Analyzer Selection USING THE ORIENTATION TABLE

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Analyzer Selection USING THE ORIENTATION TABLE"

Transcription

1 Analyzer Selection Selecting the right analyzer for a particular application requires that we follow a sequence of logical steps: 1.Clearly defining the purpose of the analyzer. 2.Determining if a continuous on-line analyzer is needed or an intermittent, grab sample based, laboratory analysis is sufficient. 3.For on-line units, the next step is to determine if the instrument can be removed for calibration or if automatic, on-line selfcalibration is needed. It is also desirable to resolve if the re-calibration should be triggered by self-diagnostics, operator initiation or time? 4.The next step is to determine if inline or off-line installation is needed? 5.If a probe type design is selected, should it be provided with means for self cleaning? 6.If a sampling system is to be used, what types of accessories are required for filtering, etc.? 7.Only after an in depth review of these questions, should the process control engineer decide on the type of analyzer to be used and on the types of accessories to be utilized. In order to quickly identify the types of analyzers to consider the use of an Orientation Table, such as the one below is useful. 8.Only after these steps should the specifications be prepared and sent out for competitive bidding. For the purpose of specification, one can use the analyzer specification form prepared by ISA (20A1001). 9. Once the bids are analyzed and the vendor is selected, the preparation of the installation drawings can start and the communication between the analyzer and its workstation or remote displays and/or controllers can be resolved. 10. The last step comes after installation and check-out, when the maintenance specifications are prepared. It is not uncommon to revise the specifications or the selection during the design phase when/if new information is obtained. This is normal and is a sign of good engineering, while the need to make changes after start-up is not. USING THE ORIENTATION TABLE This table should help to get oriented concerning the available options for a particular application. The ORIENTATION TABLE lists over a hundred components and some 28 analyzer categories. It indicates (by check marks), the analyzer types, which can detect the concentration of the component of interest. Once the suitable analyzer types been identified, the reader can consider their relative costs, inaccuracies, advantages and disadvantages. This information is provided on the front pages of the corresponding chapters in mt Instrument and Automation Engineers Handbook (IEAH), while the body of the chapters provides the detailed description of the particular analyzer.

2 ORIENTATION TABLE FOR ANALYZER SELECTION SUITED FOR THE Acetaldehyde Acetic Anhydride Acetone Acid in Water Acrylonitrile Alcohol in Water Aldehydes Alcalinity of Water Alkyl Chloride Aluminum Amines, ppm Ammonia Ammonium in Water Aniline Argon Aromatics Benzene Brine Bromide Bromine 1 For the proper operation of probe type analyzers, it is essential to keep them clean. For the available types of probe cleaner designs and their suppliers, refer to the IAEH.

3 SUITED FOR THE Butane Butadiene Cadmium Caffeine Calcium Carbon Disulfide Carbon Dioxide 2 A very wide range of materials can be analyzed by chromatgraphy. In that regard, the listing in this tabulatoin is rather incomplete, because while practically all materials listed could be so analyzed, economics usually limits the number of it s applications. 3 This category includes battery operated gas diffusion sensors, amperometric, (also referred to as galvanometric or polarographic), potentiometric and coulometric detectors., 4 This category includes UV and atomic fluorescent sensors. 5 This category of analyzers includes Raman, near infrared (NIR), non-dispersive infrared (NDIR),fourier transform infrared (FTIR), microwave and radio frequency type sensors. 6 TDLAS = Tunable Diode Laser Absorption 7 Includes neutron backscatter and NMR ( Nuclear Magnetic Resonance) 8 These are basically potentiometric sensors. ORP is the abbreviation of oxidation-reduction potential and ISE stand for ion-selective electrode. ph is also an ISE, which is sensitive to the activity of the hydrogen ion. 9 Crystal oscillator design 10 The refractiv indexes (RI) of a number or compounds are given in the IAEH. 11 Includes both thermal conductivity detectors (TCD) and heat of adsorption sensors. 12 Includes photometric and light reflection sensors. For a complete list of compounds that are absorbing within the range of UV and visible wavelengths, refer to the IAEH. 13 Includes chemiluminescence and titration type sensors. In case of an auto-titrator, the end point may be determined potentiometrically, conductimetrically, or photometrically.

