorial design, which roduces high confidence in the sensitivity results using a feasible number of runs. Fractional factorial designs yield olynomial equations aroximating the true resonse function, with better aroximations from higher resolution level designs. The minimum number of runs needed for Resolution IV and V designs is shown in Table 2 as a function of the number of factors in the exeriment. There is a simle relationshi for the minimum number of runs needed for a Resolution IV design: round u the number of factors to a ower of two and then multily by two. The usefulness of Table 2 is to show that often there is no enalty for including more factors in the exeriment. For examle, if 33 factors are going to be studied already, then u to 64 factors can be studied for the same number of runs, namely, 128. It is more desirable to conduct a Resolution V exeriment to be able to estimate searately all the twoway interactions. However, for a large number of factors, it may not be feasible to erform the Resolution V design. Because the significant twoway interactions are most likely to be combinations of the significant main effects, a Resolution IV design can be used first, esecially if it is known that the factors have monotonic effects on the resonse variable. Then a followu Resolution V design can be erformed to determine if there are any significant twoway interactions using only the factors found to have significant effects from the Resolution IV exeriment. If a factorial design is used as the screening exeriment on many factors, the same combinations of factors need not be relicated, even if the simulation is stochastic. Different design oints are referable to relicating the same oints since more effects can be estimated, ossibly u to the next higher resolution level. Table 2. Twolevel designs: minimum number of runs as a function of number of factors. Factors Resolution IV APPLICATION TO A SIMULATION MODEL Runs = = = = = = = = 2 9 Resolution V = = = = = = = = ,024 = ,048 = ,096 = ,192 = ,394 = ,768 = 2 15 Screening Design Design of exeriments was used as the method for identifying Ballistic Missile Defense (BMD) systemofsystems needs using the Extended Air Defense Simulation (EADSIM) model. The sensitivity analysis roceeded in two stes: 1. A screening exeriment to determine the main drivers 2. A resonse surface exeriment to determine the shae of the effects (linear or curved) The rimary resonse variable for the study was rotection effectiveness, i.e., the number of threats negated divided by the total number of incoming threats over the course of a scenario, and the secondary resonse variables were inventory use for each of the defensive weaon systems. The boxed insert shows the 47 factors screened in the study. These factors were selected by doing a functional 228 Johns Hokins APL Technical Digest, Volume 27, Number 3 (2007)
6 A BRIEF INTRODUCTION TO DESIGN OF EXPERIMENTS Fortyseven Factors to be Screened TO IDENTIFY BMD SYSTEMOFSYSTEMS NEEDS Threat radar cross section GB lower tier 2 reaction time Satellite cueing system robability of detection GB lower tier 2 P k Satellite cueing system network delay GB lower tier 2 Vbo Satellite cueing system accuracy SB lower tier time to acquire track Satellite cueing system time to form track SB lower tier time to discriminate GB uer tier time to acquire track SB lower tier time to commit GB uer tier time to discriminate SB lower tier time to kill assessment GB uer tier time to commit SB lower tier robability of correct discrimination GB uer tier time to kill assessment SB lower tier P k assessment GB uer tier robability of correct discrimination SB lower tier launch reliability GB uer tier robability of kill (P k ) assessment SB lower tier reaction time GB uer tier launch reliability SB lower tier P k GB uer tier reaction time SB lower tier Vbo GB uer tier P k Network delay GB uer tier burnout velocity (Vbo) Lower tier minimum intercet altitude GB lower tier time to acquire track Uer tier minimum intercet altitude GB lower tier time to discriminate ABL reaction time GB lower tier time to commit ABL beam sread GB lower tier robability of correct discrimination ABL atmosheric attenuation GB lower tier 1 launch reliability ABL downtime GB lower tier 1 reaction time GB uer tier downtime GB lower tier 1 P k GB lower tier downtime GB lower tier 1 Vbo SB lower tier downtime GB lower tier 2 launch reliability decomosition of the engagement rocess for each defensive weaon system, that is, a radar must detect, track, discriminate, and assess the success of intercet attemts and the accuracy, reliability, and timeline factors associated with each of those functions. A fractional factorial exerimental design and EADSIM were used to screen the 47 factors above for their relative imortance in farterm Northeast Asia (NEA) and Southwest Asia (SWA) scenarios over the first 10 days of a war. A threetiered defense system was emloyed for both scenarios, including an airborne laser (ABL), a groundbased (GB) uer tier, and a lower tier comrising both groundbased and seabased (SB) systems. We initially conducted 512 EADSIM runs to screen the sensitivities of the 47 factors in the NEA scenario. This is a Resolution IV design and resolves all of the 47 main factors