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1 investors capacity technology competition evidence institutions government mining productivity chains agribusiness apparelafrica foreign FDI spillovers GVC domestic linkages potential sectors opportunities firms local assistance knowledge supply support mediating manufacturing absorptive DIRECTIONS IN DEVELOPMENT Trade Making Foreign Direct Investment Work for Sub-Saharan Africa Local Spillovers and Competitiveness in Global Value Chains Thomas Farole and Deborah Winkler, Editors

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3 Making Foreign Direct Investment Work for Sub-Saharan Africa

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5 Directions in Development Trade Making Foreign Direct Investment Work for Sub-Saharan Africa Local Spillovers and Competitiveness in Global Value Chains Thomas Farole and Deborah Winkler, Editors

6 2014 International Bank for Reconstruction and Development / The World Bank 1818 H Street NW, Washington DC Telephone: ; Internet: Some rights reserved This work is a product of the staff of The World Bank with external contributions. Note that The World Bank does not necessarily own each component of the content included in the work. The World Bank therefore does not warrant that the use of the content contained in the work will not infringe on the rights of third parties. The risk of claims resulting from such infringement rests solely with you. The findings, interpretations, and conclusions expressed in this work do not necessarily reflect the views of The World Bank, its Board of Executive Directors, or the governments they represent. The World Bank does not guarantee the accuracy of the data included in this work. The boundaries, colors, denominations, and other information shown on any map in this work do not imply any judgment on the part of The World Bank concerning the legal status of any territory or the endorsement or acceptance of such boundaries. Nothing herein shall constitute or be considered to be a limitation upon or waiver of the privileges and immunities of The World Bank, all of which are specifically reserved. Rights and Permissions This work is available under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported license (CC BY 3.0) creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0. Under the Creative Commons Attribution license, you are free to copy, distribute, transmit, and adapt this work, including for commercial purposes, under the following conditions: Attribution Please cite the work as follows: Farole, Thomas and Deborah Winkler, eds Making Foreign Direct Investment Work for Sub-Saharan Africa: Local Spillovers and Competitiveness in Global Value Chains. Directions in Development. Washington, DC: World Bank. doi: / License: Creative Commons Attribution CC BY 3.0 Translations If you create a translation of this work, please add the following disclaimer along with the attribution: This translation was not created by The World Bank and should not be considered an official World Bank translation. The World Bank shall not be liable for any content or error in this translation. All queries on rights and licenses should be addressed to World Bank Publications, The World Bank Group, 1818 H Street NW, Washington, DC 20433, USA; fax: ; ISBN (paper): ISBN (electronic): DOI: / Cover image: Arne Hoel / The World Bank. Cover design: Naylor Design, Inc. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Farole, Thomas, author. Making foreign direct investment work for Sub-Saharan Africa : local spillovers and competitiveness in global value chains / Thomas Farole and Deborah Winkler. 1 online resource. (Directions in development) This book was prepared by Thomas Farole (Senior Economist, World Bank, PRMTR) and Deborah Winkler (Consultant Economist, World Bank, PRMTR) along with a team including: Cornelia Staritz (Austrian Research Foundation for International Development); Stacey Frederick (Center on Globalization, Governance & Competitiveness at Duke University); Rupert Barnard, Michelle de Bruyn, Philippa McLaren, and Nick Kempson (Kaiser Associates Economic Development Partners). Includes bibliographical references. Description based on print version record and CIP data provided by publisher; resource not viewed. ISBN (electronic) ISBN (alk. paper) 1. Investments, Foreign Africa, Sub-Saharan. 2. Technology transfer Africa, Sub-Saharan. 3. Africa, Sub-Saharan Economic conditions. I. Winkler, Deborah. II. World Bank. III. Title. HG dc

7 Contents Acknowledgments About the Editors and Contributors Abbreviations xiii xv xvii Overview 1 PART 1 Introduction 5 Chapter 1 Context, Objectives, and Methodology 7 Abstract 7 Why Does FDI Matter for Developing Countries? 7 Spillovers: What Do We Know Already? What Gaps Remain in Our Understanding? 10 Introduction to This Book 14 Notes 19 References 19 Chapter 2 Conceptual Framework 23 Abstract 23 Introduction 23 Where and How Do Spillovers Occur? 25 The Role of Mediating Factors 31 Conclusions 47 Notes 48 References 49 PART 2 Quantitative Studies 57 Chapter 3 The Role of Mediating Factors for FDI Spillovers in Developing Countries: Evidence from a Global Dataset 59 Abstract 59 Introduction 59 Empirical Model 61 v

