ELT Grammar Text. Chapter 1 Parts of Speech

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1 ELT Grammar Text Chapter 1 Parts of Speech There are eight word classes in English, sometimes called parts of speech. Here is a list with some examples from the passage above. Word class Verb: Noun: Adjective: Adverb: Determiner: Pronoun: Conjunction: Preposition: Examples becoming, can, comes, develop, find, is, stay computer, internet, night, people, time, world amazing, cool, exotic, global, inexpensive even, never, practically, relatively a, any, some, such, the, that anything, it, you and, because, but about, at, by, for, of, since, to, with Parts of Speech and Intonation Key Content Words Content Words Non-Content Words Keywords Numbers Names Super Adverbs Nouns Verbs Do-verbs Participles Phrasal Verbs Adverbs and Adjective Verbbe-verbs Auxiliary verbs Determiners (Quantifier, Article, Possessive Pronouns) Conjunctions Preposition Relative Pronouns Watch Joe s Lesson at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lr-egqlqm7u 1/10

2 Chapter 2 Sentence Types Type 1 Subject Verb (Intransitive) Remember: Intransitive My friend Nothing is waiting. happening. Type 2 Subject Verb (Transitive) Object Remember: Transitive The company The dog sells has eaten mobile phones. my homework Type 3 Subject Verb (State of Being) Complemen This colour The old cinema is became * get, become, stay, remain, sit, lay, etc. nice. a nightclub. Type 4 Subject Verb (State of Being) Adverbial Fronting The concert The photos The Olympics is lay are tomorrow. on the table. every four years. Type 5 Subject Verb (give) Object Object With We Sarah The hotel should give sent provides the children me its guests * With: provide, supply, present, furnish, prescribe. some money. a fax. with towels. Type 6 Subject Verb (make) Object Complement Very Very Special!! Participle To- Infinitive The project The group kept made everyone Simon very busy. their spokesman. I had my computer fixed I found the movie interesting I made my boyfriend do my homework. * invisible to: see, hear, watch, feel, let, have, make, help Type 7 Subject Verb Object Adverbial I The police put got my credit card the car in my wallet. out of the river. 2/10

3 Chapter 3 Sentence Structure Types Keyword: Predicate 1. Simple Sentence S+V+O. (# of Predicate: 1) 2. Compound Sentence S+V+O, fanboys S+V+O. (# of Predicate: 2) fanboys stand for For, And, Nor, But, Or, Yet, So 3. Complex Sentence (Sub-ordinating Conjunctions) S+V+O, S+V+O. (# of Predicate: 3) Sub-ordinating Conjunctions after until although if unless as until as if in order that when as long as whenever where provided (that) wherever as though since while because before than even if that even though though inasmuch 4. Compound Complex Sentence (# of Predicate: more than 3) 3/10

4 Chapter 4 Participle The most common kinds of participle are the active participle, the past participle and the passive participle: Form Active participle: Past participle: Passive participle: Example I fell asleep watching television. We re taking a sort break now. I ve watched all these videos. The job has taken a long time. The game was watched by a handful of spectators. Taken by surprise, he didn t know what to say. 4/10

5 Chapter 5 Relative Clauses A. Who, which, and that We use who for a person and which for something not human such as a thing, an action, or an idea. The hairdresser who usually does my hair was ill. It was a dream which came true. The difference between who and which is like that between he/she and it. But who and which can go with a plural noun as well as a singular one. People who haven t got cars can t shop at these out-of-town stores. Why import things which we could produce ourselves? We can use that with any noun. The hairdresser that usually does my hair was ill. It was a dream that came true. Why import things that we could produce ourselves? With people, who is more usual than that in writing, but both are used in conversation. After other nouns, both which and that are possible, but which can be a little formal. That is more usual than which after a quantifier or pronoun. There was little that could be done to help the victims. I ve thought of something that I d like for my birthday. In this last example, we can leave out that: I ve thought of something I d like for my birthday. TIP: As a general rule, in informal or neutral English use who with people and that with other nouns. Say the man who phoned but the bus that came. 5/10

6 B. Relative Pronoun as subject and object The relative pronoun can be the subject or the object of the clause. Subject Never buy from people who sell out of suitcases. (They sell out of suitcases.) I ve got a computer program that does the job for me. (It does the job for me.) Object They re the same actors that we saw at the theatre. (We saw them at the theatre.) It s a job which you could do yourself quite easily. (You could do it.) We often leave out an object relative pronoun. They re the same actors we saw at the theatre. It s a job you could do yourself quite easily. C. Whose 1. Whose has a possessive meaning. We stopped to help some people whose car had broken down. (Their car had broken down.) In a relative clause we use whose as a determiner before a noun (whose car). (NOT some people whose the car had broken down.) 2. Whose + noun can be subject or object of the relative clause. Doctors are people whose work is obviously useful. The prize goes to the contestant whose performance TV viewers like best. It can also be the object of a preposition. I wish to thank all those people without whose help I would never have got this far. My best friend was martin, at whose wedding I had first met my future wife. The neighbour whose dog I m looking after is in Australia. We can use whose in a clause with commas. The ball fell to Collins, whose shot hit the post. 6/10