but cannot identify which of the 1081 ossible twoway interactions are significant. After analyzing results from the initial 512 runs, 17 additional, searate exerimental designs were needed (for a total of 352 additional EADSIM runs) to identify the significant twoway interactions for rotection effectiveness. We learned from the NEA screening study that more runs were warranted in the initial exeriment to eliminate the number of additional exeriments needed to disentangle all the twoway interactions. For the SWA screening study, we conducted 4096 EADSIM runs to find the 47 main factors and all 1081 twoway interactions for the 47 factors. This was a Resolution V design. An added benefit of conducting more exeriments is that SWA error estimates are aroximately onethird the size of NEA error estimates, i.e., the relative imortance of the erformance drivers can be identified with higher certainty in SWA comared to NEA, which can be seen in Fig. 2. Note that only a very small fraction of the total number of ossible combinations was run, 1 in 275 billion since it is a fractional factorial, even for the Resolution V design. Figure 2 illustrates the main factor sensitivities to the 47 factors for both the NEA and SWA scenarios, labeled F1 to F47. The colored dots reresent the change of rotection effectiveness to each factor, and the error bars are 95% confidence bounds. The yaxis is the difference in the average rotection effectiveness for a factor between the good and bad values. Factors are determined to be erformance drivers if the 95% confidence Johns Hokins APL Technical Digest, Volume 27, Number 3 (2007) 229
7 J. K. TELFORD Figure 2. Change in rotection effectiveness: 47 main effects and 95% confidence limits. bounds do not include zero as a robable result. Factors shown in red in Fig. 2 were found to be erformance drivers in both scenarios. Factors in blue were found to be drivers in NEA only, and factors in green were found to be drivers in SWA only. Factors that were not found to be drivers in either scenario are shown in gray. (The factors in Fig. 2 are not listed in the same order as they aear in the boxed insert.) The factors in Fig. 2 are sorted in numerical order of their effects in the NEA scenario. The red factors all aear in the left quarter of the SWA grah, indicating that many of the same factors that are most imortant in the NEA scenario are also the most imortant in the SWA scenario. The imortant factors that differ between the two scenarios, coded in blue and green, result from the geograhic (geometric, laydown, and terrain) differences in those two theaters. The twoway interactions (1081) are too numerous to show in a figure similar to the one for the main effects. However, the vast majority of the twoway interactions are quite small. An examle of a significant interaction effect can be seen in Fig. 3, shown grahically by the two lines not being arallel. The increase in rotection effectiveness from imroving Factor 6 is large if Factor 9 is at the low level, but essentially zero if Factor 9 is at its high level. (Factors 6 and 9 are not the sixth and ninth values listed in the boxed insert.) Data would not have been collected at the 11 level for Factors 6 and 9 in the traditional changeonefactorattime exeriment, starting at the 21 level for both factors. The rotection effectiveness value at 11 for both factors would robably be overestimated from a changeonefactorattime exeriment. Only by varying both factors at the same time (the Factorial rincile) can the actual effect of two factors acting together be known. Resonse Surface Design Once a screening exeriment has been erformed and the imortant factors determined, the next ste is often to erform a resonse surface exeriment to roduce a rediction model to determine curvature, detect interactions among the factors, and otimize the rocess. The model that is frequently used to estimate the resonse surface is the quadratic model in Eq. 2: 2 Y = 0 + i + ij X j + ii, (2) where i = 1 i = 1 j = 1 i j i = 1 β 0 = the overall mean resonse, β i = the main effect for each factor (i = 1, 2,..., ), β ij = the twoway interaction between the ith and jth factors, and β ii = the quadratic effect for the ith factor. To fit the quadratic terms in Eq. 2, at least three levels for the inut X variables are needed, that is, high, medium, and low levels, usually coded as 11, 0, and 21. A total of 3 comuter simulations are needed to take observations at all the ossible combinations of the three levels of the factors. If 2 comuter simulations reresent a large number, then 3 comuter simulations reresent a huge number. The value of conducting the initial screening study is to reduce to a smaller number, say k. Even so, 3 k comuter simulations may still be rohibitively large. 230 Johns Hokins APL Technical Digest, Volume 27, Number 3 (2007)