4 SUITED FOR THE Carbon Monoxide Carbon Tetrachloride Caustic Chloride Ion Chlorine Chlorine Residual Chloroform Chromium in Water COD (Chem. O2 Dem.) Color Combustibles Copper in Water Cyanide in Water Cyclohexane Divalent Ions in Water Diolefin vapors Elements(all incl. Metals) Ethane Ethanol Ethyl Chloride &Bromide Ethylbenzene Ethylene Ethylene Glycol Ethylene Oxide

5 SUITED FOR THE Fluoride Freon Furfural Glycerine & Salt in Water Hardness (Water) Hazardous Gases Helium Hexane Hexavalent Chromium Humidity Hydrocarbons Hydrazine in Water Hydrocarbon in Air Hydrogen in Air or Steam Hydrogen Impurities Hydrogen Chloride, Bromide, Cyanide Hydrogen Sulfide Iodide Ions in Water Iron in Water Isobutane Isoprene Leads

6 SUITED FOR THE Lead Ions in Water Mercury in Air Mercury in Water Methane Methanol in Water Methyl Bromide,Chloride Methylene Chloride Moisture in Gases Moisture in Liquids Moisture in Solids 14 Nitrates in Water Nitric Acid in Water Nitric Oxide in Air Nitrogen Compounds Nitrogen Dioxide Nitrogen Oxide, Peroxide Nitrous Fumes Octane of Gazoline Oil in or on Water Olefins Oxygen in Water 15 (DO) 14 Analyzers using IR and NIR, microwave, Rf, neutron, capacitance, impedance, and electrical resistance techniques are applicable to the measurement of moisture in both solids and liquids.

7 SUITED FOR THE Oxygen in Gases Ozone in Gas Ozone in Water Particulates Phenol in Water Phosgene in Air Phosgene in Water Phosphoric Acid in Water Phosphate in Water Polymer-solvent Mix. Potassium in Water Propane Proteins Silicon in Paper Sodium Hydroxide in Water Sodium Ions in Water Solids (in Capsup, etc.) Steam in Air Sugar in Juice, Jam, Syrup 15 Also includes the measurement of biological, chemical and total oxygen demands (BOD, COD, and TOD). Total organic carbon (TOC) measurements give closely correlateable results to COD readings.

8 SUITED FOR THE Sulfates Sulfur in Oil Sulfur Dioxide Trioxide Sulfuric Acid Toluene in Hydrocarbons Total Carbon Total Nitrogen Toxic Gases Vinyl Chloride Xylenes in Hydrocrbons Naturally, because of space constraints, not all compounds of interest are listed in this table and not all categories and subcategories of analyzer types are separated into individual columns. For example, practically all substances can be analyzed by chromatography, but the cost of using chromatographs is so high that in most cases one would select a less expensive analyzer, which can also do the job. Similarly, in some columns I have combined several analyzer subcategories. For example under Electrochemical Analyzers I have included amperometric, coulometric, galvanometric, polarogrphic and potentiometric designs. Similarly, under Fluorescence I included a number of wavelengths (not only UV) and under Infrared I also included microwave, NDIR and other wavelengths. Similarly under Infrared I also included microwave, NDIR, and RF wavelengths, under Ultraviolet I also included photometric or light reflection designs or under Wet Chemistry I also included titration and chemicuminescence systems. In short, this Orientation Table is not as detailed or as complete as it could be, but it is more complete than any such table I have seen to date.

INCOMPATIBILITY OF COMMON LABORATORY CHEMICALS

INCOMPATIBILITY OF COMMON LABORATORY CHEMICALS INCOMPATIBILITY OF COMMON LABORATORY CHEMICALS When certain hazardous chemicals are stored or mixed together, violent reactions may occur because the chemicals are unsuitable for mixing, or are incompatible.

More information

Draeger-Tubes and accuro Pump

Draeger-Tubes and accuro Pump Draeger-Tubes and accuro Pump Trusted Technology that s ahead of its time Accurate Easy to read Flexible Fast Specific Easy to use Maintenance free Multi-Gas Detector accuro pump One handed operation What

More information

Examples of Incompatible Chemicals

Examples of Incompatible Chemicals Examples of Incompatible Chemicals Chemical Acetic Acid Acetylene Acetone Alkali & Alkaline earth metals Aluminum, magnesium, Calcium, lithium, sodium, potassium Ammonia (anhydrous) Ammonium nitrate Aniline

