2 NO + O 2 2 NO 2 3/18/2014. iclicker Participation Question: A B C

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1 Today: Stoichiometric Analysis: Gram to Gram Conversions: Use MOLAR MASS to get to moles Limiting Reagents: Method 1 Method 2 Actual Yield & Percent Yield Combustion Analysis Titrations Next Meeting Reading for Monday: Start Chapter 7, Sections , pp iclicker Participation Question: Predicting the Volume of Gases Produced Which mixture will yield the MOST CO 2 GAS? CH 3 CO 2 H (aq) + NaHCO 3(s) NaCH 3 CO 2(aq) + H 2 O (l) + CO 2(g) A B C 3.0 g (0.05 mol) 4.2 g (0.05 mol) 6.0 g (0.10 mol) 4.2 g (0.05 mol) 3.0 g (0.05 mol) 8.4 g (0.10 mol) D. Each mixture will yield the same volume of gases E. Both B & C will yield the same amount of gas, which will be more than A Nitrogen Dioxide: A major component of smog Nitrogen monoxide (aka nitric oxide, NO) is produced in internal combustion engines. Nitric oxide released into the atmosphere can react with O 2 to form nitrogen dioxide (aka nitrous oxide, NO 2 ). 2 NO + O 2 2 NO 2 1

2 Determining the Limiting Reagent: METHOD 1 While calculating the THEORETICAL YIELD 1. Convert the starting quantity of each reactant to the quantity of product that could potentially form. 2. The limiting reagent is the reactant that would produce LESS product and determines the THEORETICAL YIELD. 4 mol O 2 4 mol NO Nitric oxide is LIMITING (it is consumed & limits the formation of product) Animations adapted from McGraw Hill Publishers O 2 is in EXCESS (some remains unreacted in the end) Determining the Limiting Reagent: METHOD 2 Comparing one reactant to another 1. Start with Reactant A. Given the starting quantity of A, calculate the quantity of the other reactant (B) needed to FULLY react with A. 2. Compare the available quantity of B to the amount needed to react with A. If more is available than is needed, B is in EXCESS & A is the LIMITING. 2 mol O 2 6 mol NO Nitric oxide is in EXCESS (some remains unreacted in the end) Animations adapted from McGraw Hill Publishers Oxygen is LIMITING (it is consumed & limits the formation of product) A Stoichiometric Mixture: Neither reactant is limiting or in excess When the reactants are in the proper stoichiometric ratio, each can FULLY react with the other. Neither starting material remains in the end of the reaction. Neither is considered a limiting reagent. 6 mol NO 3 mol O 2 Animations adapted from McGraw Hill Publishers 2

3 iclicker Participation Question: Stoichiometric Analysis If 10 moles of iron (III) oxide are mixed with 10 moles of zinc metal and react according to the equation below, which component will be consumed first? A. Fe 2 O 3 In other words, which is the limiting reagent? B. Zn Fe 2 O Zn 3 ZnO + 2 Fe C. ZnO D. Fe E. There are no limiting reagents here. Everything reacts fully Reactions are NOT 100% efficient If only a portion of the limiting reagent reacts, only a fraction of the theoretical yield will be obtained. The quantity of the product that is produced in reality is called the ACTUAL YIELD. The PERCENT YIELD measures how much of the limiting reagent actually reacted. PERCENT YIELD = Actual Yield Theoretical Yield x 100 (This number should always be LESS than or equal to 100 %) Given the Actual Yield & the Theoretical Yield, it is possible to calculate the PERCENT YIELD. OR: Given the PERCENT YIELD & the Theoretical Yield, it is possible to calculate the Actual Yield. iclicker Participation Question: Mole-to-Mole Conversions From Reactants to Products 30 moles of hydrogen gas reacted with sufficient nitrogen gas to produce 5 moles of NH 3. What is the percent yield? A. 100 % N 2(g) + 3 H 2(g) 2 NH 3(g) B. 75 % C. 50 % D. 25 % The expansion of the world's population from 1.6 billion people in 1900 to today's seven billion [in 2012] would not have been possible without the [industrial] synthesis of ammonia. MIT Press E. None of the above 3

4 Percent Yield Practice Problems: Hydrazine, once used as a rocket propellant, reacts with oxygen: N 2 H 4 + O 2 N H 2 O A. How many grams of water could be obtained from 50.0 g N 2 H 4 reacting with excess oxygen? B. How many grams of water would be obtained from part A above if the percent yield of the reaction was only 85.5 %? Combustion Analysis using Stoichiometry: Determining Empirical Formulas of Organic Compounds The empirical formula for an organic compound can be determined by burning it and analyzing the products (CO 2 & H 2 O) C X H Y O Z + O 2(g) X CO 2 + Y/2 H 2 O Combustion Analysis using Stoichiometry: Determining Empirical Formulas Caproic acid, the compound responsible for the unpleasant aroma of dirty socks, contains only C, H, and O. When a g sample of the compound is burned in oxygen, g of CO 2 and g of H 2 O are collected. What is the empirical formula of the compound? 4

5 Molarity: Linking Volume & Moles Concentration is the measure of the amount of solute in a solution (part / whole). Molar concentration, or molarity is a measure of the moles of a solute in one liter of solution. Molarity n V moles of solute mol solute M volume of solution L solution Brackets around a formula indicate the concentration of the substance is being discussed: [NaCl] means the molarity of NaCl Instead of using grams to find the moles of a component: Volume and Molarity can be used to determine MOLES & this information can be worked into stoichiometry problems. Example Problem 1 Consider the reaction of HCl with KOH. If a M solution of HCl (aq) reacts with moles of KOH, what volume of HCl solution would be need to complete react with the KOH? 5

6 Example Problem 2 Consider the reaction of 20.0 ml of a sulfuric acid (H 2 SO 4 ) solution with a M solution of sodium hydroxide (NaOH). If ml of NaOH is required to fully react with the H 2 SO 4 solution, what is the concentration of the original H 2 SO 4 solution? Practice Problems: Urea (CH 4 N 2 O), a common fertilizer, can be synthesized by the reaction of ammonia (NH 3 ) with carbon dioxide. 2 NH 3(aq) + CO 2(aq) CH 4 N 2 O (aq) + H 2 O (l) An industrial synthesis of urea begins with 35.8 kg of aammonia and 89 kg of carbon dioxide. What mass of urea could theoretically be produced from this starting mixture? An emergency breathing apparatus placed in mines or caves works via the chemical reaction below: 4 KO 2(s) + 2 CO 2(g) 2 K 2 CO O 2(g) If the oxygen supply becomes limited, a worker can use the apparatus to breathe while exiting the mine. Notice that the reaction produces O 2, which can be breathed, and absorbs CO 2, a product of respiration. What minimum amount of KO 2 is required for the apparatus to provide enough oxygen to allow the user 15 minutes to exit the mine? Assume 4.4 g of O 2 are needed for 15 minutes of normal breathing. Example Problem 3 Consider the reaction of NaOH with phosphoric acid (H 3 PO 4 ). If 50.5 ml of 0.54 M H 3 PO 4 solution is mixed with 15.9 ml of 0.61 M NaOH solution, which would be considered the limiting reagent? In other words, which reactant would be consumed first? What would be the final concentration of the reagent in excess? 6

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