Exploring Big Data in Social Networks

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1 Exploring Big Data in Social Networks INWEB National Science and Technology Institute for Web Federal University of Minas Gerais - UFMG May 2013

2 Some thoughts about computing, future and innovation

3 What happens in 60 seconds on the Internet?

4 Explosion of Web Data 4

5 BIG DATA: data collection, storage, management, automated large-scale analysis 5

6 Research interests algorithms around social networks VERY large graphs data mining analytics BIG DATA Algorithms and MACHINE LEARNING Systems Infrastructure cloud characterization SOCIAL and ECONOMICS characterization models incentives privacy network effects crowdsourcing anti-social behavior spam and malware s

7 The fundamental challenge of Big Data is not collecting data -- it's making sense of it. 1) What is the starting point? 2) What are the computation paths to discovery? 3) What are the appropriate algorithms? 3) How to visualize the findings?

8 Analysis Experimental Methodology Measure Analyze Model Synthesize Models What if questions: Distributions of Random Variables Algorithms Logs and Traces Synthetic Workloads Observations Validation Artifacts

9 Challenges in Online Social Networking Research Explosive growth in size, complexity, and unstructured data; Enabled by various experimental methods: observational studies, simulations,..., huge amount of data; It is big data, the vast sets of information gathered by researchers at companies like Facebook, Google and Microsoft from patterns of cellphone calls, text messages and Internet clicks by millions of users around the world. Companies often refuse to make such information public, sometimes for competitive reasons and sometimes to protect customers privacy. (New York Times, May 21)

10 Enablers of Big Data Hardware capability Storage capacity Network bandwidth Exponentially increasing capability at constant cost Processing capacity Applications & Algorithms Online social networking Algorithmic breakthroughs: machine learning and data mining Cloud: Cost reductions and scalability improvements in computation Sensors everywhere

11 Price of 1 gigabyte of storage over time Year Cost 1981 $300, $50, $10, $ $ $ $ $

12 OSN Research Focus 1.Understand: characteristics of social graphs of real data; 2.Discover: properties of social graphs; 3.Engineer: social graph built.

13 OSN research approach Computational sociology: A natural sciences approach Gather and analyze OSN data to study problems in sociology Social computing: An engineering approach Build systems that support / leverage human social interactions Understand human behavior (as opposed of considering it annoying noise) Inspired by sociological theories

14

15 The Atlantic 15

16 16

17 Understanding Factors that Affect Response Rates in Twitter(*) Active users can receive 1000 tweets per day; Approximately 36% of all tweets worth reading, 39% are neutral and 25% are junk ; Interesting Questions Do Twitter users receive more information than they are able to consume? Is it possible to identify factors that affect interactions (replies and retweets)? (*) ACM Hypertext 2012, joint work with Giovanni Comarela, Mark Crovella, F. Benevenuto

18 Datasets: big data Collected in August/September 2009, it contains the following information: Users: 54,981,152 Tweets: 1,755,925,520 (almost a complete history) Social Graph: 1,963,263,821 social links It contains information related to Replies and Retweets (interactions)

19 Characterization Waiting Times (overload evidence) How long does a tweet wait in the timeline to be replied (retweeted)? Factors that affect interactions Message Age Previous Interactions Sending Rate

20 Waiting Times

21 Message Age

22 Previous interaction Are previously replied (retweeted) users more likely to be replied (retweeted) again? We computed for each user i the conditional probability that a message m will be replied (retweeted) by i given that i has replied (retweeted) the sender of m before;

23 Sending rate Are users with a higher sending rate more likely to be replied (retweeted)? For each user i, for each j Outi we compared the sending rate of j with the fraction of her tweets replied (retweeted) by i.

24 Reorganizing the Twitter Timeline Use the knowledge presented in order to create a new way to show tweets for the users More interesting tweets (more likely to be replied or retweeted) in the top of the timeline. Two schemes Naive Bayes (NB) Support Vector Machine (SVM) Three attributes Age(m): Age of m SR(m): Sending rate of the sender of m I(m): Binary indicator for previous interactions with the sender of m

25 Results

26 Google+ New Kid on the Block: Exploring the Google+ Social Graph, ACM Internet Measurement Conference, Sigcomm, 2012, Boston Joint work with: G. Magno, G. Comarela, D. Saez and Meeyong Cha. 26

27 Online Social Networks OSNs now reach 82% of the world s Internet-using population (1.2 billion) Social Networking accounts for 19% of all time spent online Social Networking is the most popular online activity worldwide Source: comscore, December 21,

28 Google+ Growth # users Days Google+ is the fastest growing OSN 28

29 Goal: characterization Analyze how much and what kind of personal information people share in Google+ Measure statistics of the Google+ social graph and compare with other OSNs Evaluate the impact of geography on user behavior in Google+ 29

30 Dataset: big data Nov. 11th Dec. 27th (2011) 27,556,390 profiles 35,114,957 nodes 575,141,097 edges 30

31 What kind of information do people share more?

32 Privacy Concerns Users revealing more information on their profiles have greater risk in privacy In Facebook (young users, to friends)¹: 64.1% share 10.7% share telephone 10.7% share home address 32

33 What kind of information do people share more? In Google+ (public): 0.22% share Work contact 0.21% share Home contact 0.26% share telephone numbers (72,736 users) Users that shared telephone: tel-users 33

34 Number of fields shared in profile Tel-users share more information 34

35 Information shared by users Women are less likely to share phone number The majority of tel-users are single; a smaller fraction of them are in a relationship. Fraction of Indian users in the tel-users group is twice as big as in other countries 35

36 How are people connected on Google+?

37 Structural Characteristics of Social Graphs Hidden edges Higher avg. path length Higher reciprocity = More social Diameter similar to Twitter, lower than Facebook New network Lower number of friends 37

38 Structural Characteristics Clust. Coef. Higher Clustering Coefficient than Twitter 38

39 What is the impact of geography on the social relationships?

40 Geo-location Information Question: is the geographical location of users an important factor in the formation of social links? Extract GPS coordinates from map image Retrieve country information 6,621,644 users with valid country inf. 40

41 Patterns Across Geo-locations Average Path Miles 58% of friends were separated by less than a thousand miles Physical distance has influence on the intensity of the relationship 41

42 Social Links Across Geography are users in the same country more likely to be friends than users in different countries US is dominant on the influx of edges Populous countries have more self-loops 42

43 G+ Observations Google+ is more social than Twitter Higher reciprocity Higher clustering coefficient Reflects offline relationship Users exhibit different notions and expectations in Google+, based on geography Privacy Content Connections 43

44 Concluding Remarks Big data has created new opportunities for scientific discoveries in the realm of social computing: user preference understanding data mining summarization and aggregation explorative analysis of large data sets privacy scalable services

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