8 A BRIEF INTRODUCTION TO DESIGN OF EXPERIMENTS Table 3. Threelevel Resolution V designs: minimum number of runs as a function of number of factors. Figure 3. Protection effectiveness: twoway interaction between Factors 6 and 9 from the screening exeriment. The minimum number of runs needed for a threelevel Resolution V design as a function of the number of factors is shown in Table 3. From the twolevel screening designs, 11 main effects were statistically significant and have at least a 1% effect on rotection effectiveness. Table 3 shows that for 11 factors, a minimum number of 243 runs are needed. Notice that 36 factors out of the original 47 have been deemed nonsignificant and will be droed from further exerimentation. An examle of a significant quadratic main effect (Factor 9) and a significant twoway interaction between Factors 6 and 9 for the threelevel fractional factorial resonse surface exeriment is shown in Fig. 4. There are different values in rotection effectiveness when Factor 9 is at the low level (21), deending on whether the level of Factor 6 is a the low, medium, or high level, but very little difference if Factor 9 is at the high level (11). The shae of the lines in Fig. 4 is curved, indicating that a quadratic term is needed for Factor 9 in the olynomial equation. (Factors 6 and 9 are not the sixth and ninth factors listed as in the boxed insert.) The olynomial equation for rotection effectiveness with quadratic and crossroduct terms resulting from the fractional factorial resonse surface exeriment is shown in Eq. 3. The size of a factor effect on rotection effectiveness is actually twice as large as the coefficients on the X terms since the coefficients are actually sloes and X has a range of 2 (from 21 to 11). Factors 1 3 Runs 2 9 = = = = = = = 3 8 The full study comrised not only an examination of two theaters (NEA and SWA) but also four force levels in each theater. All of the analyses shown reviously were conducted at Force Level 4, which is comarable to a Desert Storm level of logistics suort before the oeration. Force Level 1 is a raid resonse with no rior warning and limited weaons available. Force Levels 2 and 3 are intermediate between Levels 1 and 4. The resonse surfaces for the four force levels in the NEA scenario are shown in Fig. 5. The individual grahs are the resonse surfaces for Factors 9 and 11, the two largest main effects for Force Level 4. There is a very noticeable curvature for Factor 9, esecially at Force Levels 1 and 2. As the force level increases, rotection effectiveness increases. The different color bands are 5% increments in rotection effectiveness: red is between 65% and 70% and orange is between 90% and 95%. The resonse surfaces flatten out and rise u as the force level increases, that is, rotection effectiveness imroves and is less sensitive to changes in the factors. As the force level increases, there are more assets available, so the reliance on the erformance of any individual asset diminishes. (Factors 9 and 11 are not the ninth and eleventh values listed in the boxed insert.) PE = X X X X X X X X X X X 6 X X 8 X X 2 X X 5 X X 3 X X 5 X X 1 X X X X X X X 2 2. (3) Figure 4. Protection effectiveness: quadratic main effect and twoway interaction between Factors 6 and 9 from the Resonse Surface Exeriment. Johns Hokins APL Technical Digest, Volume 27, Number 3 (2007) 231
9 J. K. TELFORD Figure 5. Protection effectiveness resonse surfaces for Factors 9 and 11 at four force levels in the NEA theater. CONCLUSION Design of exeriments has been alied successfully in diverse fields such as agriculture (imroved cro yields have created grain surluses), the etrochemical industry (for highly efficient oil refineries), and Jaanese automobile manufacturing (giving them a large market share for their vehicles). These develoments are due in art to the successful imlementation of design of exeriments. The reason to use design of exeriments is to imlement valid and efficient exeriments that will roduce quantitative results and suort sound decision making. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS. The author would like to thank Roger L. West, Barry L. Mitchell, and Thomas P. Sriesterbach for their articiation in the study that was used as the examle for this article. REFERENCES 1Fisher, R. A., The Design of Exeriments, Oliver & Boyd, Edinburgh, Scotland (1935). 2Deming, W. E., Out of the Crisis, MIT Center for Advanced Engineering Study, Cambridge, MA (1982). 3Box, G. E. P., and Draer, N. R., Emirical Model Building and Resonse Surfaces, Wiley, Hoboken, NJ (1987). The Author Jacqueline K. Telford is a statistician and a Princial Professional Staff member at APL. She obtained a B.S. in mathematics from Miami University and master s and Ph.D. degrees in statistics from North Carolina State University. Dr. Telford was emloyed at the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission in Bethesda, Maryland, from 1979 to Since joining APL in 1983, she has been in the Oerational Systems Analysis Grou of the Global Engagement Deartment working rimarily on reliability analysis and testing, test sizing, and lanning for Trident rograms, and more recently for the Missile Defense Agency. She has successfully alied statistical analysis methods to numerous other rojects, including evaluation of sensors, models of the hydrodynamics of radioisotoes, and lethality effects. She has taught statistics courses in the JHU graduate engineering rogram, mostly recently on the toic of design of exeriments. Her address is Jacqueline K. Telford 232 Johns Hokins APL Technical Digest, Volume 27, Number 3 (2007)
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