Measuring Biodiversity


 Sherilyn Jones
 1 years ago
 Views:
Transcription
1 Measuring Biodiversity  Foram Mehta Counting animals and plants, mapping genes, and systematically comparing ecosystems may seem like a lot of trouble but ultimately can be estimate. However, the numbers matter. In the field of conservation, biodiversity is often a consideration within an area; being able to quantify what is being conserved is essential for good planning and management. Labeling a species or ecosystem "diverse" becomes relative; an estimate of biodiversity will have recognizable limitations, like those of imperfect sampling, but will give a comparison or point of reference. The creation of indices gives scientists a standardized tool with which to compare both ecosystem and species health. Therefore, although exact diversity numbers are difficult to yield, knowing how biological resources are distributed within a community can be extremely beneficial in determining both short and longterm trends. Measuring biodiversity on an ecosystem level is thought to be a better way of looking at the shape of the entire system, rather than the particular species. However, it faces many of the same challenges. Just as there are many different ways to define biodiversity, there are many different measures of biodiversity. Most measures quantify the number of traits, individuals, or species in a given area while taking into account their degree of dissimilarity. Some measure biodiversity on a genetic level while others measure within a single habitat or between ecosystems. Oftentimes, information is not compiled in one specific place, a problem that can lead to an overlap in the naming of species. Another limitation is an inconsistency in treating the definition of species: what one scientist may classify as a new species another may not. Traditionally there are three levels at which biodiversity has been described. In effect it uses genetic diversity as a basis for valuing both species diversity (for their relative richness in different genes) and ecosystem diversity (for the relative richness in the different processes to which the genes ultimately contribute). Biodiversity or biological diversity is the variety of life in all its forms, levels and combinations, including ecosystem diversity, species diversity and genetic diversity. Measuring Genetic diversity It is a genetic diversity which causes tulips to be different colors and different heights. Typically, researchers measure genetic diversity by counting how often certain genetic patterns occur. Measuring biodiversity on the genetic level requires gene map and then compare them to the genetic makeup of the larger population. 1
2 Another method of measuring genetic diversity works in the reverse by evaluating the differences in physical appearance between individuals then attributes these traits to the most likely genetic roots. Mapping diversity at the genetic level is currently the most accurate measure of biodiversity, although it can be costly and time consuming and, thus, impractical for evaluating large ecosystems. It is most often used to examine managed populations or agricultural crops which can allow for selective breeding of the most desirable traits. Whittaker (1972) described three terms for measuring biodiversity over spatial scales: alpha, beta, and gamma diversity. Alpha diversity refers to the diversity within a particular area or ecosystem, and is usually expressed by the number of species (i.e., species richness) in that ecosystem. A. Species richness (Alpha diversity): Biological diversity can be measured in many different ways. The two main factors taken into account when measuring diversity are richness and evenness. Richness is a measure of the number of different kinds of organisms present in a particular area. For example, species richness is the number of different species present. However, diversity depends not only on richness, but also on evenness. Evenness compares the similarity of the population size of each of the species present. There are also many challenges when measuring species diversity. The greatest of which is a lack of available data. Conducting a full count of the number of species in an ecosystem is nearly impossible, so researchers must use sample plots at a variety of sites but must avoid repetitive counting. Species richness is a common way of measuring biodiversity and involves counting the number of individuals  or even families within a given area. This is also expressed as Alpha diversity (αdiversity). This can be measured by counting the number of taxa (distinct groups of organisms) within the ecosystem. However, such estimates of species richness are strongly influenced by sample size, so a number of statistical techniques can be used to correct for sample size to get comparable values. Species richness as a measure on its own takes no account of the number of individuals of each species present. It gives as much weight to those species which have very few individuals as to those which have many individuals. There are several keys created to measure species biodiversity; the most popular are the Simpson Index and the Shannon Index. These indices focus on the relative species richness and abundance and/or the pattern of species distribution. The more species present in a sample, the 'richer' the sample. Species richness is the number of different species in a given area. It is represented in equation form as S. It is the fundamental unit in which to assess the homogeneity of an environment. Typically, species richness is used in conservation studies to determine the sensitivity of ecosystems and their resident species. The actual number of species calculated alone is 2