More information

ABB Multiwave TM process photometers. ABB Analytical - PUV3402, PIR3502 and PFO3372 process photometers Applications, technology and data

ABB Multiwave TM process photometers. ABB Analytical - PUV3402, PIR3502 and PFO3372 process photometers Applications, technology and data ABB Multiwave TM process photometers ABB Analytical - PUV3402, PIR3502 and PFO3372 process photometers Applications, technology and data Process photometers PUV3402 and PIR3502 Principle of operation The

More information

PRODUCT DATA SHEET PDS A115_E. Metric thread M 1.5 pitch CEI EN 60423 CEI EN 50262

PRODUCT DATA SHEET PDS A115_E. Metric thread M 1.5 pitch CEI EN 60423 CEI EN 50262 reduced cable entry Metric thread M 1.5 pitch CEI EN 60423 CEI EN 50262 Ref. P Fixing A B C L Light Hole min-max Spanner min-max Quantity Grey (mm) (mm) (mm) (mm) (mm) 1900S.M16N M16x1,5 16,5 6-9,5 19

More information

Liquid Flow Conversions

Liquid Flow Conversions Liquid Flow Conversions This bulletin provides valuable information for converting liquid flows from water to other liquids. This is extremely useful because many valves are tested and catalogued in water

More information

Hazard Warning Signage Guidelines

Hazard Warning Signage Guidelines Fire Department 401 Oak Street, #402 Roseville, California 95678-2649 Hazard Warning Signage Guidelines Where hazardous materials are stored in quantities that require a permit pursuant to CFC Table 105.6.20,

More information

Proper chemical storage is required to minimize the hazards associated leaks, spills, and accidental mixing of incompatible chemicals.

Proper chemical storage is required to minimize the hazards associated leaks, spills, and accidental mixing of incompatible chemicals. CHEMICAL STORAGE Proper chemical storage is required to minimize the hazards associated leaks, spills, and accidental mixing of incompatible chemicals. General Storage Guidelines Observe the following

More information

PRODUCT DATA SHEET PDS A17_E

PRODUCT DATA SHEET PDS A17_E Multi-entry seal plugs Ref. A L Suitable Quantity for Box/Bag Seal (mm) (mm) TGM38 36A3M1623 3 8 5.000/100 TGM48 36A3M1624 + 36A3M2034 + 36A3M2554 4 8 5.000/100 TGM58 36A3M2025 5 8 5.000/100 TGM513 36A3M2545

More information

Temple College Compliance with the Environmental Protection Agency Requirements

Temple College Compliance with the Environmental Protection Agency Requirements Temple College Compliance with the Environmental Protection Agency Requirements Background: Temple College is subject to the Federal EPA regulations and procedures in regard to chemical usage, safety and

More information

MEASURING INSTRUMENTS - STRUMENTI PER MISURARE

MEASURING INSTRUMENTS - STRUMENTI PER MISURARE MEASURING INSTRUMENTS - STRUMENTI PER MISURARE CORROSION DATA GUIDE CORROSION DATA GUIDE This guide was developed from general corrosion literature, standard references and field experiences. Recommendations

More information

Chapter 1: Moles and equations. Learning outcomes. you should be able to:

Chapter 1: Moles and equations. Learning outcomes. you should be able to: Chapter 1: Moles and equations 1 Learning outcomes you should be able to: define and use the terms: relative atomic mass, isotopic mass and formula mass based on the 12 C scale perform calculations, including

More information

Standard methods in water analysis

Standard methods in water analysis Branch General analytical laboratories; water analysis Keywords Water analysis; standard methods; ASTM; DIN; ISO; USP; EPA; SLMB; EN; SCA; titration; ion chromatography; voltammetry; branch 1; branch 2

More information

HOMEWORK 4A. Definitions. Oxidation-Reduction Reactions. Questions

HOMEWORK 4A. Definitions. Oxidation-Reduction Reactions. Questions HOMEWORK 4A Oxidation-Reduction Reactions 1. Indicate whether a reaction will occur or not in each of following. Wtiring a balcnced equation is not necessary. (a) Magnesium metal is added to hydrochloric

More information

ATM lighting EXPLOSIONPROOF CONSTRUCTION TYPES. Construction Symbol Standard Application. flameproof Ex d IEC 60079-1 switchgear, motors, transformers

