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1 When you see the pencil appear, fill in the information in red on your infographic guided notes page. Karalynn Tyler 2015

2 Abe Lincoln S. Douglas John Breckinridge John Bell Since the writing of the Constitution in 1787, Northern and Southern states had been making compromises surrounding slavery. By 1860, the nation was more divided than ever. It was an election year and the presidential race revealed how deeply divided the country had become. The election of 1860 had 4 candidates: 1 Abraham Lincoln- Republican Party 2 Stephen Douglas- Democratic Party (Northern States) 3 John C. Breckinridge- Democratic Party (Southern States)

3 Abe Lincoln I would save the Union. If I could save the Union without freeing any slave, I would do it; and if could save it by freeing all the slaves, I would do it. " S. Douglas Abraham Lincoln Became the 16 th President. Was determined to keep the United States together. Election Abraham Lincoln won the election John Breckinridge November 6, Abraham Lincoln elected President John Bell Lincoln won the election of 1860 but his victory was odd because he won with only a 40% of the votes. This means 60% of voters did not favor Lincoln for president. His name wasn t even on the ballot in 10 southern states. But the remaining 60% of the votes were divided between the other three candidates and Lincoln had the largest number of electoral college votes. Lincoln s election meant the Southern states that supported slavery were in the minority. They feared sooner or later Congress would vote to abolish slavery and Abraham Lincoln would support that kind of legislation. Southerners feared their liberty, property, and entire way of living were at risk.

4 Abe Lincoln Karalynn Tyler 2015

5 South Carolina Was the first of 11 states to secede and break away from the United States. Secession States began to secede- leave the union- December 20, Lincoln s election sent shock waves through the South. The Southern states felt they no longer had a voice in government and began to talk of breaking away from the Union. One Virginia Newspaper stated The honor, safety, and independence of the Southern people are to be found only in a Southern Confederacy. The U.S. Senate held a meeting on December 20 th, 1860 to discuss a potential compromise to satisfy Southern states. Meanwhile, the same day, South Carolina s legislature met and voted to leave the Union. South Carolina became the first state to secede.

6 "Secession is both wrong and unconstitutional. "In your hands, my dissatisfied fellow countrymen, and not mine is this momentous issue of civil war." South 11 Slave States that seceded. 9 Million People Lincoln had promised he wouldn t interfere with slavery in the South, but it was too late. Lincoln hadn t even taken office yet, but the nation was crumbling apart. By February, 1861, six more states had joined South Carolina and broke away from the United States to form their own country they called the Confederate States of America. They felt since states voluntarily joined the U.S., they could also voluntarily leave. Four more states would join the Confederacy.

7 It was later replaced and most people recognize the Virginia battle flag as the Confederate flag. Jefferson Davis Was elected as President of the 11 Confederate states that seceded. The Confederacy quickly elected former Mississippi Senator Jefferson Davis as their president and wrote their own constitution. They established the capital a little over 100 miles from Washington D.C. in Richmond, Virginia. The Stars and Bars flag was the original flag of the Confederacy. However, once war broke out, soldiers were confused on the battlefield because it looked too similar to the U.S. Flag.

8 North 19 Free States 8 Western Territories 22 Million People Border States 5 Slave states that did NOT secede. The states and territories that did not secede were referred to as the Union. States on the border had to choose- Four slave states remained in the Union. The northwest counties of Virginia broke away from the state and remained in the Union, forming the state of West Virginia. On March 4, 1861, Abraham Lincoln was inaugurated and became the leader of a broken nation. In his inaugural speech, he spoke to both Union and Confederate citizens extending peace and friendship.

9 War Southern troops fired on Fort Sumter April 12 th 1861 It's on Civil War began at Fort Sumter Lincoln s offer of friendship was rejected. Confederate states took over all U.S. federal buildings including posts offices and military forts. Lincoln had to decide how to respond. One of the most urgent problems was that the commander of Fort Sumter in South Carolina refused to surrender the military fort to the Confederacy. South Carolina decided to cut off the fort and starve the 100 U.S. troops into surrendering. Lincoln feared sending supplies and troops would cause more states to secede so he decided to just send food. Confederate leaders still took this as an act of aggression and on the morning of April 12, 1861, Confederate troops opened fire on the U.S. troops at Fort Sumter. The first shots of the Civil War had been fired.

10 Robert E. Lee was a West Point graduate and U.S. military officer at the start of the war. Lincoln wanted him to command the Union army. But Lee chose to fight for his home state of Virginia and was appointed the commander of the Confederate Army. Made up of: Reason for Fighting: Nickname: Uniforms: Robert E. Lee Chose to remain loyal to his home state of Virginia and commanded the Confederate Army. 11 states that seceded Claimed 10 th Amendment state s rights to allow slavery. Fought to leave the Union. Rebels Gray/Tan Confederacy

11 President Lincoln struggled to find a General that met his standards. He fired multiple generals for not being aggressive enough against the better trained Southern soldiers. In 1863 he appointed General Ulysses S. Grant to lead the Union Army. Grant had proven he was persistent and would win at all cost. Ulysses S. Grant Was made Commander of the Union Army in Made up of: 19 Free States, 8 Western Territories, and 5 Border States Reason for Fighting: To preserve the Union and keep the South from forming their own country. Nickname: Uniforms: Union Yankees Dark blue coats, light blue pants

12 Optional Video Resources Civil War Election 1860 (America Story of Us Clip) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tgg5udyheqa How the Civil War Got its Start: (Smithsonian Channel) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=t9dndwzszti The Civil War: Fort Sumter (Ken Burns, PBS) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=o9p7v7grhje& list=pl706ba6bc60a82105&index=5

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