GENETICALLY MODIFIED ORGANISM

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1 GENETICALLY MODIFIED ORGANISM

2 WHAT THE HELL IS THAT? A genetically modified organism (GMO) or genetically engineered organism (GEO) is an organism whose genetic material has been altered using genetic engineering techniques. These techniques are generally known as recombinant DNA technology. With this technology,, DNA molecules from different sources are combined into one molecule to create a new set of genes. This DNA is then transferred into an organism, giving it modified or novel traits.

3 HEI MAN! WHAT DO YOU THINK ABOUT GMO??

4 A HINT OF HISTORY The general principle of producing a GMO is to add new genetic material into an organism's genome. This is called genetic engineering and was made possible through the discovery of DNA and the creation of the first recombinant bacteria in 1973, i.e., E.coli. expressing a salmonella gene. This led to concerns in the scientific community about potential risks from genetic engineering which have been thoroughly discussed at the Asiloma Conference in Pacific Grove, California. The recommendations laid out from this meeting were that government oversight of recombinant DNA research should be established until the technology was deemed safe. Herbert Boyer then founded the first company to use recombinant DNA technology, Genentech, and in 1978 the company announced the creation of an E. coli strain producing the human protein insulin. In 1986, field tests of bacteria genetically engineered to protect plants from frost damage (ice-minus bacteria) at a small biotechnology company called Advanced Genetic Sciences of Oakland, California, were repeatedly delayed by opponents of biotechnology.. In the same year,, a proposed field test of a microbe genetically engineered for a pest resistance protein by Monsanto was dropped.

5 USES OF GMO Examples of GMOs are highly diverse, and include transgenic (genetically modified by recombinant DNA methods) animals such as mice, fish, transgenic plants, or various microbes, such as fungi and bacteria. GMOs are used for many reasons, chief among them are their use in research that addresses questions in biology or medicine, for the production of pharmaceuticals and, and for direct applications aimed at improving human health (e.g., gene therapy) or agriculture (e.g., golden rice). The term "genetically modified organism" " does not always imply, but can include, targeted insertions of genes from one into another species.. For example,, a gene from a jellyfish, encoding a fluorescent protein called GFP, can be physically linked and thus co-expressed with mammalian genes to identify the location of the protein encoded by the GFP-tagged gene in the mammalian cell. These and other methods are useful and indispensable tools for biologists in many areas of research, including those that study the mechanisms of human and other diseases or fundamental biological processes in eukaryotic or prokaryotic cells.

6 EXAMPLES OF GMO Transgenic microbes Bacteria were the first organisms to be modified in the laboratory, due to their simple genetics. These organisms are now used in a variety of tasks, and are particularly important in producing large amounts of pure human proteins for use in medicine. Transgenic animals Transgenic animals are used as experimental models to perform phenotypic tests with genes whose function is unknown or to generate animals that are susceptible to certain compounds or stresses for testing in biomedical research. Other applications include the production of human hormones, such as insulin.

7 Transgenic plants Transgenic plants have been developed for various purposes. Among many, these include 1) resistance to pests, herbicides or harsh environmental conditions,, 2) improved product shelflife, and 3) increased nutritional value. Since the first commercial cultivation of GM plants in 1996, GM plants tolerant to the herbicides glufosinate or glyphosate, and producing the Bt toxin, an insecticide, have dominated the agriculutral seed market for corn and other crops. Recently,, a new generation of GM plants promising benefits for consumers and industry purposes is entering the market.

8 CONTROVERSY OVER GMOs The use of GMOs has sparked significant controversy in many areas.. Some groups or individuals see the generation and use of GMO as intolerable meddling with biological states or processes that have naturally evolved over long periods of time, while others are concerned about the limitations of modern science to fully comprehend all of the potential negative ramifications of genetic manipulation. While some groups advocate the complete prohibition of GMOs, others call for mandatory labeling of genetically modified food or other products. Other controversies include the definition of patent and property pertaining to products of genetic engineering and the possibility of unforeseen local and global effects as a result of transgenic organisms proliferating. The basic ethical issues involved in genetic research are discussed in the article on genetic engineering.

9 GOVERNMENT SUPPORT FOR AND BAN GMOs USA In 2004, Mendocino County, California became the first county in the United States to ban the production of GMOs. The measure passed with a 57% majority.. In California, Trinity and Marin counties have also imposed bans on GM crops, while ordinances to do so were unsuccessful in Butte, San Luis Obispo, Humboldt, and Sonoma counties. Supervisors in the agriculturally-rich rich counties of Fresno, Kern, Kings, Solano, Sutter, and Tulare have passed resolutions supporting the practice.

10 New Zealand In New Zealand no genetically-modified food is sold and no medicines containing live genetically-modified organisms have been approved for use. However,, medicines manufactured using genetically-modified organisms that do not contain live organisms have been approved for sale. Canada In 2005, a standing committee of the government of Prince Edward Island in Canada began work to assess a proposal to ban the production of GMOs in the province.. PEI has already banned GM potatoes, which account for most of its crop. Mainland Canada is one of the worlds largest producers of GM canola. Brazil In Brazil, any company (public or private) who wants to find, grow and market transgenic, must meet the demands of five agencies: the National National Biosafety Technical Commission (CTNBio), the National Health Surveillance Agency (Anvisa), the Brazilian Institute of Environment (IBAMA), the Ministry of Environment (MMA) and the National Council on Environment (Conama) Our country, already released six varieties of transgenic food products: One of soy and five of maize.

11 THANK YOU!

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