2 To write well, Students must read well It is about more than test scores- it is about our children s future! Our school improvement model is the implementation of Professional Learning Communities. Literacy requires a K-12 approach. This is the story of one district s plan.
3 Literacy Learning: What is Essential?
4 Literacy Learning: What is Essential? An environment that invites rigor, intimacy and inquiry A wide variety of genres and text levels Instruction in text structures and elements Belief that all students can and should be competent readers and writers.
5 Mindset and Equitable Education Scan the article. Carol Dwek Note the points that stand out for you. Think about how our beliefs shape instruction. What are the implications for literacy instruction? Compare with your shoulder partner. Be prepared to share with group.
8 So why is a growth mindset important when we think about literacy?
9 What is Balanced Literacy? Turn to your shoulder partner and explain what you think about when you hear the term balanced literacy.
10 Reflecting on Your Literacy Program Think about the effectiveness of your reading/ writing program in meeting the needs of all learners. Note some strengths and areas of challenge. Turn to your other shoulder partner and compare. Share out.
11 How do we know what s essential for literacy learning? Research has fairly clear answers Effective literacy learning (reading, writing, speaking and listening) is dependent on use of 3 surface and 3 deep structure systems 50/50 balance in primary grades 20/80 balance thereafter
13 How Reading and Writing Are Alike Reading Before and during reading, readers talk, make prediction, skim outlines or headings, and raise questions. Readers do not change the print but they revise their thoughts, predictions, and concepts as they read. Readers learn to reevaluate their understandings about a piece of written text, often reading a text again. Readers share their understandings with others through verbal, written, or artistic responses. Writing Before and during writing, writers often talk, discuss, brainstorm, reflect, gather information, make lists, etc. Writers bring shape to the written piece as they draft and revise it. Writers learn to look at their work, rereading for needed changes. Writers share their work informally through discussion and more formally through publication.
14 How Reading and Writing Are Alike Reading Readers appreciate the insights and understandings of others. Readers draw understandings across whole text. The meaning that readers derive from text varies with their experiential background; in other words they bring meaning to text. Writing Writers appreciate the work of other writers. Writers compose whole pieces of text. Writers bring their own meaning to the text they compose; express their ideas and feelings in written language. Partially correct responses reveal readers attempts to use information to solve words. Drafts reveal writers attempts to apply their knowledge in new ways.
15 Elements of Balanced Literacy Reading Read Aloud/Modeled Reading Shared Reading/Interactive Reading Guided or Small Group Reading Independent Reading Word Study: Phonemic Awareness/Phonics/Vocabulary
16 Elements of Balanced Literacy Writing Write Aloud/Modeled Writing Shared Writing Interactive Writing Guided or Small Group Writing Independent Writing Word Study: Spelling/Grammar/Punctuation/Phonics
17 Scaffolding Instruction High Support Reading Aloud/Modeled Reading Moderate/ Low Support Shared Reading/Interactive Reading Little/No Support Guided Reading (Fountas and Pinnell, 1996 p.26) Independent Reading
18 A Gradual Release of Teacher Responsibility Teacher Responsibilities Teacher Modeling/Focus Lesson I DO Guided Practice WE DO Collaboration Independent Practice and Application WE DO TOGETHER YOU DO ALONE Student Responsibilities
19 Metacognitive Knowledge Strategic reading/writing refers to thinking to enhance learning and understanding. Proficient learners adapt strategies to their purpose. Matching strategies to one s purpose requires metacognitive knowledge- an awareness and understanding of how one thinks and uses strategies during reading and writing.
20 What kind of readers/ writers are your students? Tacit learners lack awareness of how they think. Aware learners realize when meaning has broken down. Strategic learers use the thinking and comprehension strategies to enhance their understanding and acquire knowledge. They are able to monitor and repair meaning when it is disrupted. Reflective learners are strategic about their thinking and are able to apply strategies flexibly depending on their goals or purposes.
21 What strategies should we teach? Monitor Comprehension/Repairing Activate Prior Knowledge and Connect Ask Questions Visualize Make Inferences Determine Importance Summarize and Synthesize
22 Tracking Thinking to Monitor Comprehension is the Key Track thinking through coding, writing, or discussion Recognize that all thinking has value Notice when focus is lost Stop and go back to clarify meaning Reread to enhance understanding Read ahead to clarify thinking Identify and articulate what s confusing or puzzling
23 So how do we do that? Read Aloud Shared Reading Purposeful Talk Word Study Guided Reading Independent Reading Write aloud Modeled writing Shared Writing Interactive writing Guided writing Independent Writing
24 Read Aloud Interactive Read Aloud is a time when the teacher reads a piece of quality writing aloud to the whole class and models the thinking behind her comprehension of the text. The teacher stops at planned points to ask questions that elicit student response. Students learn to think deeply about text, to listen to others, and to grow their own ideas.