3 largely a random number. These studies, therefore, often develop a rubric or measure for valuing the species richness number(s) or adopt one from previous studies on similar ecosystems. There is a strong inverse correlation in many groups between species richness and latitude: the farther from the equator, the fewer species can be found, even when compensating for the reduced surface area in higher latitudes due to the spherical geometry of the earth. Equally, as altitude increases, species richness decreases, indicating an effect of area, available energy, isolation and/or zonation (intermediate elevations can receive species from higher and lower). Evenness: Evenness is a measure of the relative abundance of the different species making up the richness of an area. For Example: If we have sampled two different fields for wildflowers. The sample from the first field consists of 200 flowers A, 225 flowers B and 265 flowers C. The sample from the second field comprises 20 flowers A, 49 flowers B and 641 flowers C. Now plot the data in a table 1 as shown here. Numbers of Individuals Flower Species Field 1 Field 2 Flower A Flower B Flower C Total Both samples have the same richness of 3 species and the same total number of individuals (690). However, the first sample has more evenness than the second. This is because the total number of individuals in the sample is quite evenly distributed between the three species of flower. In the second sample, most of the individuals are flower C, with only a few samples of flowers A and B present. Sample 2 is therefore considered to be less diverse than sample 1. A community dominated by one or two species is considered to be less diverse than one in which several different species have a similar abundance. As species richness and evenness increase, so diversity increases. Simpson's Diversity Index is a measure of diversity which takes into accounts both richness and evenness. Simpson's Diversity Index: In ecology, it is often used to quantify the biodiversity of a habitat. It takes into account the number of species present, as well as the large quantity of each species. It measures the probability that two individuals randomly selected from a sample will belong to the same species. It can be measure with the following formula. 3
4 n = the total number of organisms of a particular species N = the total number of organisms of all species Let select table 1 and choose any of the sample species from any of the field, put the numbers in the index and calculate the diversity of that species in respective field. The value of D ranges between 0 and 1. With this index, 0 represents infinite diversity and 1, no diversity. That is, the bigger the value of D, the lower the diversity. This is neither intuitive nor logical, so to get over this problem, D is often subtracted from 1 to give. Simpson's Index of Diversity 1 D The value of this index also ranges between 0 and 1, but now, the greater the value, the greater the sample diversity. This makes more sense. In this case, the index represents the probability that two individuals randomly selected from a sample will belong to different species. Another way of overcoming the problem of the counterintuitive nature of Simpson's Index is to take the reciprocal of the Index. Simpson's Reciprocal Index 1 / D The value of this index starts with 1 as the lowest possible figure. This figure would represent a community containing only one species. The maximum value is the number of species (or other category being used) in the sample. For example if there are five species in the sample, then the maximum value is 5. The name 'Simpson's Diversity Index' is often very loosely applied therefore it is important to find out which index has actually been used in any comparative studies of diversity. The Shannon Index, originally developed for use in information science, accounts for the order or abundance of a species within a sample plot. This is often used for identifying areas of high natural or human disturbance. B. Ecosystem diversity (Beta Diversity): At the ecosystemlevel, measures of biodiversity are often used to compare two ecosystems or to determine changes over time in a given region. Beta diversity measures the present and changes of species diversity between ecosystems; this involves comparing the number of taxa that are unique to each of the ecosystems. In simpler terms, it calculates the number of species that are not the same in two different environments. The resulting 4
5 number indicates to researchers whether there is any overlap in the species found in each group. There are also indices which measure beta diversity on a normalized scale, usually from 0 to 1. A high beta diversity index indicates a low level of similarity, while a low beta diversity index shows a high level of similarity. At its simplest, beta diversity is the total number of species that are unique between communities. This can be represented by the following equation: β = (S 1 c) + (S 2 c) Where, S1= the total number of species recorded in the first community/ environment/ ecosystem S2= the total number of species recorded in the second community/environment/ ecosystem c= the number of species common to both communities/environment/ecosystem β = beta diversity For an example: Two environments have a total of 12 species: a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, I, j, k, l In ecosystem1 there are 10 species: a j In ecosystem 2 there are 7 species: fl Both environments have 5 species in common i.e. f j So β = (105) + (75) = 7 The beta diversity of the two environments is 7. That is, there are seven species which are either only in environment one or only in environment two. Now to calculate Basic Beta Diversity Index = 2c/ (S 1 +S 2 ) Same variables as before: S 1, S 2, c, and β Multiply c by two; Divide that number by the sum of S 1 and S 2 For an example, let take the same situation as before  C is equal to 5, so twice that is 10  S 1 +S 2 is divided by 17 is 0.59, so 0.59 is the Basic beta diversity index 5
