CHEMISTRY Matter and Change

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1 CHEMISTRY Matter and Change CHAPTER 11 Table Of Contents Chapter 11: Stoichiometry Section 1 Section 1 Section 1 Section 1 Describe the types of relationships indicated by a balanced chemical equation. State the mole ratios from a balanced chemical equation. reactant: the starting substance in a chemical reaction stoichiometry mole ratio Particle and Mole Relationships Chemical reactions stop when one of the reactants is used up. Stoichiometry is the study of quantitative relationships between the amounts of reactants used and amounts of products formed by a chemical reaction. The amount of each reactant present at the start of a chemical reaction determines how much product can form. 1

2 Particle and Mole Relationships (cont.) Stoichiometry is based on the law of conservation of mass. The mass of reactants equals the mass of the products. Particle and Mole Relationships (cont.) A mole ratio is a ratio between the numbers of moles of any two substances in a balanced equation. The number of mole ratios that can be written for any equation is (n)(n 1) where n is the number of species in the chemical reaction. List the sequence of steps used in solving stoichiometric problems. Solve stoichiometric problems. chemical reaction: a process in which the atoms of one or more substances are rearranged to form different substances Using Stoichiometry All stoichiometric calculations begin with a balanced chemical equation. 4Fe(s) + 3O 2 (g) 2Fe 2 O 3 (s) The solution to every stoichiometric problem requires a balanced chemical equation. 2

3 Steps to solve mole-to-mole, mole-to-mass, and mass-to-mass stoichiometric problems 1. Write a balanced chemical equation for the reaction. 2. Determine where to start your calculations by noting the unit of the given substance. If mass (in grams) of the given substance is the starting unit, you must convert to moles. If amount (in moles) of the given substance is the starting unit, convert moles of the given substance to moles of the unknown. 3. The end point of the calculation depends on the desired unit of the unknown substance. If the answer must be in moles, stop you are finished. If the answer must be in grams, convert moles of unknown to grams of unknown using the molar mass as the conversion factor. Ex. The carbon dioxide exhaled by astronauts can be removed from a spacecraft by reacting with lithium hydroxide as follows: CO 2(g) + LiOH (s) Li 2 CO 3(s) + CO 2(g) + LiOH (s) Li 2 CO 3(s) An average person exhales about 20 moles of CO 2 per day. How many moles of LiOH would be required to maintain 2 astronauts in a spacecraft for three days? 3

4 Identify the limiting reactant in a chemical equation. Identify the excess reactant, and calculate the amount remaining after the reaction is complete. Calculate the mass of a product when the amounts of more than one reactant are given. molar mass: the mass in grams of one mole of any pure substance limiting reactant excess reactant A chemical reaction stops when one of the reactants is used up. Why do reactions stop? Reactions proceed until one of the reactants is used up and one is left in excess. The limiting reactant limits the extent of the reaction and, thereby, determines the amount of product formed. The excess reactants are all the leftover unused reactants. Why do reactions stop? (cont.) Determining the limiting reactant is important because the amount of the product formed depends on this reactant. 4

5 is Limiting Ex. S 8 (l) + 4Cl 2 (g) 4S 2 Cl 2 (l) is Limiting (cont.) Ex. S 8 (l) + 4Cl 2 (g) 4S 2 Cl 2 (l) If 200.0g of sulfur reacts with 100.0g of chlorine, what mass of disulfur dichloride is produced? is Limiting (cont.) Now that you have determined the limiting reactant and the amount of product formed, what about the excess reactant, sulfur? How much of it reacted? is Limiting (cont.) Using an excess reactant can speed up the reaction. Using an excess reactant can drive a reaction to completion. 5

6 Calculate the theoretical yield of a chemical reaction from data. Determine the percent yield for a chemical reaction. process: a series of actions or operations theoretical yield actual yield percent yield How much product? Laboratory reactions do not always produce the calculated amount of products. Reactants stick to containers. Competing reactions form other products. Percent yield is a measure of the efficiency of a chemical reaction. How much product? (cont.) The theoretical yield is the maximum amount of product that can be produced from a given amount of reactant. The actual yield is the amount of product actually produced when the chemical reaction is carried out in an experiment. in the Marketplace Percent yield is important in the cost effectiveness of many industrial manufacturing processes. The percent yield of a product is the ratio of the actual yield expressed as a percent. 6

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