# Unit 2: Weather Dynamics Investigating Weather Maps

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1 UNIT 2 Chapter 2: Weather Forecasting Section 2.2 Unit 2: Weather Dynamics Investigating Weather Maps Science 10 Mrs. Purba

2 UNIT 2 Investigating Weather Maps Section 2.2 What can a weather map tell you? A lot! A weather map indicates all sorts of things to let you know the forecast. It also may have some interesting graphics associated with it.

3 UNIT 2 Investigating Weather Maps Weather Maps Weather maps simply and graphically depict meteorological conditions in the atmosphere. Weather maps may display only one feature of the atmosphere or multiple features. They can depict information from computer models or from human observations. On a weather map, important meteorological conditions are plotted for each weather station. Meteorologists use many different symbols as a quick and easy way to display information on the map. Section 2.2

4 Understanding Symbols

5 UNIT 2 Investigating Weather Maps Weather Maps Once conditions have been plotted, points of equal value can be connected by isolines. Weather maps can have 3 types of connecting lines, or isolines. Section 2.2

6 UNIT 2 Investigating Weather Maps Isolines 1. Lines of equal temperature are called isotherms. Isotherms show temperature gradients and can indicate the location of a front. Section 2.2

7 UNIT 2 Investigating Weather Maps Isolines 2. Isotachs are lines of constant wind speed. Where the minimum values occur high in the atmosphere, tropical cyclones may develop. The highest wind speeds can be used to locate the jet stream. Section 2.2

8 UNIT 2 Investigating Weather Maps Isolines Section Isobars are lines of equal average air pressure at sea level. Closed isobars represent the locations of high and low pressure cells.

9 UNIT 2 Investigating Weather Maps Section 2.2 What is an Isobar? line showing a weather pattern a line drawn on a weather map that connects places with equal atmospheric pressure. Isobars are often used collectively to indicate the movement or formation of weather systems. Isobar lines may never cross or touch. Isobar lines may only pass through pressures of 1000+/- 4. In other words, allowable lines are 992, 996, 1000, 1004, 1008, and so on.

10 UNIT 2 Investigating Weather Maps Section 2.2 Drawing Isobars You will use a black colored pencil to lightly draw lines connecting identical values of sea level pressure. Remember, these lines, called isobars, do not cross each other. Isobars are usually drawn for every four millibars, using 1000 millibars as the starting point. Therefore, these lines will have values of 1000, 1004, 1008, 1012, 1016, 1020, 1024, etc., or 996, 992, 988, 984, 980, etc. You will then identify a high pressure center and a low pressure center. You will predict the location of fair weather and stormy weather. You will identify the direction of spin around a high pressure center and a low pressure center.

11 Begin drawing from the 1024 millibars station pressure over Salt Lake City, Utah (highlighted in gray). Draw a line to the next 1024 value located to the northeast (upper right). Without lifting your pencil draw a line to the next 1024 value located to the south, then to the one located southwest, finally returning to the Salt Lake City value. Now connect the pressure areas that are 1020 millibars. Complete the map.

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13 Labelling Highs & Lows Isobars can be used to identify "Highs" and "Lows." The pressure in a high is greater than the surrounding air. The pressure in a low is lower than the surrounding air. Label the center of the high pressure area with a large blue "H". Label the center of the low pressure area with a large red "L".

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15 Adding Weather High pressure regions are usually associated with dry weather because as the air sinks it warms and the moisture evaporates. Low pressure regions usually bring precipitation because when the air rises it cools and the water vapor condenses. Shade, in green, the state(s) where you would expect to see rain or snow. Shade, in yellow, the state(s) where you would expect to see clear skies.

16 Weather Rhyme When pressure is low, expect rain or snow. When pressure is high, look for a blue sky.

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19 Put A Spin On It In the northern hemisphere the wind blows clockwise around centers of high pressure. The wind blows counterclockwise around lows. Draw arrows around the "H" on your map to indicate the wind direction. Draw arrows around the "L" on your map to indicate the wind direction.

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21 Summary Weather maps graphically depict weather conditions. Weather maps have 3 types of isolines (connecting lines) 1. Isotherms are lines of constant temperature. 2. Isotachs are lines of constant wind speed. 3. Isobars are lines of constant pressure.

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