8 vi Contents Regression Results 67 Conclusions 78 Annex 3A 80 Annex 3B 81 Annex 3C 81 Notes 82 References 83 Chapter 4 Determining the Nature and Extent of Spillovers: Empirical Assessment 87 Abstract 87 Introduction 87 Which Foreign Investor Characteristics Increase the FDI Spillover Potential? 88 Which Absorptive Capacities Facilitate FDI Linkages? 97 Which Factors within Transmission Channels Support FDI Spillovers? 102 Conclusions 111 Notes 113 References 113 PART 3 Sector Case Studies 115 Chapter 5 Sector Case Study: Mining 117 Abstract 117 The Context for Mining FDI Spillovers 117 Supply Chain Effects 125 Labor Market Effects 146 Demonstration, Competition, and Collaboration Effects 151 Conclusions 156 Notes 160 References 160 Chapter 6 Sector Case Study: Agribusiness 163 Abstract 163 The Agribusiness Global Value Chain 163 The Context for Spillovers: Commercial Production and FDI 168 Supply Chain Effects 175 Labor Market Effects 189 Demonstration, Competition, and Collaboration Effects 195 Conclusions 203 Notes 205 References 206

9 Contents vii Chapter 7 Sector Case Study: Apparel 209 Abstract 209 The Apparel Global Value Chain 209 FDI in the Apparel Global Value Chain 215 The Context for Spillovers in Sub-Saharan Africa 221 Supply Chain Effects 226 Labor Market Effects 234 Technology and Knowledge Spillovers: Demonstration and Collaboration Effects 238 Conclusions 241 Notes 243 References 244 PART 4 Conclusions and Policy Implications 245 Chapter 8 Main Conclusions 247 Abstract 247 The Evidence: Does FDI Deliver Significant Spillovers in Developing Countries? 247 The Determinants: What Mediating Factors Shape the Nature and Extent of FDI Spillovers? 254 The Role of Global Value Chains 259 Chapter 9 Policy Implications 263 Abstract 263 Introduction 263 Prioritizing the Extent of Support for Spillovers 264 Cross-Cutting versus Value Chain Specific Interventions 265 Attracting the Right Foreign Investors 265 Promoting FDI Local Economy Linkages 268 Establishing an Environment That Maximizes the Absorption Potential of Local Actors 273 Institutional and Implementation Arrangements 276 Notes 279 References 279 Boxes 1.1 Why Do GVCs Matter in the Discussion of FDI Spillovers? Limitations on Robustness of Survey Findings Mozambique Mining Supplier Development Soradio Supplier Upgrading in Chile Drillco Tools Does Location Matter? Australian Industry Participation Plans 136

10 viii Contents 5.5 Ghana Chamber of Mines Newmont Ghana s Local Procurement Policy Vale SA Supplier Development Program (2012) Supplier Databases in Chile and Australia FDI-Driven Innovation and Supplier Upgrading: Chile s World Class Supplier Development Program Skills Developments for the Mining Industry in Chile Unilever s Support for Distribution Systems Upgrading Cocoa and Tea: Certification Examples Palm Oil: Indonesia s Nucleus-Plasma Model Coffee and Cocoa: Technical Support Programs Coffee: Governance and Organizational Capacity Building Special-Purpose Vehicles for Technical Assistance: The Source Trust (Armajaro) Examples of Entrepreneurship Linked to FDI in the Agribusiness Value Chain Industry-Driven Training Programs in Kenya and Ghana Fresh Produce: Horticultural Practical Training Centre, Kenya National Labor Skills Certification System for Horticulture, Chile Demonstration Effects Formal and Informal KenyaGAP The Role of Joint Ventures in Upgrading the Sri Lankan Apparel Sector Subsidized Factory Shells and an Unlevel Playing Field for Local Firms in Swaziland 234 Figures 1.1 Global Growth of FDI, The Role of Mediating Factors for FDI Spillovers: A Conceptual Framework Mining Value Chain and the Main Inputs across the Chain Average Annual Sales of Domestic- and Foreign-Owned Suppliers Sourcing of Goods and Services by Foreign-Owned Mining Firms Domestic Firms Obtaining Quality Certifications Value of Domestic Firms Output to Foreign Customers and Market Links 132 B5.2.1 Evolution of Drillco ( ) Domestic Firms Sales to Foreign Firms by Type 135 B5.9.1 Vision of the World Class Supplier Model Percentage of Local Employees in Foreign Firms, by Job Category 146

