Oceans and sea level. Steve Rintoul. On behalf of the authors of Chapters 3 and 13 of IPCC AR5. Yann Arthus-Bertrand / Altitude

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1 Oceans and sea level Steve Rintoul On behalf of the authors of Chapters 3 and 13 of IPCC AR5 Yann Arthus-Bertrand / Altitude

2 The oceans have warmed m temperature trend, Zonal average

3 Change in ocean heat content

4 Ocean warming accounts for 93% of the extra heat stored since % warming land 3% melting of ice (glaciers, ice sheets) 1% warming atmosphere

5 Global mean sea level increased by 0.19 m between 1901 and : 1.7 mm/yr : 3.2 mm/yr

6 Rate of sea level rise increased in the late 19 th /early 20 th century

7 In the well measured time period , global mean sea level is consistent with the sum of observed contributions (high confidence). Ocean warming: 38% Changes in glaciers: 28% Greenland ice sheet: 10% Antarctic ice sheet: 10% Land water storage 14% Contribution to sea level rise in year TS Figure 3

8 Increase in extreme high sea level events largely due to rise in mean sea level. Height of a 50-year flood event: mean rise included Height of 50-year flood event: mean rise excluded

9 Ocean rain gauge shows enhancement of water cycle

10 Oceans have absorbed 30% of anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions

11 Uptake of anthropogenic CO 2 has caused ocean acidification.

12 Tropical oxygen minimum zones have likely expanded.

13 Multiple lines of robust and compelling evidence support the conclusion that many aspects of the climate system have changed.

14 Changes in relative to

15 Projections of ocean acidification

16 Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation will very likely weaken over the 21 st century

17 Sea level rise of 0.52 to 0.98 m by 2100, under the high emissions scenario.

18 Sea level rise beyond 2100 It is virtually certain that global mean sea level rise will continue for many centuries beyond Medium confidence that GMSL rise by 2300 will be less than 1 m for a radiative forcing corresponding to CO 2 concentrations below 500 ppm, but 1 to more than 3 m for ppm. Larger sea level rise could result from sustained mass loss by ice sheets, and some part of the mass loss might be irreversible. Sustained warming greater than a certain threshold above preindustrial would lead to the near-complete loss of the Greenland ice sheet (high confidence). The threshold is estimated to be greater than 1 C but less than 4 C global mean warming with respect to preindustrial.

19 Recent climate trends : 0.05 [-0.05 to +0.15] ºC per decade : 0.07 [-0.02 to +0.18] ºC per decade : 0.14 [+0.03 to +0.24] ºC per decade : 0.13 [+0.02 to +0.24] ºC per decade

20 The ocean has continued to warm after out of 5 ocean heat content (0-700 m) data sets show slower warming after 2003 Ocean warming below 700 m continues unabated (but data are sparse).

21 Recent climate trends : Natural climate variability (e.g. ENSO) has a strong influence on surface temperature. Trends calculated over short (10-15 year) periods are not representative of longer-term climate trends. The ocean has continued to warm. Less energy has reached the surface due to volcanic eruptions and a declining phase of the solar cycle.

22 Summary Observations show clear evidence of change in the ocean (warming, sea level rise, change in salinity, acidification, change in oxygen). Many of these changes have been attributed to human influence (see Nathan Bindoff s talk). Further change is inevitable, including a multi-century commitment to further sea level rise.

23 Further Information Yann Arthus-Bertrand / Altitude

24 Short records of ocean circulation show wind-driven variability but little evidence of long-term trends.

25 No trend observed in the Atlantic Meridional Overturning.

26 Summary of observed ocean changes.

27 Past and future sea level rise

28 Sea level rose as rapidly between 1925 and 1945 as in recent decades.

29 Ocean heat uptake and climate sensitivity

30 Future needs

31

32 Evolution of the ocean temperature observing system.

33 Evolution of the ocean temperature observing system.

34

35 Projection for under RCP4.5 Data from Table 13.5 For a given scenario, the largest increase compared with AR4 is from the inclusion of rapid changes in Greenland and Antarctic ice-sheet outflow.

36 Commitment to sea level rise and irreversibility It is virtually certain that global mean sea level rise will continue for many centuries beyond 2100, with the amount of rise dependent on future emissions. Medium confidence that GMSL rise by 2300 will be less than 1 m for a radiative forcing corresponding to CO 2 concentrations below 500 ppm, but 1 to more than 3 m for ppm. Larger sea level rise could result from sustained mass loss by ice sheets, and some part of the mass loss might be irreversible. Sustained warming greater than a certain threshold above preindustrial would lead to the near-complete loss of the Greenland ice sheet (high confidence). The threshold is estimated to be greater than 1 C but less than 4 C global mean warming with respect to preindustrial.

37 Headlines of AR5 Warming is unequivocal. Many observed changes are unprecedented on timescales of decades or millenia. Human influence on climate is clear. Climate will continue to change in future. Limiting climate change will require substantial and sustained reductions in emissions.

38 Arctic summer sea ice extent has decreased.

39 Atmospheric CO 2 increased since 1750 by about 40% Slope 1.9 ppm/yr

40

41 Atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations have increased by 40% since pre-industrial times, to levels unprecedented in at least 800,000 years.

42 Global mean surface temperatures increased by 0.89ºC between 1901 and 2012.

43 Each of the last three decades has been warmer than any previous decade since 1850.

44 Almost the entire globe warmed, 1901 to 2012.

45 Australians contributing to IPCC Working Group I: The Physical Science Basis 4 Coordinating Lead Authors 7 Lead Authors

46 Annual mean Arctic summer sea ice extent decreased very likely with a rate of % per decade in decrease was most rapid in summer (high confidence) start of satellite data SPM Figure 2b Data normalized to the satellite measured sea ice extent in 1979

47 Upper Ocean Heat Content It is virtually certain that global average upper ocean heat content (0-700m depth) increased. Rate: 17 [15-19]10 22 J in SPM Figure 2c Sparse data before the 1970s lead to higher uncertainties Temperature observations made with different instruments drifting profilers (Argo) since the 2000s. Essentially the same observations are generally used for all five records, but different methods to fill data gaps are applied

48 Global mean sea level has risen by 0.19 m ( ) SPM Figure 2d Sea level from different tide gauge reconstructions and since 1992 from satellite altimetry (red) Shaded: uncertainties are one standard error as reported in the publications, smallest for altimeter data

49 Monthly mean CO 2 concentrations from Mauna Loa, Hawaii (red) and South Pole (black) SPM Figure 3a Local measurements, uncertainty small, not visible on this plot

50 The ph of ocean surface water has very likely decreased by about 0.1, corresponding to a 26% increase in hydrogen ion concentration SPM Figure 3b acidification 12-months running mean of measurements at fixed locations Measurement error small against variability, thus not shown Long time series from ocean stations in Atlantic and Pacific, between 23 N and 32 N.

51 It is as likely as not that ocean heat content from m increased more slowly during than over the preceding decade while ocean heat uptake from m likely continued unabated atmospheric rate of warming smaller than since

52 Earth climate system is out of balance: the climate system is accumulating more energy, with the ocean energy uptake dominating The atmospheric CO 2 concentration increased by human activities, ocean uptake of 30% : ocean is acidifying SPM, Figure 2 SPM Figure 3

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