Chapter 4 Practice Test

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1 Chapter 4 Practice Test Multiple Choice Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. The process in which water, wind, ice, and heat break down rock is called a. uplift. c. recrystallization. b. intrusion. d. weathering. 2. Which of the following processes changes rock on Earth s surface? a. metamorphism c. compaction b. erosion d. cementation 3. What forms when rock partially or completely melts? a. limestone c. ripple marks b. reefs d. magma 4. Scientists classify rocks a. by composition and texture. c. by mass. b. by volume. d. by color and size. 5. Which of the following are ways magma is formed? a. by compaction and cementation c. by changes in composition b. by melting and cooling d. by weathering and erosion 6. What kind of texture does igneous rock have when magma cools slowly? a. coarse-grained c. fine-grained b. large-grained d. medium-grained 7. What kind of texture does igneous rock have when magma cools rapidly? a. coarse-grained c. large-grained b. medium-grained d. fine-grained 8. What kind of rock is formed from lava that cools on the Earth s surface? a. organic sedimentary rock c. intrusive igneous rock b. sedimentary rock d. extrusive igneous rock 9. Which process forms sediment? a. weathering c. compaction b. cementation d. deposition 10. What are strata? a. mineral fragments c. layers in sedimentary rock b. minerals crystallized out of solution d. fossils in sedimentary rock 11. What kind of sedimentary rock is made of fragments of rocks cemented together by a mineral? a. organic c. chemical b. stratified d. clastic 12. What kind of sedimentary rock is made from solutions of dissolved minerals and water? a. organic c. stratified b. chemical d. clastic 13. What kind of sedimentary rock is made from fossils?

2 a. organic c. chemical b. stratified d. clastic 14. What is the process called in which sedimentary rocks are arranged in layers? a. erosion c. weathering b. extrusion d. stratification 15. What has to increase for metamorphism to occur? a. weathering and erosion c. melting and cooling b. temperature and pressure d. compaction and cementation 16. When magma cools quickly, what kind of texture does rock have? a. coarse-grained c. medium-grained b. large-grained d. fine-grained 17. What are the main categories of sedimentary rock? a. extrusive and intrusive c. felsic and mafic b. clastic, chemical, and organic d. foliated and nonfoliated 18. When temperature and pressure change, what can happen to the minerals in rocks? a. They stay the same. b. They change into coal. c. They change into minerals that are less stable. d. They change into minerals that are more stable. 19. During the rock cycle, what forms when magma cools? a. igneous rock c. metamorphic rock b. sedimentary rock d. foliated rock 20. What do scientists call the rock that is formed when magma cools below the Earth s surface? a. extrusive igneous rock c. eruptive rock b. intrusive igneous rock d. volcanic rock 21. Besides clastic and chemical, what is the other kind of sedimentary rock? a. extrusive c. organic b. foliated d. intrusive 22. What kind of metamorphic rock has its mineral grains arranged in planes or bands? a. extrusive c. nonfoliated b. foliated d. intrusive 23. Besides texture, how else are rocks classified? a. by the amount of foliation c. by their grain shape b. by their grain size d. by their composition 24. The process in which sediment is dropped and comes to rest is called a. deposition. c. cementation. b. stratification. d. foliation. 25. What is the grain of igneous rock formed when magma cools quickly? a. fine-grained c. medium-grained b. large-grained d. coarse-grained 26. How does clastic sedimentary rock begin? a. as magma c. as fragments of rock

3 b. as plant remains d. as animal remains 27. What are the layers of sedimentary rock called? a. sediment c. clasts b. strata d. folds 28. What forces change a sedimentary rock into a metamorphic rock? a. heat and pressure c. melting b. weathering and erosion d. cooling 29. Which of the following describes the process by which sediment drops and comes to rest? a. erosion c. cementation b. deposition d. melting 30. What kind of texture will a conglomerate rock have? a. large-grained c. medium-grained b. fine-grained d. coarse-grained 31. What determines the composition of a rock? a. texture it has c. minerals it is made of b. deposition that occurs d. weathering of nearby rocks 32. A type of rock that forms deep within the Earth when magma solidifies is called a. sedimentary. c. organic. b. metamorphic. d. igneous. 33. A type of rock that forms under high temperature and pressure but is not exposed to enough heat to melt the rock is a. sedimentary. c. organic. b. metamorphic. d. igneous. 34. After they are deposited, sediments, such as sand, are turned into sedimentary rock when they are compacted and a. cemented. c. melted. b. metamorphosed. d. weathered. 35. An igneous rock with a coarse-grained texture forms when a. magma cools very slowly. c. magma cools quickly, then slowly. b. magma cools very quickly. d. magma cools slowly, then quickly. 36. The layering that occurs in sedimentary rock is called a. foliation. c. stratification. b. ripple marks. d. compaction. 37. Chemical sedimentary rock forms when a. magma cools and solidifies. b. minerals are twisted into a new arrangement. c. minerals crystallize from a solution. d. sand grains are cemented together. 38. Which of these causes the breakdown of rock? a. weathering c. stratification b. cementing d. extrusion 39. Sedimentary rock is formed when grains of sediment undergo a. compaction and cementation. c. melting. b. metamorphism. d. solidification. 40. Which of the following processes is NOT part of the rock cycle? a. metamorphism c. erosion