6 Sorensen s similarity index The Sorensen index is a very simple measure of beta diversity, ranging from a value of 0 where there is no species overlap between the communities, to a value of 1 when exactly the same species are found in both communities. β = 2C/ (2C + S1 + S2) Where, S1= the total number of species recorded in the first community S2= the total number of species recorded in the second community c= the number of species common to both communities C. Taxonomic diversity of a region with several ecosystems  (Gamma diversity): Gamma diversity (γdiversity) is a measure of total biodiversity of several ecosystems within an entire region. It refers to the total species richness over a large area or region. It is the product of α diversity of component ecosystems and the β diversity between component ecosystems. It is also define as a gamma diversity as "geographicscale species diversity". According to Whittaker (1972), gamma diversity is the richness in species of a range of habitats in a geographic area (eg. a landscape, an island) and it is resulting among them. Like alpha diversity, it is a quality which simply has magnitude, not direction and can be represented by a single number (a scalar). Gamma diversity can be expressed in terms of the species richness of communities as follows: (γ = S 1 + S 2 c) Where, S 1 = the total number of species recorded in the first community S 2 = the total number of species recorded in the second community c= the number of species common to both communities The internal relationship between alpha, beta and gamma diversity can be represented as, (β = γ / α) With the use of following table one can understand the measuring tools used to measure biodiversity of an entire region. 6
7 Species Field A Field B Field C A B C D E F G H I J K L M N Alpha diversity (Total no. of individual species) Beta diversity (S 1 c) + (S 2 c)/ (S 2 c) + (S 3 c)/ (S 3 c) + (S 1 c) Gamma diversity γ = (S 1 + S 2 ) (c 12 +c 23 ) 14 7
Ecology and Simpson s Diversity Index
ACTIVITY BRIEF Ecology and Simpson s Diversity Index The science at work Ecologists, such as those working for the Environmental Agency, are interested in species diversity. This is because diversity is
More informationIntroduction to protection goals, ecosystem services and roles of risk management and risk assessment. Lorraine Maltby
Introduction to protection goals, ecosystem services and roles of risk management and risk assessment. Lorraine Maltby Problem formulation Risk assessment Risk management Robust and efficient environmental
More informationBiodiversity and Ecosystem Services: Arguments for our Future Environment
Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services: Arguments for our Future Environment How have we advanced our understanding of the links between biodiversity, ecosystem functions and ecosystem services? The issue
More informationLaboratory 6 Measuring Community Diversity in a Forest
Ecology Laboratory, BIO 30L Laboratory 6 Measuring Community Diversity in a Forest Objectives 1. Use the Wandering Quarter method to enumerate the tree species in an area of forest. Calculate diversity
More informationBiodiversity Data Analysis: Testing Statistical Hypotheses By Joanna Weremijewicz, Simeon Yurek, Steven Green, Ph. D. and Dana Krempels, Ph. D.
Biodiversity Data Analysis: Testing Statistical Hypotheses By Joanna Weremijewicz, Simeon Yurek, Steven Green, Ph. D. and Dana Krempels, Ph. D. In biological science, investigators often collect biological
More informationGlobal Seasonal Phase Lag between Solar Heating and Surface Temperature
Global Seasonal Phase Lag between Solar Heating and Surface Temperature Summer REU Program Professor Tom Witten By Abstract There is a seasonal phase lag between solar heating from the sun and the surface
More informationLesson Overview. Biodiversity. Lesson Overview. 6.3 Biodiversity
Lesson Overview 6.3 6.3 Objectives Define biodiversity and explain its value. Identify current threats to biodiversity. Describe how biodiversity can be preserved. THINK ABOUT IT From multicolored coral
More informationPractice Questions 1: Evolution
Practice Questions 1: Evolution 1. Which concept is best illustrated in the flowchart below? A. natural selection B. genetic manipulation C. dynamic equilibrium D. material cycles 2. The diagram below
More informationSpeciesoftheWeek. Blanding s Turtle (Emydoidea blandingii) Species of Special Concern in Michigan
SpeciesoftheWeek Blanding s Turtle (Emydoidea blandingii) Habitat Productive & clean shallow water (soft substrates) = ponds, marshes, swamps, bogs, wet prairies, slow rivers Spring & summer = terrestrial
More informationScientific Question 1: What is the effect of cacao farms on bird abundance?
Research Background: Is Chocolate For the Birds? Featured scientist: Skye Greenler from Colorado College 9,000 years ago humans invented agriculture as a way to grow enough food for people to eat. Today,
More informationRatio and Proportion Study Guide 12
Ratio and Proportion Study Guide 12 Ratio: A ratio is a comparison of the relationship between two quantities or categories of things. For example, a ratio might be used to compare the number of girls
More informationHow do populations evolve?... Are there any trends?...
How do populations evolve?... Are there any trends?... Gene pool: all of the genes of a population Allele frequency: the percentage of any particular allele in a gene pool A population in which an allele
More informationBasic numerical skills: EQUATIONS AND HOW TO SOLVE THEM. x + 5 = 7 2 + 52 = 72 5 + (22) = 72 5 = 5. x + 55 = 75. x + 0 = 20.
