Definition of Photogrammetry. Aircraft: Cessna 206 Turbo Charged

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1 LSIT RLS Review Seminar: Photogrammetry John Cahoon Certified Photogrammetrist President Kenney Aerial Mapping, Inc North 15 th Avenue Phoenix, AZ Definition of Photogrammetry MANUAL OF PHOTOGRAMMETRY Fourth Edition: Photogrammetry is the art, science and technology of obtaining reliable information about physical objects and the environment through processes of recording, measuring, and interpreting photographic images and patterns of electromagnetic radiant energy and other phenomena. Aircraft: Cessna 206 Turbo Charged Typical Aerial Mapping Aircraft 1

2 Zeiss RMK TOP 15 Camera Forward Motion Compensation(FMC) Gyro Stabilized Mount Components of a Metric Aerial Camera 1) Lens Cone Assembly 2) Camera Body 3) Magazine Additional Components Camera Controls (Video, Computers) Viewfinder, Navigation Equipment Forward Motion Compensation Mount, Gyro Stabilized Components of a Metric Aerial Camera 2

3 Interior of a Metric Aerial Camera The Metric Mapping Camera 9 x 9 Negative Size 6 focal length Calibrated for Mapping 8 fiducial marks are used to calculate photo coordinates and are a vital part of the aero triangulation process. Types of Aerial Photographs Vertical Photograph Optical axis is vertical in relation to the ground Oblique Photograph Optical axis is purposely tilted High Oblique Apparent horizon is shown Low Oblique Apparent horizon is not shown 3

4 Flying Height Generally from 1000 to above sea level for small single and twin engine aircraft Land with very high elevations reduces our ability to obtain small scale photography Average flying height above ground defines the photo scale The relationship of flying height to photo scale is linear Double the flying height will double the photo scale, but it covers 4 times the area. Photographic Scale A function of Flying Height above mean terrain Expressed as AGL, AMT Flying Height above mean sea level Expressed as MSL, ASL Photographic Scale as a ratio 1:7200 means 1 part in 7200: 1m = 7200m 7200/12 (inches per foot) expresses the scale in inches to feet. 7200/12=600 or 1 =600 Photographic Scale Photo Scale is Uniform Across the Photo if: It is a truly vertical photograph Ground is flat across the entire photograph Photo Scale varies due to tilt and elevation changes in the ground. A truly vertical photograph with flat terrain will have a constant scale. If the ground elevation varies the scale will vary. 4

5 Scale Variations Due to Terrain Photographic Scale The Relationship between : Focal Length of the Camera ( f ) Flying Height (H) Elevation of a point, line or area above or below the AGL (h) Scale = f H - h Photographic Scale Determination Average Scale Measure in any area of the photo Gives approximate values in relatively flat ground Scale A = f H - h av h av = Average elevation of the area 5

6 Relief Displacement The displacement of the image of a ground point on a photograph from the position the image would have if the point were on the datum Due to the elevation of the ground point being above or below the datum Amount depends on the position of the point on the photograph Relief Displacement in Mountainous Terrain This property is roughly a square. The terrain height increases dramatically to the NW and the image is displaced outward. Relief Displacement in Urban Terrain The effect on urban high rises is similar. Building tops are displaced outward from the photo center or nadir. 6

7 Relief Displacement At the principal point equals zero Increases radially outward towards the edge of the photo Increases as the elevation of the point increases Decreases as the elevation of the point decreases Straight lines are displaced outward as they go over ridges Straight lines are displaced inward as they cross gullies Straight radial lines are straight but the distance is not accurate Straight tangential lines exhibit the most displacement Relief Displacement d = rh H d = Relief Displacement r = Radial Distance From Principal Point h = Elevation Of Point Above Datum H = Flying Height Above Datum The Tilted Vertical Photograph There are no truly vertical aerial photographs Photo Scale varies across a tilted photograph Relief displacement increases outward from nadir Omega Phi Kappa system defines 3 photo tilt angles with respect to the ground XYZ coordinate system Omega rotates around the X axis - Aircraft Wing to Wing Phi rotates around the Y axis - Aircraft Nose to Tail Kappa rotates around the Z axis Swing or Crab These completely define the relationship between the tilted photograph and the ground reference system 7

8 The Tilted Vertical Photograph If you know the accurate locations of the XYZ coordinates at the calibrated principal point with respect to the project datum for each of the two photographs in a stereopair and If you know the accurate rotation variables for each of the two photographs in a stereopair at the instant of exposure and If you have interior orientation parameters from the camera calibration report then You have a valid photogrammetric solution for that stereopair. The Collinearity Condition Nadir B C A bundle of rays from point A projects through the image plane to the exposure station as a straight line. An infinite number of points are all subject to the collinearity condition. x and y equation for any photo image point. Stereoscopic Viewing An optical illusion produced by viewing three dimensional objects on overlapping photography Left eye sees the object only on the left photo Right eye sees the object only on the right photo The brain reconstructs the parallactic angle between the two objects and is forced to perceive the 3D or Z axis of the object Vertical Exaggeration is caused by the lack of equivalency between the air base to the eye base. 8

