Ancient Egypt

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1 Ancient Egypt

2 Disclaimer! Please keep this packet in your notes section in your binder/folder in your notes section. This packet will be used throughout the entire unit and will help you fill out the study guide when it is time for the unit test. Second copies will not be freely given out.

3 Geography Land Features Agriculture - working the land to grow crops (farming). The Nile River is the river that runs through this ancient civilization and is also the longest river in the world. Ancient Egypt is found on the continent of Africa, and located in Egypt.

4 Source vs. Mouth Ancient Egyptians settled and prospered along the Nile River because of rich soil for growing crops and water for growing crops. The source of the Nile River is in the mountains. The mouth of the Nile River is the Mediterranean Sea.

5 The Wonky Way of the Nile The Nile River's current flows north; the wind blows south. If an Egyptian needed to travel north from Thebes to Giza, his boat would be carried by the current, moved faster by the work of rowers. Coming south to get home, he would put up the sails on his boat. Wind would push the boat upstream, against the current, back to Thebes. ** There is a picture to help you understand...

6 **This map can be found on page 409 in your pink textbook.

7 Let s Review! Which direction is this sailboat traveling? North or South?

8 South! If you believed the answer was south, you are correct! If a merchant wanted to travel south on the Nile, he would need to use a sail. If that same merchant then wanted to travel north he would use oars.

9 Tigris & Euphrates The Nile River is similar to the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers from Ancient Mesopotamia because the rivers were a source of water for their areas and they all would flood leaving silt behind causing the soil to be rich and good for farming. vs. The Nile River

10 Upper & Lower Egypt Egypt was divided into two regions: Lower Egypt - near the delta of the Nile in Northern Africa - major trading city of Giza was located in this region. Upper Egypt - located south of Lower Egypt - major trading city of Thebes was located in this region.

11 Stop and think! Do you think the naming of Lower and Upper Egypt has anything to do with the direction of the Nile River s current?

12 Ancient Egyptian Kingdoms Kingdoms Egypt was broken into time periods called kingdoms. Predynastic period ( B.C.) The Old Kingdom ( B.C.) Middle Kingdom ( B.C.) New Kingdom ( B.C.)

13 Dynasty/Monarchy Throughout most of its history, Egypt was ruled by kings. These kings were thought to be representatives of the gods. Using the king s name directly was considered disrespectful, so people referred to them as per aa or pharaoh, which meant great house in Egyptian.

14 Upper and Lower Unite! In 3100 B.C., King Narmer (Also known as King Menes) united Upper Egypt in the south and Lower Egypt in the North. This marked the start of the kingdom s first dynasty. Upper Egypt Lower Egypt

15 Types of Government Brainstorming! Stop, think, collaborate, and share! Look over the upcoming types of government we will be defining. In the margins (the sides) of your packet brainstorm what you think those types of government are like. You will be asked to share your brainstorming in a few minutes. So stay on task!

16 Dynasty A dynasty is a group of rulers over several generations descending from the same family.

17 Monarchy A monarchy is when a king or queen rules one country. There are three types of monarchies: Absolute, Constitutional, and Parliamentary. Absolute - Saudi Arabia (King Salman) Constitutional - United Kingdom (Queen Elizabeth II) Parliamentary - Spain (Felipe VI & the Council of Ministers)

18 Theocracy A theocracy is a government that recognized God or a divine being as the ultimate authority. Vatican City Iran is described as theocratic republic (a mix between a theocracy and democracy)

19 Dictatorship A dictatorship is a form of government where one leader has absolute control over citizens lives.

20 Brain-teaser: Which feature is a characteristic of a dictatorship? A. Citizens freely elect government leaders B. Government leaders have limited powers C. Citizens risk punishment if they criticize government leaders D. Government leaders risk impeachment is they change the constitution.

21 Ancient Egyptian Government Ancient Egyptian government has some qualities from each type of government, but is most well known as a dynasty (family line) ruling. Fun Fact: There were more than 30 dynasties in Ancient Egyptian history.

22 Pharaohs (Kings/Queens) The pharaohs controlled every aspect of Egyptian life. Pharaohs were the high priests, lawmakers, and leader in battle. The death of a pharaoh was mourned by his people. It was usually his son (or, occasionally, his daughter) who took over as the next ruler. In this way, the royal family continued.

23 Two Egyptian Rulers Hatshepsut (hat SHEP soot) ruled Egypt around 1500 B.C. She was the king s wife, and after he died, she set herself up to rule instead of her 10-year-old stepson. She ruled for 20 years. She was very powerful and increased tradem restored temples, and sent workers to work in mines. During her reign, Egypt enjoyed a time of wealth and peace.

24 Hatshepsut Rulers often pasted on a false beard as a sign of royalty. Hatshepsut wore one herself and the scribes referred to her as his majesty herself.

25 Two Egyptian Rulers King Tutankhamen (too tahng KAH mun) ruled Egypt around 1361 B.C. at the age of nine! He ruled for nine years and died at the age of 18. He is not remembered for his leadership and instead is known for the discovery of his burial tomb.

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27 King Tut s Tomb King Tut s tomb was packed with all he might need for his trip into the afterlife including statues, 6 war chariots, fine robes, 3 trumpets, furniture and 35 model boats!