7 D. Relative adverbs There are relative adverbs where, when and why. The house where I used to live has been knocked down. Do you remember the time when we all went to a nightclub? The reason why we can sell so cheaply is because we buy in bulk. We can use where after nouns like place, area, country, house, situation. We use when after nouns like time, day, moment, period. We use why after reason. NOTE We can use where and when without a noun. Where I used to live had been knocked down. (= The place where I used to live ) Do you remember when we all went to a nightclub? (= the time when we all went to a nightclub?) E. The relative pronoun what We can use what in this pattern. We d better write a list of what we need to pack. (= the things that we need to pack) I was going to buy a coat, but I couldn t find what I wanted. (= the thing that I wanted) But what cannot relate to a noun. (NOT the coat what I wanted) NOTE We can use what in indirect speech. You haven t told me what we need to pack. We can also use what to emphasize part of the sentence. What I wanted was a coat. 7/10

8 F. Participle relative clauses 1. Active participles We can use an active participle in shortened relative clause. Who are those people taking photos over there? (= those people who are taking photos) The official took no notice of the telephone ringing on his desk. (= the telephone that was ringing on his desk) The participle can refer to the present (are taking) or the past (was ringing). The active participle can refer to a state as well as an action. All the equipment belonging to the club was stolen. (= all the equipment that belongs to the club) Fans wanting to buy tickets started queuing early. (= fans who wanted to buy tickets) We can also use it to report a message. We received a letter telling us about the arrangements. They ve put up a sign warning of the danger. We can sometimes use the active participle for a repeated action. People travelling into London every day are used to the hold-ups. (= people who travel into London every day) But we do not normally use the active participle for a single complete action. The man who escaped from prison is said to be dangerous. (NOT The man escaping from prison is said to be dangerous.) NOTE We can use this kind of relative clause in a sentence with there + be There were some people taking photos. 2. Passive participles We can use a passive participle in a shortened relative clause. Applications received after the deadline cannot be considered. 8/10

9 (= applications which are received after the deadline) The first British TV commercial, broadcast in 1955, was for toothpaste. (= which was broadcast in 1955) Police are trying to identify a body recovered from the river. (= a body which has been recovered from the river) We can use the passive participle for both single and repeated actions. NOTE: We can also use a continuous form of the passive participle. Transport policy is the subject being discussed in Parliament this afternoon. 3. Word order with participles We can sometimes put a participle before a noun, like an adjective. We could hear the sound running water. We can also put it after the noun in a shortened relative clause. We could hear the sound of water running through the pipes. When the participle has a phrase of more than one word with it, then it cannot come before the noun. (NOT We could hear the sound of through the pipes running water.) G. Identifying clauses A relative clause without commas can identify which one we mean. Who was that man who said hello to you? I can t find the book that I was reading. The clause that I was reading identifies which book we are talking about. An identifying clause often comes after a noun phrase with the. I like the course that I m doing now. We do not normally use my, your, etc. (NOT I like my course that I m doing now.) Both my and the relative clause identify the course, but we do not need to use more than one of them. But we can use this, that, these, or those. Have you got those photos you took at the weekend? H. Classifying clauses A relative clause without commas can say what kind of thing we are talking about. 9/10

10 We re looking for a pub that serves food. I hate people who laugh at their own jokes. The clause that serves food describes the kind of pub we mean. A classifying clause often comes after a noun with a/an (a pub) or a plural noun (people). I. Clauses used for emphasis We can use a relative clause without commas in a pattern with it + be. It s my husband who does the cooking, not me. Here the pattern emphasizes the phrase my husband. J. Adding clauses We can use a relative clause with a coma to add more information about a noun. I ll be away on 10 June, which is a Thursday. Aristotle was taught by Plato, who founded the Academy at Athens. The clause who founded the Academy at Athens adds extra information about Plato. We can leave out the adding clause and the sentence still makes sense. NOTE After a phrase with a/an, the question of whether a comma should be used is less clear. My brother had a teddy bear which he used to carry around everywhere. This could be written with or without a comma and spoken with or without a pause before which. K. Connective clauses A relative clause with a comma can tell us what happened next. I shouted to the man, who ran off. Jack put a match to the paper, which instantly caught alight. We use a connective clause to link two actions. In spoken English we often prefer to use two main clauses. I shouted to the man, and he ran off. 10/10

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