11 Contents ix 5.8 Importance of Obstacles to Increasing Employment of Local Staff Percentage of Foreign Firms Offering Training and Number of Days per Year Foreign Investor R&D Collaboration Overview of Agricultural Value Chains Sourcing of Goods and Services by Foreign-Owned Agriculture Firms Nature of Goods and Services Sourced Locally Improvements Requested by Foreign Customers before or after Signing Contracts: Percentage Requiring Improvements and Types of Improvement Market Expansion by Domestic Firms Resulting from Supply to Foreign Customers Percentage of Local Employees in Foreign Firms, by Job Category Importance of Obstacles to Increasing Employment of Local Staff Quality and Extent of Training Offered by Foreign Firms, and Effect of Labor Turnover Percentage of Domestic Firms Offering Training and Number of Training Days per Year Utilization of Existing and Relevant Training Facilities by Foreign Investors and Foreign Suppliers Perceived Positive Impacts of Foreign Investment on Domestically Owned Firms Perceived Negative Impacts of Foreign Investors on Domestically Owned Firms across Countries Perceived Technology Gap between Domestic Firms and the Top Foreign-Owned Competitor Percentage of Firms That Have Relationships with Other Firms Producing Similar Products Apparel Supply and Value Chain Types of Lead Firms in Apparel GVCs Nationality and Export Destination of Foreign-Owned Apparel Firms Foreign-Owned Firms Purchases of Goods and Services: Source, Value, and Type Supply Decision Makers by Value Share of Expatriate Workers in Nonproduction Positions Training Facilities and the Impact of Labor Turnover on Training Perceived Sophistication of Production and Technology of Kenyan-Owned Apparel Firms Collaboration of Foreign-Owned Firms with Other Foreign or Locally Owned Firms in the Sector 240

12 x Contents 9.1 Policy Framework for Spillovers Framework for Measuring Local Content 271 Tables 1.1 How Spillovers Are Defined in This Book Country and Sector Coverage Overview of Methodological Approach FDI Spillover Potential, FDI Spillovers Absorptive Capacity, FDI Spillovers National Characteristics, FDI Spillovers Number of Firms by Type of Firm and Sector Performance Indicators, Foreign Investors versus Domestic Producers Linkages, Foreign Investors versus Domestic Producers Supplier Assistance, Foreign Investors versus Domestic Producers Foreign Investor Characteristics, Definition Premia by Foreign Investor Characteristics Distribution of Suppliers by Sector Definition of Supplier Characteristics Supplier Premia by Absorptive Capacity The Effect of Suppliers Absorptive Capacity on Output Share to Foreign Firms The Effect of Suppliers Absorptive Capacity with Supplier Relationship of at Least Three Years on Output Share to Foreign Firms Supplier Premia by Factors within Transmission Channels The Effect of Factors within Transmission Channels on the Probability of Starting to Export, Probit The Effect of Assistance on the Probability of Starting to Export due to Relationship with Foreign Firm, Part 1, Probit The Effect of Assistance on the Probability of Starting to Export due to Relationship with Foreign Firm, Part 2, Probit Drivers of Investment by Foreign Mining Companies Selected Mining Companies in Ghana, Mozambique, and Chile: Local Expenditures and Local Procurement Definition Foreign Mining Firms Assistance to Suppliers, Ranked by Frequency of Support Assistance Received by Domestically Owned Suppliers from Foreign Customers, Ranked by Frequency of Support Obstacles to Sourcing from Domestic Firms Drivers of Sector Linkages among Foreign Mining Companies Agribusiness Value Chain Types Types of Agricultural Standards Key Agricultural Exports by Value,

13 Contents xi 6.4 Ranking of Most Important Factors Driving FDI Location Decisions in the Agricultural and Agriprocessing Sector Foreign Firms Assistance to Suppliers, Ranked by Frequency of Support Types of Suppliers Receiving Assistance from Foreign Customers Types of Obstacles to Further Local Sourcing by Country Average Percentage of Staff with Foreign Firm Experience, by Type of Domestic Firm Agricultural Research Capacity in Selected Countries Firm Characteristics and Needs by Functional Category Top 15 Apparel Exporting Countries, Sub-Saharan African Apparel Exports to the World Top 10 Sub-Saharan African Apparel Exporters to the United States by Year Types of FDI and Spillover Potential in Kenya, Lesotho, and Swaziland Potential for Supply Chain Linkages in Kenya, Lesotho, and Swaziland Factors Influencing FDI Spillovers Government Support to Achieve FDI Spillovers 242