Basic numerical skills: EQUATIONS AND HOW TO SOLVE THEM 1. Introduction (really easy) An equation represents the equivalence between two quantities. The two sides of the equation are in balance, and solving
More informationCHAPTER 2: APPROACH AND METHODS APPROACH
CHAPTER 2: APPROACH AND METHODS APPROACH Given Hawaii s biological uniqueness on a global scale, the Comprehensive Wildlife Conservation Strategy (CWCS) recognizes the importance of protecting all native
More informationBiodiversity Concepts
Biodiversity Concepts WHAT IS BIODIVERSITY? Biodiversity is the variety of life on Earth. For any kind of animal or plant each individual is not exactly the same as any other; nor are species or ecosystems.
More informationCHEMISTRY STANDARDS BASED RUBRIC ATOMIC STRUCTURE AND BONDING
CHEMISTRY STANDARDS BASED RUBRIC ATOMIC STRUCTURE AND BONDING Essential Standard: STUDENTS WILL UNDERSTAND THAT THE PROPERTIES OF MATTER AND THEIR INTERACTIONS ARE A CONSEQUENCE OF THE STRUCTURE OF MATTER,
More informationCherokee County School District Student Performance Standards Unit Guides  Science: Fifth Grade
Characteristics of Science 1 Cherokee County School District Habits of Mind S5CS1. Students will be aware of the importance of curiosity, honesty, openness, and skepticism in science and will exhibit these
More informationChapter 3 Forest biological diversity
49 Chapter 3 Forest biological diversity OVERVIEW Biological diversity encompasses the variety of existing life forms, the ecological roles they perform and the genetic diversity they contain (FAO, 1989).
More informationMinnesota Academic Standards
A Correlation of to the Minnesota Academic Standards Grades K6 G/M204 Introduction This document demonstrates the high degree of success students will achieve when using Scott Foresman Addison Wesley
More informationState of Ontario's Forests  Indicator Report
Criterion 1 Conserving Biological Diversity Element 1 Conserving Ecosystem Diversity Indicator 2 Levels of Fragmentation and Connectedness of Forest Ecosystem Components Indicator Condition State Trend
More informationGlobal Ecology and Wildlife Conservation
Vaughan Centre for Lifelong Learning PartTime Certificate of Higher Education in Global Ecology and Wildlife Conservation Delivered via Distance Learning FAQs What are the aims of the course? This course
More informationThe FoodEnergyWater Nexus in Agronomy, Crop and Soil Sciences
The FoodEnergyWater Nexus in Agronomy, Crop and Soil Sciences February 4, 2016 In the fall of 2015 the Agronomy, Crop Science and Soil Science societies put out a call for white papers to help inform
More information3.1. RATIONAL EXPRESSIONS
3.1. RATIONAL EXPRESSIONS RATIONAL NUMBERS In previous courses you have learned how to operate (do addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division) on rational numbers (fractions). Rational numbers
More informationVectors. Philippe B. Laval. Spring 2012 KSU. Philippe B. Laval (KSU) Vectors Spring /
Vectors Philippe B Laval KSU Spring 2012 Philippe B Laval (KSU) Vectors Spring 2012 1 / 18 Introduction  Definition Many quantities we use in the sciences such as mass, volume, distance, can be expressed
More informationCOMP6053 lecture: Relationship between two variables: correlation, covariance and rsquared. jn2@ecs.soton.ac.uk
COMP6053 lecture: Relationship between two variables: correlation, covariance and rsquared jn2@ecs.soton.ac.uk Relationships between variables So far we have looked at ways of characterizing the distribution
More informationIntroduction to Diophantine Equations
Introduction to Diophantine Equations Tom Davis tomrdavis@earthlink.net http://www.geometer.org/mathcircles September, 2006 Abstract In this article we will only touch on a few tiny parts of the field
More informationIntroduction to the Scientific Method What habitat at your school has the highest insect biodiversity?
What habitat at your school has the highest insect biodiversity? Overview Objectives This lesson serves as a good introduction to the scientific method, or as a review to start off the school year. Students
More informationPhysics 210 Q ( PHYSICS210BRIDGE ) My Courses Course Settings
1 of 16 9/7/2012 1:10 PM Logged in as Julie Alexander, Instructor Help Log Out Physics 210 Q1 2012 ( PHYSICS210BRIDGE ) My Courses Course Settings Course Home Assignments Roster Gradebook Item Library
More informationPeer review on manuscript "Predicting environmental gradients with..." by Peer 410
Peer review on manuscript "Predicting environmental gradients with..." by Peer 410 ADDED INFO ABOUT FEATURED PEER REVIEW This peer review is written by Dr. Richard Field, Associate Professor of Biogeography
More informationPolynomials and Vieta s Formulas
Polynomials and Vieta s Formulas Misha Lavrov ARML Practice 2/9/2014 Review problems 1 If a 0 = 0 and a n = 3a n 1 + 2, find a 100. 2 If b 0 = 0 and b n = n 2 b n 1, find b 100. Review problems 1 If a
More informationEquations and Inequalities
Rational Equations Overview of Objectives, students should be able to: 1. Solve rational equations with variables in the denominators.. Recognize identities, conditional equations, and inconsistent equations.
