Chemistry Scope & Sequence Student Outcomes (Objectives Skills/Verbs)

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1 s 1 Measurement and Problem Solving 2-3 Weeks Measurements are subject to errors which need to be accounted for. 1. How do you accurately measure, using significant figures, in the metric system? Understand the rules and need for using significant figures. Apply problem solving techniques using dimensional analysis. Significant figures Scientific notation Metric prefixes Accuracy Precision density Lab: Significant Figures and Measurement Lab: Density From common assessment document: Questions # Douglas County School District Page 1 DRAFT April 2010

2 2 Atomic Structure 3-4 Weeks The structure of atoms relates to the energy they contain. 1. What are the parts and properties of the atom? 2. What led to the discovery of each of the subatomic particles? 3. How is energy released or transferred in an atom? Understand the historical development of modern atomic theory. Understand the structure of the nuclear atom. Understand the difference between atomic mass and mass number. Apply principle quantum number to determine atomic orbitals. Apply the quantum mechanical model to determine an atom s electron configuration. Explain atomic emission spectra using quantum theory. Atom Proton Neutron Electron Nucleus Energy level Photon Electromagnetic spectrum Orbital Atomic number Mass number Atomic mass Isotope molar mass Lab: Isotopes (M&Mium) Lab: Flame Test From common assessment document: Questions #1, 2 Douglas County School District Page 2 DRAFT April 2010

3 3 Periodic Table Trends and Bonding 6 Weeks Atoms can combine in different ways to make many different compounds. 1. How does ionic bonding occur? 2. How does covalent bonding occur? 3. How does VSEPR theory help predict the shape and polarity of molecules? 4. How can you distinguish between ionic and covalent bonding? Understand how elements are arranged in the periodic table, and how this arrangement shows repeating patterns among elements with similar properties. Understand the octet rule and the transfer of valence electrons to produce ionic bonding. Understanding how the sharing of electrons between atoms can produce covalent bonds. Predict the shape and polarity of molecules based on VSEPR theory. Electron shielding Effective nuclear charge Electronegativity Atomic radius Ionization energy Electron affinity Groups Periods Metals Non-metals Transition metals Noble gases Alkali metals Alkali earth metals Lanthanides Actinides Lab: Periodic Properties and Density Lab: Fruit Loop Lab Lab: Building molecular models Questions #3-9, 11 Douglas County School District Page 3 DRAFT April 2010

4 4 Chemical Names and Formulas 2 Weeks The way we name compounds depends upon how the atoms have combined. 1. How do you name ionic and covalent compounds? Use chemical symbols to represent elements and compounds. Write names and formulas of molecular and ionic compounds. Prefixes for covalent bonding Anion Cation Question #10 Douglas County School District Page 4 DRAFT April 2010

5 5 The Mole 3 Weeks Chemists use a special counting unit called a mole to describe very large number of atoms. 1. How do you distinguish between empirical and molecular formulas? 2. How do you calculate percent composition? Using the mole, convert between units of mass, representative particles, and volumes of gases at STP. Derive empirical and molecular formula from experimental data. Empirical formula Molecular formula Percent composition Hydrate Avogadro s number Mole Molar mass Lab: MgO Lab: Oreo Lab Lab: Percent Water in Hydrate Question #12-15 Douglas County School District Page 5 DRAFT April 2010

6 6 Chemical Reactions 3-4 Weeks When atoms and compounds react, the total amounts of matter and energy involved stays the same. 1. What is the difference between the five major types of reactions? 2. How do you apply the law of conservation of mass to writing and balancing chemical equations? Represent chemical reactions using chemical equations. Use the law of conservation of mass to balance chemical equations. Recognize types of chemical reactions. Product Reactant Synthesis/combi nation Decomposition Single replacement Double replacement Combustion Net ionic equation Precipitate Aqueous solution Lab: Types of Reactions Questions #16, 17 Douglas County School District Page 6 DRAFT April 2010

7 7 Stoichiometry 3 Weeks Atoms combine in particular ratios to form compounds. Atoms and compounds react in particular ratios in chemical reactions. 1. How do you calculate stoichiometric values from a balanced chemical equation? Calculate quantities of reactants and products needed in chemical reactions using a balance chemical equations. Use limiting reagent to calculate amount of products and excess reagent in a balanced chemical equation. Calculate percent yield in a chemical reaction. Limiting reactant Excess reactant Percent yield Theoretical yield Actual yield Lab: Limiting Reactant Lab Lab: S mores Lab Lab: Percent Yield Lab Question #13b Douglas County School District Page 7 DRAFT April 2010

8 8 States of Matter 2-3 Weeks Matter exists in different physical states, and each state has specific characteristics. 1. How do you distinguish between other intermolecular forces (besides true bonding forces)? 2. How does the kinetic molecular theory explain the behavior of gases, liquids, and solids? Explain the behavior of gases, liquids, and solids in terms of kinetic molecular theory. Explain phase change using kinetic molecular theory. Interpret phase diagram for water and carbon dioxide. Solid Liquid Gas Heat Pressure Kinetic molecular theory Supercritical fluid Triple point Critical point Phase diagram Heat of fusion Heat of vaporization Evaporation Condensation Freezing Melting Sublimation Deposition Surface tension Viscosity Cohesion adhesion hydrogen bonding London dispersion forces Intermolecular forces Lab: Phase Change (HoF & HoV) Lab: Glass Bending Lab: Triple Point of CO 2 Question #18 Douglas County School District Page 8 DRAFT April 2010

9 9 Thermochemistry 2 Weeks Energy is involved in changes of state. 1. How does specific heat explain and quantify the transfer of energy into and out of a system? 2. How do you determine the physical state of a substance based on pressure and temperature? Determine the specific heat capacity of a substance using experimental data. Heat Exothermic Endothermic Calorimetry Specific heat Temperature Kinetic energy Hess s Law Lab: Calorimetry Lab: Peanut Lab Lab: Hess s Law Question #19 10 Gases 2-3 Weeks The behavior and characteristics of gases can be described by pressure, volume, and temperature. 1. What are the variables involved in the four major gas laws? 2. What are the differences between Boyle s, Charles s, and Gay- Lussac s Law? 3. How do you calculate the effects from changes in pressure, temperature and volume in a gaseous system? Define and calculate the quantitative effects of changes in pressure, volume, and temperature on contained gases. Apply Dalton s law of partial pressures to determine the pressure of component gases. Boyle s Law Charles s Law Gay-Lussac s Law Ideal Gas Law (PV=nRT) Volume Pressure Temperature Dalton s Law of Partial Pressures Effusion diffusion Lab: Gas Collection Lab Question #20, 21 Douglas County School District Page 9 DRAFT April 2010

10 11 Solutions 2 Weeks Chemical solutions can be concentrated or dilute, depending upon the relative ratios of the substances in the solution. 1. How do you make a solution of a given molarity from a solid or a concentrated solution? Define and work problems involving the molarity of a solution. Determine ph from hydrogen ion concentration. Definition of acid and base (Arrhenius and Bronsted- Lowry) Identification of electrolytes. Distinguish between saturated and unsaturated solutions. Molarity ph concentration acid base electrolyte titration saturated solution supersaturated solution unsaturated solution solubility precipitation Lab: Titration Question #22-25 Douglas County School District Page 10 DRAFT April 2010

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