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15 Acknowledgments This book was prepared by Thomas Farole and Deborah Winkler (World Bank, International Trade Unit) along with a team including Cornelia Staritz (Austrian Research Foundation for International Development); Stacey Frederick (Center on Globalization, Governance and Competitiveness at Duke University); and Rupert Barnard, Michelle de Bruyn, Nick Kempson, and Philippa McLaren (Kaiser Associates Economic Development Partners). Additional background papers were provided by Niels Fold and Marianne Nylandsted Larsen (University of Copenhagen). Many thanks to others who contributed valuable comments, data, and input including Michael Engman, Gary Gereffi, Holger Görg, Torfinn Harding, Bernard Hoekman, Giuseppe Iarossi, Steven Jaffee, Beata Javorcik, Smita Kuriakose, Daniel Lederman, Yira Mascaro, Alan Moody, Minh Cong Nguyen, Ganesh Rasagam, Jose Guilherme Reis, Federica Saliola, Murat Seker, and Ben Shepherd; and to Shienny Lie, Rebecca Martin, and Marinella Yadao for administrative support. Thanks to Michael Alwan for his keen eye in editing, Stephen Pazdan and Paola Scalabrin in External and Corporate Relations, Publishing and Knowledge for their support in publishing, and Amir Fouad, who guided us safely through the entire process. Special thanks to our peer reviewers: Roberto Echandi (Global Product Leader, Investment Policy, World Bank, Investment Climate Department), Ted Moran (Georgetown University, Peterson Institute for International Economics, and Center for Global Development), and Kristina Svensson (Senior Operations Officer, World Bank, Sustainable Energy Department, Extractive Industries). Finally we would like to thank the many private companies, government authorities, and other stakeholders who took the time to participate in our surveys and to meet with us to share their thoughts and experiences. Without their valuable insights this book would not have been possible. The research was carried out under the overall supervision of Mona Haddad (Sector Manager, World Bank, International Trade Unit). We are grateful for the support of the Bank-Netherlands Partnership Program (BNPP), which provided generous financing for the research. xiii

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17 About the Editors and Contributors Editors Thomas Farole is a senior economist at the World Bank. He is the author of Special Economic Zones in Africa and the editor of Special Economic Zones: Progress, Challenges, and Future Directions (with Gokhan Akinci) and The Internal Geography of Trade: Lagging Regions and Global Markets. His recent articles have appeared in the Journal of Economic Geography, Progress in Human Geography, and World Development. He holds a PhD in economic geography from the London School of Economics and Political Science (LSE), a master of science degree in local economic development from the LSE, and a bachelor of science degree in economics from the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania. Deborah Winkler is a consultant economist in the World Bank s International Trade Unit and also serves as a research associate with the Schwartz Center for Economic Policy Analysis at the New School for Social Research. She is the author of the books Services Offshoring and Its Impact on the Labor Market and Outsourcing Economics: Global Value Chains in Capitalist Development (with William Milberg). Her recent articles have appeared in World Development, the Journal of Economic Geography, and World Economy as well as in edited volumes of the World Bank, the International Labour Office and World Trade Organization, and the Oxford Handbook Series. She received her PhD in economics from Hohenheim University in Germany. Contributors Stacey Frederick is a research scientist at the Center on Globalization, Governance and Competitiveness at Duke University. Her research focuses on mapping and analyzing global value chains and identifying upgrading opportunities for firms and countries in a variety of industries ranging from textiles and apparel to electronics and nanotechnology. She received her PhD in textile technology management at North Carolina State University. Kaiser Economic Development Partners provides research, strategic analysis, and implementation support in Africa to governments, donors, and industry support structures. Kaiser Economic Development Partners has completed more xv

18 xvi About the Editors and Contributors than 100 projects since its establishment in 1998, with outputs including economic policies, strategies, business plans, market guides, feasibility studies, implementation frameworks, and toolkits. Kaiser Economic Development Partners has significant experience in enhancing the benefits of foreign investment to local economies, in particular through local procurement. Cornelia Staritz is senior researcher at the Austrian Research Foundation for International Development (ÖFSE) and research associate at Policy Research in International Services and Manufacturing (PRISM) at the University of Cape Town. Prior to that, she worked at the International Trade Department of the World Bank in Washington DC and the Vienna University of Economics and Business. She holds a PhD in economics from the Vienna University of Economics and Business and a PhD in economics from the New School for Social Research in New York. Her research focuses on economic development, international trade, global value chains and production networks, private sector development, and commodity-based development.

