WINERY WASTEWATER TREATMENT***

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1 WINERY WASTEWATER TREATMENT*** by Edwin Haynes*, George Stevens*, and Paul Russell, Jr.** INTRODUCTION In 1969 experience with treatment of winery wastewaters in this Country was limited to one winery utilizing aerated lagoons. In California, where the soils and climate are suitable, irrigation and ponding of the wastewaters is used for disposal. In the midwest and eastern areas of the United States, where this technique is not feasible due to climatological hinderances, other techniques must be employed. In 1969 were faced with the problem of providing a very high degree of treatment (96 to 99 percent BOD 5 removal) of their wastewater. Research into literature references failed to reveal any reliable experience to draw upon. Data on treatment of similar industrial wastewaters provided the only basis for planning and design of a suitable Water Pollution Control Plant. The preliminary proposal for this project included a longterm activated sludge system followed by tertiary sand filter. This system was designed to remove 98% of the BOD 5 from the winery wastewaters. This proposal was accepted by the Widmer's Wine Cellars, Inc. and, with the assistance of a Demonstration Grant from the Environmental Protection Agency, Widmer's undertook construction of the proposed Water Pollution Control Facilities. These facilities were placed in operation in late *Widmer's Wine Cellars, Inc, Naples, New York **Harnish & Lookup, Associates, Newark, New York ***This project was supported by funds from the Environmental Protection Agency, Project No EUZ 311

2 is located in the Finger Lakes Area of New York State. This area is characterized by steep hills separated by five lakes, all located in a general northsouth axis as shown in Figure 1. The climate of this area favors the growth of the characteristic hardy New York State grapes, including principally Concord, Catawba, Niagara, Delaware, Elvira, and Ives. It is said that the frequently severe winters combine with the temperate summer weather to give the New York State wines a very select characteristic flavor. GENERAL WASTE CHARACTERISTICS During the fall months, beginning in the middle of September, for a period of four to six weeks, the grapes are harvested and brought to the winery from the vineyards in the valleys and hillsides of the Finger Lakes Area. At the winery the grapes are pressed into juice and stored for later fermentation. During the 1971 pressing season the winery wastewater characteristics were as shown in Table 1 and Figures 2, 3, and 4. Table Pressing Season Wastewater Characteristics BOD 5 Concentration* BOD 5 Discharge Suspended Solids Daily Flow ph BOD 5 Discharge* Daily Flow* 1010 mg/l 1345 lb/day 150 mg/l 0.16 mgd pounds per ton of grapes pressed 1420 gallons per ton of grapes pressed *90th Percentile Data In the processing season, when grape juice is fermented into wine and packaged for shipment, the wastewaters have somewhat different characteristics and at Widmer's have been found to be generally as shown in Table

3 FIGURE 1 NEW YORK STATE FINGER LAKES AREA 313

4 Figure 2 BOD 5 CONCENTRATION PRESSING SEASON WASTEWATER 314

5 Figure 3 WASTEWATER FLOW PRESSING SEASON WASTEWATERS 315

6 Figure 4 BOD 5 DISCHARGE PRESSING SEASON WASTEWATER 316

7 Table 2. Processing Season Wastewater Characteristics BOD 5 Concentration* 1370 mg/l BOD 5 Discharge* 0.57 pounds per case of wine Daily Flow* 80,000 gallons per day ph *90th Percentile Data TREATMENT PLANT REQUIREMENTS In New York State treatment requirements for any water pollution control plant are determined by the ability of the proposed receiving stream to assimilate the effluent discharge to it without contravening standards established for that stream. The streams in New York State have been classified according to their "best usage". The receiving stream at the Widmer Project is a tributary to Naples Creek, which is well known in New York State as one of the best fresh water trout streams in the area. Annually, in the spring, lake trout leave Canandaigua Lake and migrate upstream to spawn. Oxygen levels in the stream must be maintained at 4.0 mg/l to support the trout fish life. The tributary to the trout stream is a small intermittent stream with no flow during the critical warm summer months. Consequently, the effluent discharge to the tributary constitutes the entire stream flow during these critical periods. The operating permit conditions established by the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation for the Widmer's Water Pollution Control Plant are as shown in Table 3. Table 3. Effluent Limitations Water Pollution Control Plant BOD 5 Concentration 60 mg/l Suspended Solids Concentration 5 mg/l 317