9 Stereophotography Photos that overlap produce stereo photography. 60% is the standard overlap for mapping. The amount of overlap is referred to as forward gain or end lap. Adjacent flight lines must overlap also. This is called side lap. 30% is the standard for side lap. The area of overlap between two frames is generally referred to the stereo model. A standard 9x9 frame with 60% forward gain and 30% side lap has an approximate 3.6 x 6.5 area called the neat model where accurate measurement is possible. X dimension = The photo scale in feet x 3.6 forward gain. Y dimension = The photo scale in feet x 6.5 = swath. The Base Height Ratio Base: The distance between photo centers in a flight line (principal and conjugate points) Height: Flying height above mean terrain B/H =.6 for aerial cameras with a 6 focal length 60% overlap - equal to forward gain Assumed that B/H is within about +\- 3% Linear relationship with flying height P E = (G-B/G) x 100 C Factor Calculation Flying Height Divided by Contour Interval - H/C Example: 1:3600 photo scale and a 1 contour interval 3600/12 = 300 then 300 x 6 = 1800 (H) or 3600 x.5 = 1800= flying height 1800 / 1 = 1800 then C Factor = 1800 C Factor is a guideline, not a rule. You can select higher C Factors depending on the type of terrain and other project parameters. The C Factor should rarely exceed about ASPRS allows up to a 2000 C Factor for Class 1 mapping when using analytical and softcopy stereoplotters. Most firms use an 1800 C Factor for most projects. 9

10 Stereophotography Forward gain is defined as the distance between the principal point and the conjugate principal point. Principal Point Conjugate Principal Point Space Intersection by Collinearity The calculation of the object space coordinates of a point from its coordinates in two or more images. Viewing a Stereo Pair Image Overlap Image Overlap (((in stereo))) Produced by ERDAS 10

11 National Map Accuracy Standards (1947) 90% HORIZONTAL FEATURES 1/50 OF MAP SCALE 90% SPOT ELEVATIONS AT ONE QUARTER C. I. 90% CONTOURS AT ONE HALF C. I. ASPRS Class 1 Standards (1990) CHANGE TO EVALUATION BY RMSE: HORIZONTAL RMSE OF 1/100 OF MAP SCALE SPOT ELEVATION RMSE OF ONE SIXTH OF THE C. I. CONTOUR RMSE OF ONE THIRD OF THE C. I. National Standard for Spatial Data Accuracy (NSSDA 1998) Arizona Spatial Data Accuracy and Georeferencing Standards June, 2008 Ground Control for Stereomodel Orientation To solve for the six variables per photograph Full Field Control - 5HVP per Model Control for Aerotriangulation ~ 1 HVP / 2 Models Control for Airborne GPS ~ 1 HVP / 10 Models Much less ground control is needed Each photo center becomes a control point Fast turnaround time and reduced costs Suitable for two foot contour accuracy 11

12 A Sixty Model Block Using Analytical Aerotriangulation - 30 Control Points A Sixty Model Block Using Four Control Points, Two Base Stations And Airborne GPS 12

13 Conventional Control Layout for Strip Mapping Control Layout for GPS Assisted Strip Mapping Flight Planning Example Mapping Limits 5280 x5280 Photo Scale: 1 = 500 Forward Gain = Flight Lines x 3 Models Each 3000 = AGL Horizontal & Vertical Ground Control Point 2 Flight Lines 4 Models Each Mapping Limits Aerotriangulation Aerotriangulation is the process which ties strips and blocks of photos together mathematically and transforms the image coordinate system to the ground coordinates. Horizontal & Vertical Ground Control Point Pass Point: XYZ Calculated by AT Tie Point : XYZ Calculated by AT 13

14 Zeiss P3 Analytical Stereoplotter Digital Photogrammetric Workstation 2D Planimetric Features 14

15 A DTM in Very Irregular Terrain Rendering of a TIN Surface Contours and Spot Elevations 15

16 3D Planimetric Features Digital Orthophotography Removes the 3 distortions associated with imagery. Aircraft tip/tilt/crab Camera Lens Terrain Displacement Yields imagery with the same level of accuracy as the topographic mapping Digital Orthophoto with Planimetric Detail and Contours Superimposed 16

17 Automated People Mover Hoover Dam Bypass Bridge Cranes 17

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