19 Abbreviations ADM AGOA AIA AIP BRICS CAD CBI CMT Archer Daniels Midland African Growth and Opportunity Act Antofagasta Industry Association Australian Industry Participation Brazil, the Russian Federation, India, China, South Africa computer-aided design Centre for the Promotion of Imports from developing countries cut-make-trim COCOBOD Ghana Cocoa Board CORFO CSIR EIU ENAMI EPCM EPZ EU EurepGAP FDI FPEAK GDP GVC H&M HHI HSE IFC ISIC IT IV 2SLS JV Corporación de Fomento de la Producción de Chile Council for Scientific and Industrial Research Economist Intelligence Unit Empresa Nacional de Mineria engineering, procurement, and construction management export processing zone European Union Euro-Retailer Produce Working Group Good Agricultural Practices foreign direct investment Fresh Produce Exporters Association of Kenya gross domestic product global value chain Hennes and Mauritz Herfindahl-Hirschman Index health, safety, and environment International Finance Corporation (of the World Bank Group) International Standard Industrial Classification information technology instrumental variables two-stage least squares joint venture xvii

20 xviii Abbreviations KenyaGAP KFC LIC LP M&A MF MFA MNC NGO OBM OECD OEM OLS PDP PPD R&D ROO SEZ SME SOE SSA TRF WDI Kenya Good Agricultural Practice Kenya Flower Council low-income country labor productivity merger and acquisition mediating factor Multi-Fibre Arrangement multinational corporation nongovernmental organization original brand manufacturing Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development original equipment manufacturer ordinary least squares Programa de Desarrollo de Proveedores (Chile) public-private dialogue research and development rule of origin special economic zone small and medium enterprise state-owned enterprise Sub-Saharan Africa Tea Research Foundation of Kenya World Development Indicators

21 Overview Foreign direct investment (FDI) is becoming an increasingly significant catalyst for output and trade in developing countries, in part due to a major expansion in the scope of global value chains (GVCs). FDI delivers a number of important contributions to economic development in terms of investment, employment, and foreign exchange. However, it is FDI s spillover potential the productivity gain resulting from the diffusion of knowledge and technology from foreign investors to local firms and workers that is perhaps its most valuable input to long-run growth and development. Substantial research has been undertaken on the existence and direction of spillovers from FDI, but many questions remain. Moreover, there is a need to understand better the dynamics of spillovers in certain contexts, including: (a) in low-income countries (LICs), especially in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA); (b) outside of manufacturing sectors; and (c) in the context of GVCs. This book presents the results of a study designed to address some of these questions using a combination of desk analysis and field research in eight countries (including five in SSA) over three sectors: agribusiness, apparel, and mining. We summarize the results of this analytical work and discuss the implications for policy makers hoping to harness the power of FDI for greater development outcomes. In chapter 2, we outline a conceptual framework for exploring the determinants of spillovers from FDI and, in doing so, provide an in-depth discussion of the existing literature and empirical evidence. The framework is built around an understanding of the mediating factors that shape the nature and extent of spillovers, specifically: the spillover potential of foreign investors (particularly in the context of investments within GVCs); the absorptive capacity of local agents (firms and workers); and how these two factors interact within a specific host country institutional environment. These mediating factors are then explored within the context of three main transmission channels through which spillovers of knowledge and technology between FDI and the domestic agents may take place: through supply chain linkages; through labor markets; and through competition, demonstration, and collaboration effects. 1