8 At Widmer's the Water Pollution Control Project included construction of an Interceptor Sewer and a Water Pollution Control Plant. The Interceptor Sewer was constructed parallel to the drainage ditch to intercept all the existing wastewater discharges. The Interceptor Sewer conveys the winery wastewaters to the Water Pollution Control Plant located near the processing plant. All domestic wastes at Widmer's are disposed of utilizing septic tank and leach field facilities. The Water Pollution Control Plant includes an entrance structure, aeration units, final clarifiers, tertiary sand filter, and an aerobic digester, as shown schematically on Figure 5. Entrance Structure The entrance structure includes a parshall flume with a flow meter recorder, a sludge transfer pump, and wastewater conditioning facilities. The parshall flume and flow meter recorder allow the operator to determine the pattern of wastewater flow as well as the total flow into the plant. The sludge transfer pump is a plunger type of pump used to transfer digested sludge from the digester to a tank truck for disposal in the vineyards. The wastewater conditioning facilities include three chemical feed pumps. ph control is accomplished using a ph probe which monitors the ph of the wastewater leaving the entrance structure. The probe signals a controller which combines it with the flow meter signal and automatically adjusts the feed rate of the caustic soda. Caustic soda is metered into the wastewater flow as required to maintain a ph of the raw wastewater above 7.0. Nutrients required for the biological treatment system are provided by the addition of ammonia water and phosphoric acid. Chemical feed pumps are used to pump these chemicals into the wastewater stream at a rate directly proportional to the influent wastewater flow. A flow signal is received from the recording flow meter and used to control the proportion of the nutrient materials fed by the pump. By manually adjusting the proportioner control, the flow signal can be amplified or reduced to control the nutrient feed rate. Aeration Units There are four aeration units which can be operated in parallel or in series at this plant. Aeration units 1 and 2 are 64 feet in diameter with a 10 foot liquid depth, each providing a volume of 120,000 gallons. Aeration units 3 and 4 are 76 feet in diameter and 10 feet deep, each providing a total volume of 192,000 gallons. All aeration units are constructed as earthen lagoons and equipped with two-speed 10 hp mechanical surface aerators. The detention time in the aeration units can be varied from approximately two to eight days (at 0.12 mgd wastewater flow). 318

9 Figure 5 WASTEWATER PROCESS FLOW SCHEMATIC WATER POLLUTION CONTROL PLANT 319

10 Clarifiers Clarification is accomplished using two 16 foot diameter units with a 7 foot liquid depth. These units provide 2.81 hours detention of the design average flow during pressing season (0.12 mgd). Each clarifier is equipped with rapid sludge removal equipment in an effort to minimize the detention time of the sludge in the clarifier. Tertiary Filter The tertiary filter includes two sand beds, each with an area of 67.5 square feet. Figure 6 shows a schematic diagram of the tertiary sand filter. The sand filter beds are very similar to rapid sand filters used in water treatment plants. The filters are located in the Filter Building along with sludge recycle pumps that are used to return the settled sludge to the entrance structure where it combines with the influent wastewater flow. Aerobic Digester The aerobic digester is 60 foot in diameter with a 10 foot liquid depth constructed as an earthen pond. One two-speed 10 hp mechanical surface aerator is installed to provide the required oxygen for the digestion process. Laboratory New Laboratory equipment has been purchased and a laboratory constructed adjacent to the existing wine laboratory. CONSTRUCTION COST The cost for construction of the Water Pollution Control Facilities is shown in Table 4. Table 4. Construction Cost Water Pollution Control Facilities interceptor Sewer $ 33, Plant Equipment 94, General Plant Construction 280, Electrical Construction 38, Total Construction Cost $ 445,

11 Figure 6 TERTIARY SAND FILTER 321

12 PLANT PERFORMANCE After placing the Plant in operation and stabilizing the biological process, the data developed indicated performance generally as anticipated. Table 5 shows 90th percentile data on plant performance. Table 5. Plant Performance Water Pollution Control Plant PRESSING SEASON Influent Effluent Removal COD 1320 mg/l 100 mg/l 92.5% BOD mg/l 40 mg/l 96 % Suspended Solids mg/l PROCESSING SEASON Influent Effluent Removal COD 1730 mg/l 60 mg/l 96% BOD mg/l 33 mg/l 98% Suspended Solids mg/l

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