25 Shared Reading Shared Reading is a type of focus lesson in which either enlarged print is utilized, or all students have the text to share the reading process with a group of students. The teacher uses this time, explicitly modeling reading strategies and skills that the students need to learn. The responsibility for reading is shared between the teacher and the students, although the teacher reads most of the text.
26 Purposeful Talk Active literacy classrooms support student s talk about important issues, ideas, concepts, and information. Conversations deepen understanding. Turn and talk Jigsaw Small group conversations Large group conversations (least effective)
27 Word Study Word study involves decoding (reading) and encoding (phonics and spelling) of our symbol system so students can make meaning from an author s message and convey meaning by creating their own message. Word study involves both the decoding (reading) and encoding (phonics and spelling) of our symbol system so students can make meaning from an author s message and convey meaning by creating their own message.
28 Guided Reading Strategy Groups are also known as a Guided Reading Groups. The teacher meets with a small group that needs to work on a specific strategy or that has a similar reading level. Each student has a copy of the text and reads it quietly. The teacher uses this time to explicitly teach and to have students practice the strategy they need to learn.
29 Why Guided Reading? Learning Zone What the learner can do independently What the learner can do with the support of an expert other Learning Zone
30 Guided Reading is planned, intended, and focused instruction. a teaching approach designed to help individual students learn how to process a variety of increasingly challenging texts with understanding and fluency a small group setting with the teacher of students with similar needs uses texts at the student s instructional level to provide the necessary support and challenges during the lesson involves intensive teaching, with the teacher supporting students as they talk, read and think their way through a text
31 Flexible Grouping Students grouped by specific assessments for strengths in reading processes and appropriate level of text difficulty- Learning Zone Dynamic, flexible, and changeable on a regular basis Different groupings for other purposes is expected.
32 Text Selection Texts are carefully selected by the teacher based upon the strengths and needs of the group. Every child does not move through a predetermined sequence of texts. Reading Level instructional level Concepts Will they understand it? Linguistic Difficulty How complex are the sentence structures? Background Knowledge Interest Reading Skill Theme Is it appropriately sophisticated? Text Layout
33 Before Reading- Introduction to the Text The teacher introduces the text to scaffold the reading but leaves some problem solving for readers to do Pre-reading strategies: previewing the text, introducing vocabulary assessing and activating prior knowledge Reviewing /teaching reading strategy and skills (modeling)
34 During Reading- Reading the Text Students read the entire text softly or silently. To know what is happening within the whole text, not just a portion so they can use the storyline to predict and monitor their reading To encounter the word, structure, or type of processing again and again To encounter a broad range of texts To develop the ability to carry meaning over longer stretches of text To develop persistence and stamina as readers To collect evidence that may change their thinking as they read
35 During Reading- Teaching If reading orally, the teacher may interact briefly to teach for, prompt or reinforce strategic action Promote risk taking Demonstrate, model, or prompt for searching (surface structure strategies) Demonstrate, model, or prompt for cross-checking which leads to monitoring Link known to new information Teacher assesses students through observation and use of running records
36 After Reading- Discussion of the Text and Teaching Points The teacher helps students: Summarize and synthesize information Communicate their ideas to others Express the connections they are making between the text and their own lives or other texts Evaluate the text in light of their knowledge and experience Confirm and extend their understanding
37 After Reading- Word Work and Extending Understanding Word work is a one- or two- minute optional component of a guided reading lesson. During word work, teachers help students discover how words work by working with letters, word parts, and words in isolation. Extending the lesson is another optional component of a guided reading lesson. The teacher may have the students engage in an activity that expands the meaning of the story. For example, the students may complete a graphic organizer or write reflections in their reading journal.
38 Independent Reading Independent Reading is a time when students read text (either self-selected or teacher recommended) at their Independent Reading level to practice reading strategies, develop fluency and automaticity. The teacher confers with students one-on-one, prompts the use of the strategies, discusses various aspects of the text, and learns about each student as a reader. Students may respond to the text in meaningful ways through writing, discussing, or sketching
39 The Importance of Independent Reading Reading habits of students has shown that even 15 minutes a day of independent reading can expose students to more than a million words of text in a year. Anderson, Wilson, & Fielding, 1988 The Commision on Reading s report Becoming a Nation of Readers reccomends that students engage in two hours of silent reading per week. Anderson, Hiebert, Scott, and Wilkinson, 1985
40 Independent Reading Independent silent reading of self selected text or rereading guided reading text Students should participate in conversations about their independent reading. Reading conferences Partner shares Small teacher led groups Literature circles
41 What are the other students doing? Literacy Centers Daily 5 Workshop Students rotate through a sequence of learning centers throughout the day /week. Centers focus on independent practice of literacy skills and enrichment activities. Students participate in 5 literacy activities each day or over the course of several days. 1. Word Work 2. Read to Self 3. Read to Partner 4. Listen to Reading 5. Work on Writing Students work on independent reading and writing projects.
