Chapter 7: Metamorphism and Metamorphic Rocks. Fig. 7.21

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1 Chapter 7: Metamorphism and Metamorphic Rocks Fig. 7.21

2 OBJECTIVES Restate how metamorphic rocks relate to the two other rock groups (sedimentary and igneous). Describe how metamorphic rocks are produced by the action of heat, pressure, and fluids on preexisting parent rocks over the course of time. Recognize the different types of metamorphism, the processes that cause them, and the environments in which they occur. Identify how the textures of metamorphic rocks reflect the environment of their formation.

3 OBJECTIVES Compare and contrast the types of metamorphic rock and explain the basis of their classification. Explain how the mineral content of metamorphic rocks indicates the pressure and temperature conditions of metamorphism. Compare and contrast the plate tectonic settings where metamorphism takes place and the variable conditions of metamorphism that the different settings produce.

4 Metamorphism Metamorphism means a change in form. Metamorphic rocks form when the texture or mineral composition of a rock changes. Heat, pressure, and fluids can cause metamorphism. Fig. 7.11

5 Comparing Metamorphic, Igneous, and Sedimentary Rocks Metamorphic rocks form at higher temperatures and pressures than sedimentary rocks. Metamorphic rocks form at lower temperatures than igneous rocks. The rock does not melt. Metamorphic processes generally cannot be observed directly.

6 Factors that Control Metamorphism The following factors control metamorphism: Heat Pressure Fluids Rock composition Time Gneiss Fig. 7.1d

7 Effects of Heating on Metamorphism Heating can make minerals less stable. Heating causes increase in bond length, distortion of bonds, breaking of bonds, and formation of new bonds. Heating can accelerate the rate of chemical reactions. Figs. 7.4, 7.5

8 Pressure and Metamorphism Confining pressure acts on a rock equally in all directions. Directed pressure acts more strongly in one direction than in others. Fig. 7.6

9 Fluids and Rock Composition Sources of metamorphic fluids are Fluid trapped in sedimentary rock Fluid introduced by tectonic and igneous processes Fluid expelled when minerals react Parent rock composition determines what fluids are released and what minerals can react. Amphibolite (parent rock = basalt) Fig. 7.8 Kyanite schist (parent rock = mudstone)

10 Types of Metamorphism There are six main types of metamorphism: Regional metamorphism: occurs when large regions of crustal rocks are subjected to elevated temperatures and pressures; takes place during mountain-building Contact metamorphism: rocks around an igneous body produced as a result of heating by an adjacent body of magma Dynamic metamorphism: occurs along fractures in Earth s crust where significant movement has taken place; involves crushing or smearing of rocks adjacent to fault zones

11 Types of Metamorphism Six main types of metamorphism (continued): Shock metamorphism: produced by the high-velocity impact of an extraterrestrial object such as a meteorite or an asteroid on Earth s surface Hydrothermal metamorphism: occurs when rocks react with adjacent hot circulating fluids Burial metamorphism: caused by burial beneath a thick succession of overlying rock layers

12 Regional Metamorphism Regional metamorphism affects large areas of rock. Mountain chains are associated with regional metamorphism. Metamorphic Zones: Regional metamorphism in Scotland Fig. 7.24

13 Contact Metamorphism Contact metamorphism occurs in rocks that are heated by nearby magma. Contact metamorphism affects rocks over a small area. The degree of metamorphism decreases with distance from the magma chamber. Fig. 7.10

14 Dynamic metamorphism is associated with faulting. Dynamic Metamorphism Dynamic metamorphism can produce crushing and smearing of rock layers. Fig 7.11 Crushing produces fault breccia (a); smearing produces mylonite (b). The schematic diagram (c) shows the locations of various rock types typically produced by dynamic metamorphism in a fault zone. Fault breccia at shallow depths gives way to mylonites at depth.

15 Shock Metamorphism Shock metamorphism is characterized by distinctive, highpressure minerals. Meteorite collisions produce shock metamorphism. Photo: Martin Schmieder The Barringer impact crater (Meteor Crater) Arizona Fig. 7.12a Shocked quartz from the Svasvesi impact structure, Finland

16 Hydrothermal Metamorphism Hydrothermal metamorphism is caused by hot, circulating fluids. Hydrothermal metamorphism occurs primarily at mid-ocean ridges. Hydrothermal vent Photo: NOAA

17 Burial Metamorphism Burial metamorphism occurs at high pressure when rock layers are buried at depth. Burial metamorphism is occurring beneath the thick sediments of the Mississippi Delta. Photo: NASA

18 Metamorphic Textures The fabric of a metamorphic rock describes the geometric arrangement of mineral grains. Metamorphic rocks can have a foliated or nonfoliated texture. Foliated (slate) Fig. 7.1a Nonfoliated (quartzite) Fig. 7.22

19 Classifying Metamorphic Rocks Foliated rocks are classified based on grain size and foliation. Slate, with microscopic grains Figs. 7.1 b, c Schist, with visible grains Nonfoliated rocks are classified based on origin or composition. Quartzite, composed of quartz Fig Marble, composed of calcite Fig. 7.20

20 Foliated Metamorphic Rocks Slate, phyllite, schist, and gneiss are the four main types of foliated metamorphic rock. As metamorphic grade increases, grain size increases. Fig. 7.16

21 Nonfoliated Metamorphic Rocks Nonfoliated rocks can be classified based on either origin or composition. Hornfels, marble, quartzite, and amphibolite are common examples of nonfoliated rocks. Hornfels Marble Quartzite Amphibolite Figs. 7.19, 7.20, 7.22, 7.23

22 Metamorphic Zones and Facies Distinctive minerals characterize specific metamorphic temperatures and pressures. A metamorphic facies is a set of associated metamorphic rocks that formed under the same conditions. Fig. 7.25

23 Metamorphism and Plate Tectonics Metamorphism can occur at divergent and convergent boundaries. Divergent boundaries are characterized by hydrothermal metamorphism. Contact and regional metamorphism are common at convergent boundaries. Figs. 7.28b, 7.27b

24 Summary Metamorphic rocks Form when a rock's mineral composition and texture change Are influenced by heat, pressure, fluids, parent rock composition, and duration of metamorphism Form through regional, contact, dynamic, shock, hydrothermal, or burial metamorphism Can be classified as foliated (layered) or nonfoliated Can be classified based on mineral composition, origin, or grain size Contain minerals that can be used to infer the conditions under which they formed Form at divergent and convergent plate boundaries

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