22 2 Overview In part 2 of the study, we carry out econometric studies to assess the determinants of spillovers of developing countries. In chapter 3, using a cross-section of more than 25,000 domestic manufacturing firms in 78 low- and middle-income countries from the World Bank s Enterprise Surveys, we assess how mediating factors influence productivity spillovers to domestic firms from FDI. We differentiate between three types of mediating factors: (a) a foreign investor s spillover potential, (b) a domestic firm s absorptive capacity, and (c) a country s institutional framework. We find that spillovers in the short term may be negative in developing countries. This is likely caused by competition effects (particularly competition for scarce skilled labor), mainly due to weak absorptive capacity in the short run. Over time, however, FDI can lead to a beneficial restructuring of the entire industry, including opportunities for better-performing local participants and local suppliers. All three mediating factors affect the extent and direction of FDI spillovers on domestic firm productivity. Among the key results we find that FDI through joint ventures, market-seeking FDI, regional (versus global) investors, and government investment in education have a positive effect on spillovers. Conversely, a high technology gap has a negative effect. In chapter 4, using survey data collected in Chile, Ghana, Kenya, Lesotho, Mozambique, Swaziland, and Vietnam, we first evaluate whether foreign investors differ from domestic investors in terms of their potential to generate positive spillovers for local suppliers. We find that foreign investors might offer higher potential for spillovers due to stronger performance characteristics relative to domestic counterparts. However, this is mitigated by the fact that foreign investors have fewer linkages with the local economy and offer less supplier assistance. We also find that specific characteristics of foreign investors mediate both linkages and assistance extended to local suppliers. Additionally, we examine the role of suppliers absorptive capacities in determining the intensity of their linkages with multinationals. Our results indicate that several supplier characteristics matter, but these effects also depend on the length of the supplier s relationship with an investor. Finally, we confirm the existence of positive effects from assistance on spillovers. These effects are shown across 10 different types of assistance, among which are technical audits, joint product development, and technology licensing. In part 3 of the book we summarize the results from in-depth sector case studies in mining, agribusiness, and apparel. Chapter 5 covers the mining sector. For many LICs, particularly in SSA, the mining sector represents one of the most crucial sources of investment and income in their economies. This sector relies heavily on foreign investment, and FDI inflows have expanded rapidly over the past decade. Linkages and spillovers from this FDI can play a critical role in ensuring that the countries benefit over the lifespan of a mining project and develop sustainable and competitive alternative sectors. This is particularly important given that mining is a nonrenewable resources sector. This case study shows that while current linkages in supply chains, labor markets, and wider networks remain limited, evidence suggests there is some progress being made, and scope exists for achieving deeper local

23 Overview 3 economy integration, and ultimately productivity-enhancing spillovers, over time. Indeed, the Chilean case provides an example of how to leverage the potential of the mining sector, and the Ghanaian case shows that at least some African countries are making progress down that path, if still slowly. Improving the potential for spillovers requires deep efforts in building supply-side capacity (most of which are not related directly to mining). But it also requires an active, collaborative sectoral strategy, combined with a credible and efficient regulatory approach. In chapter 6, we explore spillovers in the agribusiness sector. Investment in the agribusiness value chain offers a significant opportunity to raise productivity levels by adopting new knowledge, technology, and techniques, from farming through processing and manufacturing. Overall, the level supply chain, labor market, and other network linkages between foreign investors and local economies are relatively higher in agriculture than in other value chains, a situation driven by the fundamental requirement of sourcing domestic agricultural inputs. Yet significant differences exist across countries, particularly in the processing and manufacturing stages of the chain. Here, SSA countries appear to have less well-established linkages than is the case in Vietnam, determined mainly by having smaller and less sophisticated domestic firms as well as fewer commercialscale farms. The increasing importance of global standards and certification appears to be a major catalyst for supporting knowledge transfer between foreign firms and domestic actors. Efforts to promote spillovers, particularly through input provision, financing, and technical support, are widespread throughout most countries. These include efforts driven by governments, foreign investors, and multiple stakeholders; many good sector-specific approaches seem to be available. However, their sustainability is less certain, underscoring the importance of complementary and cross-cutting policies to improve skills and address supply-side constraints to competitiveness in the sector. Chapter 7 assesses the experience of linkages and spillovers in the SSA apparel sector. In the early 2000s, the introduction of the African Growth and Opportunity Act, combined with the Multi-Fibre Arrangement quotas, contributed to a boom in FDI in the African apparel sector, leading to major growth in production, exports, and jobs. The additional possibility of exploiting the spillover potential of this FDI raised significant hopes of developing a locally embedded, competitive SSA apparel export industry. Yet more than a decade later, there has been very little progress in reaching this objective, outside of Mauritius (and South Africa, where FDI did not play a major role). Despite significant investments to attract FDI through building export processing zones and offering fiscal incentives, virtually no locally owned apparel firms are exporting or subcontracting, domestic value added remains low, local participation in management is limited, and domestic suppliers are almost absent in core and even most noncore inputs. This case study explores the level and nature of spillovers, and the factors constraining them, in three of the leading SSA apparelexporting countries Kenya, Lesotho, and Swaziland. We find in all three countries FDI strategies that severely limit spillover potential from the start,

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