42 Integrate writing into reading. Teach and encourage students to track thinking through annotation, post its, graphic organizers and journals. Teach and encourage students to respond to the content of the text with their own reactions, summarize learning and reflect on learning in writing.
43 Reading Tools that Encourage Writing Response Sentence Starters Response Tools Double entry journal Post it Notes Open response Discussion Format Discussion Notes/Student Example
44 Extending Reading Through Written Response Assign writing that enhances reading-that requires careful reexamination of the text. Book Reviews Letters to Authors Content Response Process Response Readers Theater Scripts Book Blurbs Summaries Poetry Response Character Profiles Opinion Paragraphs
45 Write Aloud/Modeled Writing Write Aloud/Modeled Writing is a time when the teacher shares a piece of her own writing or a piece of published writing with the whole class and models the thinking behind the composition of the text. The teacher stops at planned points to ask questions that elicit student response. Students learn to think deeply about text, to listen to others, and to grow their own ideas.
46 Shared Writing Teacher composes the text with student support/input. Teacher models the writing process. The teacher provides the full support of the writing by demonstrating the process of putting the students ideas into written language. Students participate by listening to the teachers thought process as she writes and provides input to the message.
47 Interactive Writing Teacher and students share the pen. Focus is on the concepts and conventions of print, sounds in words and how the sounds connect with letters. Students own most of the process and teacher provides assistants with pacing, and instruction as needed. The conventions of writing are practiced.
48 Guided Writing Students are creating their own writing with the guidance of the teacher. Takes place in small groups where teacher helps to facilitate and develop skills. May begin with mini-lesson. Students writing, practicing skills learned through minilessons. Writing may be student choice or teacher assigned. Teacher meeting with individuals or small groups of students to teach specific skills. Students aware of and follow routines. Students may be participate in peer conferences.
49 Independent Writing Provides students with the consistent opportunity to apply and practice the skills already introduced Cultivate student s love and comfort with writing on their own level, builds confidence as a writer Strengthens story structure Develops understanding of uses of writing Supports reading development Provides practice in different types of writing Develops understanding of writing as a recursive process
50 Essentials of Writer s Workshop As we discuss the article, add additional notes, insights and questions to your note taking sheet. Time Talk Expectations Vision Choice Teaching and Units of Study Safe Environment Sharing
51 Teaching and Learning through the Gradual Release Model in Writing Workshop Units of Study : Studies are designed to teach writers not writing Studies focus on the types of writing writers craft and how writers use the writing process to craft writing for readers Daily teaching and learning follows the gradual release of responsibility model
52 Scaffolding Instruction High Support Write Aloud/Shared Writing Moderate/ Low Support Interactive Writing Little/No Support Guided Writing Independent Writing
53 Daily Teaching Focus Lessons/Mini-Lessons (20-30% of the time) Mini-Lesson Structure: Connection Teaching/Modeling (Write Aloud, Shared Writing, Interactive Writing) Active Engagement (Guided Practice) Link Independent Writing/Conferencing (60% of the time) Sharing (10-20% of the time)
54 Teaching Skills Grammar and punctuation are taught within the context of the writer s workshop. Whole group lessons focus on TEKS and needs of class as a whole Lesson structures follows the writing workshop structure Mini-lesson focused on skills Independent writing time includes sentence imitation, revision of student s writing Sharing of work around revision and editing Majority of instruction of grammar and punctuation should take place during small group and individual conferences during revision and editing phases of the writing process
55 High Leverage Strategies Teach students language strategies to use when they don t know what to say. Encourage students to speak in complete sentences. Randomize and rotate who is called on so all students can participate. Use response signals for students to monitor their own comprehension.
56 High Leverage Continued Use visuals and a focus on vocabulary to build background knowledge. Have students participate in structured reading activities. Have students participate in structured conversations and writing activities.
57 Making it happen Use professional learning communities to plan effective, integrated literacy instruction in all content areas. Help teachers think deeply about the literacy demands of their content area(s). Expect students to read and write challenging texts. Use writing to reveal thinking and deepen learning.
59 Thank You! Katrina Garrett Karen Miller Kopp Barbara H. Gideon, Ed.D.
60 In the last two pages of your AIE Quick Reference booklet, write HOW will this session help you further YOUR school improvement?
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