More informationBasic Math Refresher A tutorial and assessment of basic math skills for students in PUBP704.
Basic Math Refresher A tutorial and assessment of basic math skills for students in PUBP704. The purpose of this Basic Math Refresher is to review basic math concepts so that students enrolled in PUBP704:
More informationCOMPASS Numerical Skills/PreAlgebra Preparation Guide. Introduction Operations with Integers Absolute Value of Numbers 13
COMPASS Numerical Skills/PreAlgebra Preparation Guide Please note that the guide is for reference only and that it does not represent an exact match with the assessment content. The Assessment Centre
More informationEquations, Inequalities & Partial Fractions
Contents Equations, Inequalities & Partial Fractions.1 Solving Linear Equations 2.2 Solving Quadratic Equations 1. Solving Polynomial Equations 1.4 Solving Simultaneous Linear Equations 42.5 Solving Inequalities
More informationCurrent Standard: Mathematical Concepts and Applications Shape, Space, and Measurement Primary
Shape, Space, and Measurement Primary A student shall apply concepts of shape, space, and measurement to solve problems involving two and threedimensional shapes by demonstrating an understanding of:
More informationPrentice Hall Mathematics: Course 1 2008 Correlated to: Arizona Academic Standards for Mathematics (Grades 6)
PO 1. Express fractions as ratios, comparing two whole numbers (e.g., ¾ is equivalent to 3:4 and 3 to 4). Strand 1: Number Sense and Operations Every student should understand and use all concepts and
More informationObjective. Materials. TI73 Calculator
0. Objective To explore subtraction of integers using a number line. Activity 2 To develop strategies for subtracting integers. Materials TI73 Calculator Integer Subtraction What s the Difference? Teacher
More informationIf A is divided by B the result is 2/3. If B is divided by C the result is 4/7. What is the result if A is divided by C?
Problem 3 If A is divided by B the result is 2/3. If B is divided by C the result is 4/7. What is the result if A is divided by C? Suggested Questions to ask students about Problem 3 The key to this question
More informationAP Physics 1 and 2 Lab Investigations
AP Physics 1 and 2 Lab Investigations Student Guide to Data Analysis New York, NY. College Board, Advanced Placement, Advanced Placement Program, AP, AP Central, and the acorn logo are registered trademarks
More informationObjectives. Raster Data Discrete Classes. Spatial Information in Natural Resources FANR 3800. Review the raster data model
Spatial Information in Natural Resources FANR 3800 Raster Analysis Objectives Review the raster data model Understand how raster analysis fundamentally differs from vector analysis Become familiar with
More informationThe basic unit in matrix algebra is a matrix, generally expressed as: a 11 a 12. a 13 A = a 21 a 22 a 23
(copyright by Scott M Lynch, February 2003) Brief Matrix Algebra Review (Soc 504) Matrix algebra is a form of mathematics that allows compact notation for, and mathematical manipulation of, highdimensional
More informationObjectives. By the time the student is finished with this section of the workbook, he/she should be able
QUADRATIC FUNCTIONS Completing the Square..95 The Quadratic Formula....99 The Discriminant... 0 Equations in Quadratic Form.. 04 The Standard Form of a Parabola...06 Working with the Standard Form of a
More informationCHAPTER 2 Estimating Probabilities
CHAPTER 2 Estimating Probabilities Machine Learning Copyright c 2016. Tom M. Mitchell. All rights reserved. *DRAFT OF January 24, 2016* *PLEASE DO NOT DISTRIBUTE WITHOUT AUTHOR S PERMISSION* This is a
More informationSection Review 151 1.
Section Review 151 1. Beagle 2. theory of evolution 3. varied 4. Darwin s curiosity might have led him to make many observations and ask questions about the natural world. His analytical nature may have
More informationUnderstanding by Design. Title: BIOLOGY/LAB. Established Goal(s) / Content Standard(s): Essential Question(s) Understanding(s):
Understanding by Design Title: BIOLOGY/LAB Standard: EVOLUTION and BIODIVERSITY Grade(s):9/10/11/12 Established Goal(s) / Content Standard(s): 5. Evolution and Biodiversity Central Concepts: Evolution
More informationCHAPTER 20 COMMUNITY ECOLOGY
CHAPTER 20 COMMUNITY ECOLOGY MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. The relationship between a predator and its prey is best illustrated by a. a snake eating a bird. c. a lion eating a zebra. b. a fox eating a mouse. d. a
More information47 Numerator Denominator
JH WEEKLIES ISSUE #22 20122013 Mathematics Fractions Mathematicians often have to deal with numbers that are not whole numbers (1, 2, 3 etc.). The preferred way to represent these partial numbers (rational
More informationa 11 x 1 + a 12 x 2 + + a 1n x n = b 1 a 21 x 1 + a 22 x 2 + + a 2n x n = b 2.