ATM lighting EXPLOSIONPROOF CONSTRUCTION TYPES. Construction Symbol Standard Application. flameproof Ex d IEC 60079-1 switchgear, motors, transformers EXPLOSIONPROOF CONSTRUCTION TYPES Construction Symbol Standard Application flameproof Ex d IEC 60079-1 switchgear, motors, transformers strengthened Ex e IEC 60079-7 light fittings, measuring instruments,

More information

Unit 3 Notepack Chapter 7 Chemical Quantities Qualifier for Test

Unit 3 Notepack Chapter 7 Chemical Quantities Qualifier for Test Unit 3 Notepack Chapter 7 Chemical Quantities Qualifier for Test NAME Section 7.1 The Mole: A Measurement of Matter A. What is a mole? 1. Chemistry is a quantitative science. What does this term mean?

More information

Guidance on Safe Storage of Chemicals in Laboratories

Guidance on Safe Storage of Chemicals in Laboratories Safety Office Reviewed: 17 July 2012 Reviewed: DD Month Year Guidance on Safe Storage of Chemicals in Laboratories The purpose of this document is to explain the principles of safe chemical storage in

More information

Incompatible chemicals

Incompatible chemicals Incompatible Chemicals A wide variety of chemicals react dangerously when mixed with certain other materials. Some of the more widely-used incompatible chemicals are given below, but the absence of a chemical

More information

CHEMICAL EQUATIONS and REACTION TYPES

CHEMICAL EQUATIONS and REACTION TYPES 31 CHEMICAL EQUATIONS and REACTION TYPES The purpose of this laboratory exercise is to develop skills in writing and balancing chemical equations. The relevance of this exercise is illustrated by a series

More information

IB Chemistry. DP Chemistry Review

IB Chemistry. DP Chemistry Review DP Chemistry Review Topic 1: Quantitative chemistry 1.1 The mole concept and Avogadro s constant Assessment statement Apply the mole concept to substances. Determine the number of particles and the amount

More information

9. The molar mass of hydrazine is 32 g/mol and its empirical formula is NH 2. What is its molecular formula?

9. The molar mass of hydrazine is 32 g/mol and its empirical formula is NH 2. What is its molecular formula? Dr. Rogers Solutions Homework 1. Give the name for the following compounds and state whether they are ionic or not A. Ba(NO 3 ) 2 B. NaH C. PCl 5 D. CO E. NH 4 OH F. Ca(MnO 4 ) 2 G. N 2 O 4 H. NaHSO 4

More information

Fluid & Gas Properties

Fluid & Gas Properties Fluid & Gas Properties FLUID DENSITY Density is the ratio of mass to volume. In English, units density is expressed in pounds mass/cubic foot (lbm/ft 3 ). The symbol for density is ρ. Density is usually

More information

Guidance Note: Chemical Storage

Guidance Note: Chemical Storage Department of Environmental Health and Safety Guidance Note: Chemical Storage The proper segregation and storage of chemicals is important in the laboratory because the accidental mixing of incompatible

More information

Annex to the Accreditation Certificate D PL 17640 01 00 according to DIN EN ISO/IEC 17025:2005

Annex to the Accreditation Certificate D PL 17640 01 00 according to DIN EN ISO/IEC 17025:2005 Deutsche Akkreditierungsstelle GmbH Annex to the Accreditation Certificate D PL 17640 01 00 according to DIN EN ISO/IEC 17025:2005 Period of validity: 05.06.2015 to 04.11.2018 Holder of certificate: Haltermann

More information

Benzene technically pure

Benzene technically pure cetaldehyde technically pure 20 - - - cetic acid technically pure, glacial 20 0 0 0 ceton technically pure 20 - - - crylic acid methyl ester technically pure 20 - - - dipic acid saturated aqueous llyl

More information

SCH 4C1 Unit 2 Problem Set Questions taken from Frank Mustoe et all, "Chemistry 11", McGraw-Hill Ryerson, 2001

SCH 4C1 Unit 2 Problem Set Questions taken from Frank Mustoe et all, Chemistry 11, McGraw-Hill Ryerson, 2001 SCH 4C1 Unit 2 Problem Set Questions taken from Frank Mustoe et all, "Chemistry 11", McGraw-Hill Ryerson, 2001 1. A small pin contains 0.0178 mol of iron. How many atoms of iron are in the pin? 2. A sample

