Grammar and the New Curriculum Statutory requirements in KS1 and KS2

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1 Grammar and the New Curriculum 2014 Statutory requirements in KS1 and KS2

2 Technical vocabulary

3 Year 1: Detail of content to be introduced letter, capital letter word, singular, plural, sentence punctuation, full stop, question mark, exclamation mark. Year 2: noun, noun phrase, statement, question, exclamation, command, compound noun, suffix, adjective, adverb, verb tense (past, present) apostrophe, comma. Year 3: preposition, conjunction, word family, prefix, clause, subordinate clause, direct speech, consonant letter, vowel letter, inverted commas (or speech marks )

4 Year 4: determiner pronoun, possessive pronoun adverbial Year 5: modal verb, relative pronoun, relative clause, parenthesis, bracket, dash, cohesion, ambiguity Year 6: subject, object, active, passive, synonym, antonym, ellipsis, hyphen, colon, semi-colon, bullet points

5 Change to expectations in using Punctuation

6 Year 1: Detail of content to be introduced (statutory requirement) Separation of words with spaces Introduction to capital letters, full stops, question marks and exclamation. for example: Stop! Do you want to get run over? Do be careful. Marks to demarcate sentences. Capital letters for names and for the personal pronoun I, for example: Mr Smith and I were both late home. Year 2: Use of capital letters, full stops, question marks and exclamation marks to demarcate sentences. Commas to separate items in a list, for example: I bought apples, oranges, pears and bananas. Apostrophes to mark where letters are missing in spelling and to mark singular possession in nouns, for example: the girl s name.

7 Year 3: Introduction to inverted commas to punctuate direct speech, for example: Come over here, shouted the child. Year 4: Use of inverted commas and other punctuation to indicate direct speech, for example: The conductor shouted, Sit down! Apostrophes to mark plural possession, for example: the girl s name; the girls names. Use of commas after fronted adverbials, for example: Suddenly, the mouse ran out.

8 Year 5: Brackets, dashes or commas to indicate parenthesis, for example: The man, who was wearing a green jumper, stood up. Use of commas to clarify meaning or avoid ambiguity, for example: Let s eat, Grandma; let s eat Grandma! Year 6: Use of the semi-colon, colon and dash to mark the boundary between independent clauses, for example: It s raining; I m fed up. Use of the colon to introduce a list and use of semi-colons within lists. Punctuation of bullet points to list information. How hyphens can be used to avoid ambiguity, for example: man eating shark versus man-eating shark, or recover versus recover.

9 Word Classes

10 Year 1 Regular plural noun suffixes s or es For example: dog, dogs; wish, wishes; - children are taught rules show examples What are the effects of these suffixes on the meaning of the noun? Suffixes that can be added to verbs where no change is needed in the spelling of root For example: helping, helped, helper How the prefix un changes the meaning of verbs and adjectives For example, unkind, or undoing: I will untie the boat Year 2 Formation of nouns using suffixes such as ness, er and by compounding For example, faithfulness, taller, bigger, Compounding: whiteboard, superman, Formation of adjectives using suffixes such as ful, less For example, careful, effortless, Use of the suffixes er, est in adjectives and the use of ly in Standard English to turn adjectives into adverbs For example, fastest, faster, quickly, slowly

11 Year 3 Formation of nouns using a range of prefixes For example super, anti, auto supermarket, antibiotic, automobile Use of the forms a or an according to whether the next word begins with a consonant or a vowel. For example, a rock, an open box Word families based on common words, showing how words are related in form and meaning. For example, solve, solution, solver, dissolve, insoluble Year 4 The grammatical difference between plural and possessive s For example: plural s and possessive s: Noun: dog plural s The dogs were playing in the garden Possessive s : The dog s fur Standard English forms for verb inflections instead of local spoken forms For example, we were instead of we was, or I did instead of I done

12 Year 5 Converting nouns or adjectives into verbs using suffixes For example, ate; ise; ify; en class =classify; author = authorise; assassin = assassinate; dark = darken Verb prefixes For example, dis, de, mis, over and re dis + able = disable; de + rail = derail; mis + use = misuse; over + take = overtake; re + turn = return Year 6 The difference between vocabulary typical of informal speech and vocabulary appropriate for formal speech and writing. For example, find out discover; ask for request; go in enter How words are related by meaning as synonyms and antonyms for example, big, large, little.

13 Sentence Structure

14 Simple Sentences A simple sentence is also called an independent clause or main clause. It contains a subject, a verb and an object. Eg Scott plays soccer in the morning.

15 Compound Sentences A compound sentence contains two independent clauses joined by a coordinating conjunction (and, but, or, so, for, nor, yet) eg Scott was playing soccer, so Mary went to the beach.

16 Complex Sentences A complex sentence combines an independent clause (main clause) with one or more dependent clauses (subordinate clause). A complex sentence always has one or more subordinating conjunctions (after, although, because, since, when) or a relative pronoun (that, which, who). eg I did not see Scott today, because he was playing soccer. After I finished my breakfast, I went out to play. The girl, who lost her doll, was very upset.

17 Reception Dictate a simple sentence - I can say a simple sentence. Year 1 To write simple sentences independently Joining words and clauses using and ( for example: I went to the park) The children played on the swings and slid down the slide. Year 2 Subordination (using and, when, so, because) and co-ordination (using and/or/but) Expanded noun phrases for description and specification (for example: the blue butterfly, plain flour, the man on the moon How the grammatical part of a sentence indicate it s function as a statement, question, exclamation or command.

18 Year 3 Expressing time, place and cause using conjunctions (when, before, after, while, because) adverbs (for example: then, next, after, soon, therefore) prepositions (for example: before, during, in, because of) Year 4 Noun phrases expanded by the addition of modifying adjectives, nouns and preposition phrases (for example: the strict teacher - the strict maths teacher with curly hair)

19 Year 5 Relative clauses beginning with who, which, where, when, whose, that or an omitted relative pronoun (for example: The boy, who was hungry, ate his dinner) Glaciers are rivers of ice which form in cold climates on mountains) Indicating degrees of possibility using adverbs (for example: perhaps, surely) or modal verbs (for example: might, should, could) Year 6 Use the passive to affect the presentation of information in a sentence (for example: I broke the window in the greenhouse versus the window in the greenhouse was broken by me) The difference between structures typical of informal speech and structures appropriate for formal speech and writing (for example: the use of question tags: He s your friend, isn t he? or the use of subjunctive forms such as: If I were or were they to come in some very formal writing)

20 TEXT STRUCTURE

21 Year 1 Sequencing sentences to form short narratives Year 2 Correct choice and consistent use of present tense and past tense throughout writing Use of the progressive form of verbs in the present and past tense to mark actions in progress (for example: she was drumming, he was shouting) Year 3 Introduction to paragraphs as a way to group material Headings and sub-headings to aid presentation Use of present perfect form of verbs instead of the simple past (for example: He has gone out to play contrasted with He went out to play)

22 Year 4 Use of paragraphs to organise an idea around a theme Appropriate choice of pronoun or noun within an across sentences to aid cohesion and avoid repetition Year 5 Devices to build cohesion, which gives texts unity and purpose) within a paragraph (e.g then, after that, this, firstly) Linking ideas across paragraphs using adverbials of time (for example: later) - place (for example: nearby) - number (for example: secondly) or tense choices

23 Year 6 Linking ideas across paragraphs using a wider range of cohesive devices: - repetition of a word or phrase - grammatical connections (for example, the use of adverbials such as: on the other hand, in contrast, or as a consequence) and ellipsis - Layout devices such as headings, sub-headings, columns, bullets, or tables to present information.

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