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30 Social Classes Three main social classes of Ancient Egypt: Upper Class: royal family, rich landowners, government officials, highranking priests, army officers and doctors. Middle Class: merchants, manufacturers, and craftsmen Lower Class: unskilled laborers (most of which worked on farms) Prisoners captured in foreign wars became slaves and formed a separate class.

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32 Social Classes Cont. The class system was not rigid, meaning you could change class. Lower classes could move up because of job success or marriage. Slaves had rights too. They could own property, get married, inherit land, and be given their freedom. The father headed the family. Upon his death, the oldest son became head. Women had as many rights as men in Ancient Egypt.

33 Education Only a small percentage of boys and girls went to school, most of which were from upper-class families. Most boys and girls learned the occupation of their parents. Some boys learned a trade, but most became farmers, while most girls were trained for the role of mother and wife.

34 Education Cont. Ancient Egypt had many libraries. Alexandria founded by the Roman Emperor Alexander the Great had over 400,000 papyrus scrolls. Papyrus is a paper-like material made from reeds that grew along the Nile River.

35 Economy Farming, fishing, trading, manufacturing good such as clothing and mining materials such as copper, bronze, and natron which was used for embalming were sources of wealth for the Ancient Egyptians. Ancient Egyptians economy was primarily based on trade of available goods such as grains, fish, pottery, and clothing. Gems, gold, and silver were used mainly for foreign trade.

36 Cultural Diffusion The Nile River played a major role in the movement of people, products, and ideas in Ancient Egypt. This movements of people, products, and ideas is called cultural diffusion. * Can you think of some examples of cultural diffusion?

37 Ancient Egypt Architecture Three Types of Tombs Mastaba: A rectangular tomb with sloped sides and a flat roof. Mastabas were used prior to the pyramids. Pyramids are thought to have been created from Mastabas of decreasing size being stacked on top of one another.

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39 Pyramids Pyramid: A tomb with sloped or stepped sides that has a square or rectangular base and triangle sides. They were built as a tomb or grave to house and protect the body of a pharaoh for the afterlife and as a monument to honor the pharaoh.

40 Pyramids...not built by aliens. Slaves and peasants were the ones who actually built pyramids and tombs. This was done during the time of flooding when they could not do their work on the farms.

41 Pyramid...pyramid...pyramid...SPHINX! There are 3 pyramids in Giza, and the largest one (The Great Pyramid) is one of the Seven Ancient Wonders of the World. The Sphinx (a sculpture of a creature with the body of a lion and head of human) was meant to scare people away from robbing the pyramids.

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43 Valley of the Kings Due to time, cost, and persistent robbery the building of pyramids was eventually phased out and a more complex systems of tombs was created at the Valley of the Kings.

44 Valley of the Kings Cont. Valley of the Kings: The desert cliffs near Thebes served as a region to bury rulers into the sides of the mountains. Mazes and false walls were used in some tombs to deter people from robbing tombs and there were strict laws enacted to protect them. If found guilty of tomb raiding, one would be thrust upon sharp stakes stuck into the ground and left to die in agony.

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46 Ancient Egypt Religion Polytheism - the worship of many gods The Egyptians believed that the gods influenced every aspect of nature and human activity. Some of the main Gods and Goddesses were: Ra (god): the sun Horus (god): the sky Renenutet (goddess): the harvest Isis (goddess): mother and wife Osiris (god): judge of the dead Anubis (god): god of mummification and the afterlife

47 Ra Renenutet Osiris Anubis

48 Ancient Egyptian gods & goddesses Many of the gods had human bodies with animal heads. The head suggested a real or imagined quality of gods or goddesses. Most Egyptians prayed at home because temples did not offer regular service. Each temple was dedicated to a god/goddess or dead king. The temple contained a statue of the god that was fed and clothed by the priests.

49 Egyptian Afterlife The Egyptians believed they could enjoy life after death. They mummified bodies, or dried and embalmed them to prevent decaying. Once mummified, the bodies were wrapped in linen strips and placed in a sarcophagus, or stone coffin.

50 Egyptian Afterlife The Egyptians filled their tombs with items for the afterlife: Clothing, food, wigs, cosmetics, jewelry, and statues of servants. Scenes of daily life were painted on the walls of the tombs. They believed that certain prayers said by the priests would make Osiris bring the scenes, as well as the dead, back to life.

51 Egyptian Art Frontalism Egyptian art from every time period strictly follows the same style. Frontalism is a style of art in which when drawing a person or animal the head and feet are turned to the side while the body is facing straight forward.

52 Writing People were finding that the clay tablets and the stones that they were writing on were very heavy. Egyptians began to make paper from the papyrus plants that grew along the Nile (that is where the word paper comes from) The Egyptian form of writing is called hieroglyphics, or pictures that stand for sounds, objects, or ideas.

53 Hieroglyphics Brain Break!!!

54 Hieroglyphics Like Ancient Mesopotamians, people were writing to keep record of supplies and trade, legal documents and letters. Scribes recorded events daily and wrote religious texts. If you wanted to be successful in Egyptian society, you had to learn to read and write over 700 characters/images.

55 Hieroglyphics cont. Hieratic script was a simpler form of writing (like cursive) and was used for everyday writing, while hieroglyphic (picture writing) was saved for tombs and monuments.

56 Ancient Egypt Technology Cultural Contributions/ Inventions/ Innovations Pyramids 365-day calendar Reed boats Setting broken bones Sails The first board game called senet

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