More information

General Chemical Resistance of PET - Products

General Chemical Resistance of PET - Products General Chemical Resistance of PET - Products The below data reflect the information available to the PET producers members of PlasticsEurope. They should not be construed as implying a legal guarantee

More information

Chemical resistance of Polyester to common products like Acetic acid, Diesel oil and more

Chemical resistance of Polyester to common products like Acetic acid, Diesel oil and more Polyester - Chemical Resistance Chemical resistance of Polyester to common products like Acetic acid, Diesel oil and more Polyester resins combine excellent mechanical, electrical and thermal properties

More information

Unit 9 Stoichiometry Notes (The Mole Continues)

Unit 9 Stoichiometry Notes (The Mole Continues) Unit 9 Stoichiometry Notes (The Mole Continues) is a big word for a process that chemist s use to calculate amounts in reactions. It makes use of the coefficient ratio set up by balanced reaction equations

More information

MERIDIAN UNIVERSAL GAS DETECTOR TECHNICAL DATA PACKAGE

MERIDIAN UNIVERSAL GAS DETECTOR TECHNICAL DATA PACKAGE MERIDIAN UNIVERSAL GAS DETECTOR TECHNICAL DATA PACKAGE Table of Contents 1 Meridian Overview 2 Meridian Specifications 4 Supported Gases 5 Multi Sensor Configurations 6 Technical Drawings 16 Accessories

More information

Royal Edge Re-Flex TPO Chemical Resistance Guide

Royal Edge Re-Flex TPO Chemical Resistance Guide While it is difficult to foresee all chemicals, chemical combinations, and environments to which RPI Royal Edge TPO Roofing Membrane may be subjected, the following information is suggested to help guide

More information

(3)

(3) 1. Organic compounds are often identified by using more than one analytical technique. Some of these techniques were used to identify the compounds in the following reactions. C 3 H 7 Br C 3 H 8 O C 3

More information

Formulae, Equations & Formula Mass

Formulae, Equations & Formula Mass St Peter the Apostle High School Chemistry Department Formulae, Equations & Formula Mass N4 & N5 Homework Questions Answer questions as directed by your teacher. National 4 level questions are first followed

More information

Tubing and Accessories Nylon 11 Tubing (Inch and Metric O.D.)

Tubing and Accessories Nylon 11 Tubing (Inch and Metric O.D.) Material Melting point Water absorption (ASTM D50).% Tensile strength at break (D638) Elongation at break (D638) Flexural modulus (D790) Nylon (Polyamide) 354 ± 4 (flame retardant rating UL94 HB) From

More information

Chapter 3. Stoichiometry: Ratios of Combination. Insert picture from First page of chapter. Copyright McGraw-Hill 2009 1

Chapter 3. Stoichiometry: Ratios of Combination. Insert picture from First page of chapter. Copyright McGraw-Hill 2009 1 Chapter 3 Insert picture from First page of chapter Stoichiometry: Ratios of Combination Copyright McGraw-Hill 2009 1 3.1 Molecular and Formula Masses Molecular mass - (molecular weight) The mass in amu

More information

WRITE IN THE CORRECT FORMULA THEN BALANCE THE CHEMICAL EQUATIONS

WRITE IN THE CORRECT FORMULA THEN BALANCE THE CHEMICAL EQUATIONS WRITE IN THE CORRECT FORMULA THEN BALANCE THE CHEMICAL EQUATIONS 1. Hydrogen Oxygen Water METALLIC OXIDE WATER BASE 2. Sodium oxide Water Sodium hydroxide 3. Calcium oxide Water Calcium hydroxide 4. Potassium

More information

Holcim EMR List of EN Standards and VDI Guidelines usable for Discontinuous Measurements in Cement Plants

Holcim EMR List of EN Standards and VDI Guidelines usable for Discontinuous Measurements in Cement Plants Holcim EMR List of EN Standards and VDI Guidelines usable for Discontinuous Measurements in Cement Plants Version 2004-01 / August 2004 (HGRS-JW-04-25s) HGRS-CTS/MT J. Waltisberg SUMMARY ( ) shall not

More information

Hazardous Chemical Reactions in Art

Hazardous Chemical Reactions in Art Hazardous Chemical Reactions in Art By Michael McCann, PhD, CIH Many art materials are inherently hazardous, including toxic solvents and many metals, corrosive and alkalis, flammable solvents and combustible