Chapter 1 LINEAR EQUATIONS 1.1 Introduction to linear equations A linear equation in n unknowns x 1, x,, x n is an equation of the form a 1 x 1 + a x + + a n x n = b, where a 1, a,..., a n, b are given
More informationDescribing Populations Statistically: The Mean, Variance, and Standard Deviation
Describing Populations Statistically: The Mean, Variance, and Standard Deviation BIOLOGICAL VARIATION One aspect of biology that holds true for almost all species is that not every individual is exactly
More informationMonitoring for Conservation Planning and Management. Environmental Evaluators Forum EPA Headquarters, USA June 14 15, 2007
Monitoring for Conservation Planning and Management Environmental Evaluators Forum EPA Headquarters, USA June 14 15, 2007 Key Types of Decisions Prioritization (where Status to allocate scarce conservation
More informationChapter 54: Community Ecology
Name Period Concept 54.1 Community interactions are classified by whether they help, harm, or have no effect on the species involved. 1. What is a community? List six organisms that would be found in your
More informationClifton High School Mathematics Summer Workbook Algebra 1
1 Clifton High School Mathematics Summer Workbook Algebra 1 Completion of this summer work is required on the first day of the school year. Date Received: Date Completed: Student Signature: Parent Signature:
More informationMendelian Genetics. I. Background
Mendelian Genetics Objectives 1. To understand the Principles of Segregation and Independent Assortment. 2. To understand how Mendel s principles can explain transmission of characters from one generation
More informationPractice Test Answer and Alignment Document Mathematics: Algebra II Performance Based Assessment  Paper
The following pages include the answer key for all machinescored items, followed by the rubrics for the handscored items.  The rubrics show sample student responses. Other valid methods for solving
More informationMap Patterns and Finding the Strike and Dip from a Mapped Outcrop of a Planar Surface
Map Patterns and Finding the Strike and Dip from a Mapped Outcrop of a Planar Surface Topographic maps represent the complex curves of earth s surface with contour lines that represent the intersection
More informationScience Focus 9 Biological Diversity Review Booklet. Explain the difference between structural and behavioral adaptations with examples of each.
Topic 1  Biological Diversity and Survival What does the term biological diversity refer to? What are the main components of biological diversity? Explain the difference between structural and behavioral
More informationStream Ecology Black Hawk College Singing Bird Creek
 Define ecology and ecosystem. Stream Ecology Black Hawk College Singing Bird Creek Objectives  Identify the abiotic and biotic components of an ecosystem.  Discuss the impact of human population growth
More informationEvolution and Darwin
Evolution and Darwin Evolution The processes that have transformed life on earth from it s earliest forms to the vast diversity that characterizes it today. A change in the genes!!!!!!!! Old Theories of
More informationdefined largely by regional variations in climate
1 Physical Environment: Climate and Biomes EVPP 110 Lecture Instructor: Dr. Largen Fall 2003 2 Climate and Biomes Ecosystem concept physical and biological components of environment are considered as single,
More informationTom wants to find two real numbers, a and b, that have a sum of 10 and have a product of 10. He makes this table.
Sum and Product This problem gives you the chance to: use arithmetic and algebra to represent and analyze a mathematical situation solve a quadratic equation by trial and improvement Tom wants to find
More informationInformation flow in generalized hierarchical networks
Information flow in generalized hierarchical networks Juan A. Almendral, Luis López and Miguel A. F. Sanjuán Grupo de Dinámica no Lineal y Teoría del Caos E.S.C.E.T., Universidad Rey Juan Carlos Tulipán
More informationBiological Sciences Initiative
Biological Sciences Initiative HHMI This activity is an adaptation of an exercise originally published by L. A. Welch. 1993. A model of microevolution in action. The American Biology Teacher. 55(6), 362365.