4 b. solidification d. chiseling 41. Which type of rock can weather and wear away to form sediment? a. igneous rock c. metamorphic rock b. sedimentary rock d. all of the above 42. Magma forms in Earth's a. lower crust. c. upper mantle. b. outer core. d. both (a) and (c) 43. Earth scientists classify the three main types of rock into smaller groups according to a. composition and texture. c. color and luster. b. density and hardness. d. streak and cleavage. 44. The sizes, shapes, and positions of the grains of a rock determine the rock's a. texture. c. cleavage. b. luster. d. streak. 45. Fine-grained, medium-grained, and coarse-grained are descriptions of a rock's a. composition. c. luster. b. texture. d. streak. 46. is formed when calcium and carbonate become so concentrated in sea water that calcite crystallizes out. a. Marble c. Fossiliferous limestone b. Chemical limestone d. Shale 47. Chemical limestone forms a. on the ocean floor. c. on lava plateaus. b. in a magma chamber. d. in fissures. 48. The shells or skeletons of organisms that form fossiliferous limestone are composed of a. spongin. c. cartilage. b. silicate. d. calcium carbonate. 49. Fossils are the remains or traces of plants and animals that have been preserved in rock. a. granite c. sedimentary b. igneous d. metamorphic 50. Contact metamorphism occurs a. near flowing water. b. underneath continental rock formations. c. next to magma. d. at the Earth's crust. 51. Regional metamorphism usually occurs a. over small areas. b. underneath continental rock formations. c. over large areas. d. Both (b) and (c) 52. The of metamorphic rock can be foliated or nonfoliated. a. cleavage c. texture b. streak d. luster 53. Nonfoliated metamorphic rock will usually form mineral from which it formed. a. smaller crystals of the same b. smaller crystals of a completely different c. larger crystals of the same d. larger crystals of a completely different 54. Which of the following is used to classify metamorphic rock? a. clastic or chemical c. intrusive or extrusive

5 b. foliated or nonfoliated d. felsic or mafic Completion Complete each sentence or statement. 55. The process in which layers of sedimentary rock are formed is called. 56. A rock whose mineral grains are NOT formed in bands is called. 57. Grains of sand are washed into rivers and oceans through the process of. 58. The minerals found in a rock determine its. 59. Rocks change their composition during the. 60. Concrete is composed of rock particles bound together with cement. Thus, concrete is most like a rock. (sedimentary or metamorphic) 61. The of a rock depends on the size of its crystals. (texture or composition) 62. Obsidian is an igneous rock, which cools very rapidly on the Earth's surface. (intrusive or extrusive) 63. The cooling rate of magma affects the properties of rock. (igneous or sedimentary) 64. metamorphic rock does not appear to have any regular pattern.

6 Chapter 4 Practice Test Answer Section MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. ANS: B 2. ANS: D 3. ANS: D 4. ANS: A 5. ANS: C 6. ANS: A 7. ANS: D 8. ANS: D 9. ANS: A 10. ANS: C 11. ANS: D 12. ANS: B 13. ANS: A 14. ANS: D 15. ANS: B 16. ANS: D 17. ANS: B 18. ANS: D 19. ANS: A 20. ANS: B 21. ANS: C 22. ANS: B 23. ANS: D 24. ANS: A 25. ANS: A 26. ANS: C 27. ANS: B 28. ANS: A 29. ANS: D 30. ANS: D 31. ANS: C 32. ANS: D 33. ANS: B 34. ANS: A 35. ANS: A 36. ANS: C 37. ANS: C 38. ANS: A 39. ANS: A 40. ANS: D 41. ANS: D

7 42. ANS: D 43. ANS: A 44. ANS: A 45. ANS: B 46. ANS: B 47. ANS: A 48. ANS: D 49. ANS: C 50. ANS: C 51. ANS: D 52. ANS: C 53. ANS: C 54. ANS: B COMPLETION 55. ANS: stratification 56. ANS: nonfoliated rock 57. ANS: erosion 58. ANS: composition 59. ANS: rock cycle 60. ANS: sedimentary 61. ANS: texture 62. ANS: extrusive 63. ANS: igneous 64. ANS: Nonfoliated

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