More information

Decomposition. Composition

Decomposition. Composition Decomposition 1. Solid ammonium carbonate is heated. 2. Solid calcium carbonate is heated. 3. Solid calcium sulfite is heated in a vacuum. Composition 1. Barium oxide is added to distilled water. 2. Phosphorus

More information

By Thomas K. Wray. They divide peroxidizable organic compounds into eight classes: Aldehydes. Ethers and acetals Dienes and vinyl acetylenes

By Thomas K. Wray. They divide peroxidizable organic compounds into eight classes: Aldehydes. Ethers and acetals Dienes and vinyl acetylenes DANGER: PEROXIDIZABLE CHEMICALS By Thomas K. Wray Many organic chemicals used in laboratory solutions and reagents can form potentially deadly peroxides - powerful oxidizing agents containing active oxygen

More information

JACKSON SAFETY* G80 Nitrile Chemical Resistant Gloves. Chemical Resistance Guide

JACKSON SAFETY* G80 Nitrile Chemical Resistant Gloves. Chemical Resistance Guide JACKSON SAFETY* G80 Nitrile Chemical Resistant Gloves Chemical Resistance Guide This guide presents the results of ASTM F739 standard permeation testing and degradation ratings for the JACKSON SAFETY *

More information

MOLES AND MOLE CALCULATIONS

MOLES AND MOLE CALCULATIONS 35 MOLES ND MOLE CLCULTIONS INTRODUCTION The purpose of this section is to present some methods for calculating both how much of each reactant is used in a chemical reaction, and how much of each product

More information

CHAPTER 3 COMPOUNDS AND MOLECULES

CHAPTER 3 COMPOUNDS AND MOLECULES Chapter 3 Compounds and Molecules Page 1 CHAPTER 3 COMPOUNDS AND MOLECULES 3-1. Octane, a component of gasoline, has eight carbon atoms and eighteen hydrogen atoms per molecule. Its formula is written

More information

Thermowells. and Fittings

Thermowells. and Fittings Thermowells 2011 Specifications Catalog and Fittings Threaded Regular Lagging s Weld-in Flanged Protection Tubes Projectile Sanitary Test Vanstone Union Connection Fittings PW1100 www.palmerwahl.com Continued

More information

Balancing chemical reaction equations (stoichiometry)

Balancing chemical reaction equations (stoichiometry) Balancing chemical reaction equations (stoichiometry) This worksheet and all related files are licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, version 1.0. To view a copy of this license, visit

More information

Technical Reference Bulletin Elastomer Compatibility Chart

Technical Reference Bulletin Elastomer Compatibility Chart ASTM D-2000 Classification Trade Names 1-Compatible 2-Minor Incompatibility 3-Severe Incompatibility 4-Not Recommended 0-Insufficient Data To Determine Compatibility Chemical Acetone Acetylene Aluminum

More information

Chemical Resistance Information Guide. KLEENGUARD* Brand Apparel

Chemical Resistance Information Guide. KLEENGUARD* Brand Apparel Chemical Resistance Information Guide KLEENGUARD* Brand Apparel Chemical Resistance Information Guide KLEENGUARD* Brand Apparel How to Use This Guide The chemical resistance test data is organized by chemical

More information

Balancing Chemical Equations Worksheet

Balancing Chemical Equations Worksheet Balancing Chemical Equations Worksheet Student Instructions 1. Identify the reactants and products and write a word equation. 2. Write the correct chemical formula for each of the reactants and the products.

More information

Diagnostic/Introductory Activity. Word Search

Diagnostic/Introductory Activity. Word Search Diagnostic/Introductory Activity Find any 10 of the first 20 elements. Word Search Q H Z S B N Q J B C N P K M A A M M O O A O E C H E H H U A T L R U X D R E V L G O N I D I O U E I Y I Z N O O S M L

More information

Problem Solving. Stoichiometry of Gases

Problem Solving. Stoichiometry of Gases Skills Worksheet Problem Solving Stoichiometry of Gases Now that you have worked with relationships among moles, mass, and volumes of gases, you can easily put these to work in stoichiometry calculations.