More informationEXPONENTS. To the applicant: KEY WORDS AND CONVERTING WORDS TO EQUATIONS
To the applicant: The following information will help you review math that is included in the Paraprofessional written examination for the Conejo Valley Unified School District. The Education Code requires
More informationFP1. HiSET TM Mathematics Practice Test
FP1 HiSET TM Mathematics Practice Test Copyright 013 Educational Testing Service. All rights reserved. E T S and the E T S logo are registered trademarks of Educational Testing Service (E T S) in the United
More informationChapter 16 Evolution of Populations. 16.1 Genes and Variation Biology Mr. Hines
Chapter 16 Evolution of Populations 16.1 Genes and Variation Biology Mr. Hines Figure 121 Levels of Organization Section 13 Levels of organization Biosphere Ecosystem The part of Earth that contains
More informationMath Review. for the Quantitative Reasoning Measure of the GRE revised General Test
Math Review for the Quantitative Reasoning Measure of the GRE revised General Test www.ets.org Overview This Math Review will familiarize you with the mathematical skills and concepts that are important
More informationCPO Science and the NGSS
CPO Science and the NGSS It is no coincidence that the performance expectations in the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) are all actionbased. The NGSS champion the idea that science content cannot
More informationDescriptive Inferential. The First Measured Century. Statistics. Statistics. We will focus on two types of statistical applications
Introduction: Statistics, Data and Statistical Thinking The First Measured Century FREC 408 Dr. Tom Ilvento 213 Townsend Hall ilvento@udel.edu http://www.udel.edu/frec/ilvento http://www.pbs.org/fmc/index.htm
More informationChapter 9. Systems of Linear Equations
Chapter 9. Systems of Linear Equations 9.1. Solve Systems of Linear Equations by Graphing KYOTE Standards: CR 21; CA 13 In this section we discuss how to solve systems of two linear equations in two variables
More informationThe relationship between forest biodiversity, ecosystem resilience, and carbon storage
The relationship between forest biodiversity, ecosystem resilience, and carbon storage Ian Thompson, Canadian Forest Service Brendan Mackey, Australian National University Alex Mosseler, Canadian Forest
More informationMATH 60 NOTEBOOK CERTIFICATIONS
MATH 60 NOTEBOOK CERTIFICATIONS Chapter #1: Integers and Real Numbers 1.1a 1.1b 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.8 Chapter #2: Algebraic Expressions, Linear Equations, and Applications 2.1a 2.1b 2.1c 2.2 2.3a 2.3b 2.4 2.5
More informationDevelopment and application of molecular and bioinformatic tools for the genetic monitoring of beets
Development and application of molecular and bioinformatic tools for the genetic monitoring of beets Matthias Enders, Lothar Frese, Marion Nachtigall J. Squirmelia Ulf Bodin 1999 Letschert 1993 Topics
More informationMINITAB ASSISTANT WHITE PAPER
MINITAB ASSISTANT WHITE PAPER This paper explains the research conducted by Minitab statisticians to develop the methods and data checks used in the Assistant in Minitab 17 Statistical Software. OneWay
More informationMicroevolution: The mechanism of evolution
Microevolution: The mechanism of evolution What is it that evolves? Not individual organisms Populations are the smallest units that evolve Population: members of a species (interbreeding individuals and
More informationWILDFLOWER RESTORATION PROJECT. Experimental Design and Data Collection Guide
1 Experimental Design and Data Collection Guide 2 INTRODUCTION This citizen science wildflower restoration project requires you to set up a study site, gather and plant seeds, and monitor changes in the
More informationWhat is Biodiversity? Come with us on a journey
What is Biodiversity? Come with us on a journey From the hot arid deserts of the Sahara, through the lush green rainforests of the Amazon, to the ocean depths and bright corals, our natural world is a
More informationRESULTS. that remain following use of the 3x3 and 5x5 homogeneity filters is also reported.
RESULTS Land Cover and Accuracy for Each Landsat Scene All 14 scenes were successfully classified. The following section displays the results of the land cover classification, the homogenous filtering,
More informationHow do you compare numbers? On a number line, larger numbers are to the right and smaller numbers are to the left.
The verbal answers to all of the following questions should be memorized before completion of prealgebra. Answers that are not memorized will hinder your ability to succeed in algebra 1. Number Basics
More informationMATRIX ALGEBRA AND SYSTEMS OF EQUATIONS
MATRIX ALGEBRA AND SYSTEMS OF EQUATIONS Systems of Equations and Matrices Representation of a linear system The general system of m equations in n unknowns can be written a x + a 2 x 2 + + a n x n b a
More informationNuclear Physics Lab I: GeigerMüller Counter and Nuclear Counting Statistics
Nuclear Physics Lab I: GeigerMüller Counter and Nuclear Counting Statistics PART I Geiger Tube: Optimal Operating Voltage and Resolving Time Objective: To become acquainted with the operation and characteristics
More informationGraduate Management Admission Test (GMAT) Quantitative Section
Graduate Management Admission Test (GMAT) Quantitative Section In the math section, you will have 75 minutes to answer 37 questions: A of these question are experimental and would not be counted toward
More informationFractions and Linear Equations
Fractions and Linear Equations Fraction Operations While you can perform operations on fractions using the calculator, for this worksheet you must perform the operations by hand. You must show all steps
More informationPROTOCOL 2. PLOT SAMPLING DENSITY AND PERCENT COVER
P ROTOCOL 2. PLOT SAMPLING PROTOCOL 2. PLOT SAMPLING DENSITY AND PERCENT COVER Sampling Sometimes it is too timeconsuming, expensive, or even impossible to collect data from your entire study area. Sampling
More informationElementary Algebra. Section 0.4 Factors
Section 0.4 Contents: Definitions: Multiplication Primes and Composites Rules of Composite Prime Factorization Answers Focus Exercises THE MULTIPLICATION TABLE x 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 1 1 2 3 4 5
More informationARITHMETIC. Overview. Testing Tips
ARITHMETIC Overview The Arithmetic section of ACCUPLACER contains 17 multiple choice questions that measure your ability to complete basic arithmetic operations and to solve problems that test fundamental
More informationPredictability of Average Inflation over Long Time Horizons
Predictability of Average Inflation over Long Time Horizons Allan Crawford, Research Department Uncertainty about the level of future inflation adversely affects the economy because it distorts savings
More informationEnvironmental monitoring through biodiversity functional measures
Environmental monitoring through biodiversity functional measures T. Di Battista, F. Fortuna and F. Maturo Department of Philosophical, Pedagogical and QuantitativeEconomics Sciences  University G. d
More informationGRAPHS/TABLES. (line plots, bar graphs pictographs, line graphs)
GRAPHS/TABLES (line plots, bar graphs pictographs, line graphs) Standard: 3.D.1.2 Represent data using tables and graphs (e.g., line plots, bar graphs, pictographs, and line graphs). Concept Skill: Graphs
More informationSystems of Linear Equations in Three Variables
5.3 Systems of Linear Equations in Three Variables 5.3 OBJECTIVES 1. Find ordered triples associated with three equations 2. Solve a system by the addition method 3. Interpret a solution graphically 4.
More informationBiological Information Management and Delivery Subactivity
Biological Information Management and Delivery Subactivity Subactivity Biological Information Management and Delivery FY 2000 Estimate Uncontrol. & Related Changes Program Changes 1 FY 2001 Budget Request
More informationChapter 3 Review Math 1030
Section A.1: Three Ways of Using Percentages Using percentages We can use percentages in three different ways: To express a fraction of something. For example, A total of 10, 000 newspaper employees, 2.6%
More informationCHAPTER 4 EARTHWORK. Section I. PLANNING OF EARTHWORK OPERATIONS
CHAPTER 4 EARTHWORK Section I. PLANNING OF EARTHWORK OPERATIONS IMPORTANCE In road, railroad, and airfield construction, the movement of large volumes of earth (earthwork) is one of the most important
More informationModule EN: Developing a Reference Level for Carbon Stock Enhancements
USAID LEAF TECHNICAL GUIDANCE SERIES FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF A FOREST CARBON MONITORING SYSTEM FOR REDD+ Module EN: Developing a Reference Level for Carbon Stock Enhancements USAID LEAF TECHNICAL GUIDANCE
More informationA Short Guide to Significant Figures
A Short Guide to Significant Figures Quick Reference Section Here are the basic rules for significant figures  read the full text of this guide to gain a complete understanding of what these rules really
More informationCommon Core State Standards for Mathematics Accelerated 7th Grade
A Correlation of 2013 To the to the Introduction This document demonstrates how Mathematics Accelerated Grade 7, 2013, meets the. Correlation references are to the pages within the Student Edition. Meeting
More informationSect. 1.3: Factoring
Sect. 1.3: Factoring MAT 109, Fall 2015 Tuesday, 1 September 2015 Algebraic epression review Epanding algebraic epressions Distributive property a(b + c) = a b + a c (b + c) a = b a + c a Special epansion
More informationA. Factoring Method  Some, but not all quadratic equations can be solved by factoring.
DETAILED SOLUTIONS AND CONCEPTS  QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Prepared by Ingrid Stewart, Ph.D., College of Southern Nevada Please Send Questions and Comments to ingrid.stewart@csn.edu. Thank you! PLEASE NOTE
More informationRevised Version of Chapter 23. We learned long ago how to solve linear congruences. ax c (mod m)
Chapter 23 Squares Modulo p Revised Version of Chapter 23 We learned long ago how to solve linear congruences ax c (mod m) (see Chapter 8). It s now time to take the plunge and move on to quadratic equations.
More information6. Vectors. 1 20092016 Scott Surgent (surgent@asu.edu)
6. Vectors For purposes of applications in calculus and physics, a vector has both a direction and a magnitude (length), and is usually represented as an arrow. The start of the arrow is the vector s foot,
More informationPLANT ECOLOGY. How many plants are in each plot? Why do different plants grow in different areas?
81 CHAPTER 1: 4: PLANT ECOLOGY You just have to start at a particular point and count. Concentrate on what you re doing and try not to lose track. LIZ JOHNSON (Plant Inventory, p.184) TARGET QUESTION:
More information