More information

Safe Storage of Chemicals

Safe Storage of Chemicals Safe Storage of Chemicals Proper storage of chemicals within a laboratory is a difficult and continuing problem. Some experts have stated that the majority of laboratory accidents are related to improper

More information

0.786 mol carbon dioxide to grams g lithium carbonate to mol

0.786 mol carbon dioxide to grams g lithium carbonate to mol 1 2 Convert: 2.54 x 10 22 atoms of Cr to mol 4.32 mol NaCl to grams 0.786 mol carbon dioxide to grams 2.67 g lithium carbonate to mol 1.000 atom of C 12 to grams 3 Convert: 2.54 x 10 22 atoms of Cr to

More information

PortaSens ll G AS DETECTOR

PortaSens ll G AS DETECTOR PortaSens ll G AS DETECTOR ONE DETECTOR... FOR MANY GASES! Sensors can be exchanged quickly and easily without the need for calibration. Sensors are maintained in ready condition in the optional sensor

More information

Technical Brief. Thermowell Materials Service Guide K EY C ONSIDERATIONS: Common Materials

Technical Brief. Thermowell Materials Service Guide K EY C ONSIDERATIONS: Common Materials Technical Brief K EY C ONSIDERATIONS: Operating Temperature Operating Environment Velocity & Pressure thermowell material is usually chosen based on the corrosion conditions the well will face. Thermowell

More information

London Examinations IGCSE

London Examinations IGCSE Centre No. Candidate No. Surname Signature Initial(s) Paper Reference(s) 4335/2H London Examinations IGCSE Chemistry Paper 2H Higher Tier Monday 9 May 2005 Morning Time: 2 hours Examiner s use only Team

More information

CONVERSION OF PID READINGS TO METHANE EQUIVALENT OR HEXANE EQUIVALENT FID RESPONSE

CONVERSION OF PID READINGS TO METHANE EQUIVALENT OR HEXANE EQUIVALENT FID RESPONSE CONVERSION OF READINGS TO METHANE EQUIVALENT OR HEXANE EQUIVALENT FID RESPONSE INTRODUCTION Many regulatory agencies request inventories of chemicals released to the air to be provided in units of methane

More information

W1 WORKSHOP ON STOICHIOMETRY

W1 WORKSHOP ON STOICHIOMETRY INTRODUCTION W1 WORKSHOP ON STOICHIOMETRY These notes and exercises are designed to introduce you to the basic concepts required to understand a chemical formula or equation. Relative atomic masses of

More information

WRITING CHEMICAL FORMULA

WRITING CHEMICAL FORMULA WRITING CHEMICAL FORMULA For ionic compounds, the chemical formula must be worked out. You will no longer have the list of ions in the exam (like at GCSE). Instead you must learn some and work out others.

More information

Problem Solving. Mole Concept

Problem Solving. Mole Concept Skills Worksheet Problem Solving Mole Concept Suppose you want to carry out a reaction that requires combining one atom of iron with one atom of sulfur. How much iron should you use? How much sulfur? When

More information

Plastic pipe clamp CLIC 8 64

Plastic pipe clamp CLIC 8 64 Plastic pipe clamp CLIC 8 64 Technical data sheet 1/2015 1 1. Product description The most efficient mounting system for pipes, cables and many other applications. Diameter dimensions ranging from 8 to

More information

The photoionization detector (PID) utilizes ultraviolet

The photoionization detector (PID) utilizes ultraviolet Chapter 6 Photoionization Detectors The photoionization detector (PID) utilizes ultraviolet light to ionize gas molecules, and is commonly employed in the detection of volatile organic compounds (VOCs).

More information

CALIFORNIA DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC HEALTH ENVIRONMENTAL LABORATORY ACCREDITATION PROGRAM Accredited Fields of Testing

CALIFORNIA DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC HEALTH ENVIRONMENTAL LABORATORY ACCREDITATION PROGRAM Accredited Fields of Testing CALIFORNIA DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC HEALTH ENVIRONMENTAL LABORATORY ACCREDITATION PROGRAM Accredited Fields of Testing Babcock Laboratories, Inc. 6100 Quail Valley Court Riverside, CA 92507 Phone: (951) 653-3351

More information

CHAPTER 7 THE DEHYDRATION AND SWEETENING OF NATURAL GAS

CHAPTER 7 THE DEHYDRATION AND SWEETENING OF NATURAL GAS CHAPTER 7 THE DEHYDRATION AND SWEETENING OF NATURAL GAS Natural gases either from natural production or storage reservoirs contain water, which condense and form solid gas hydrates to block pipeline flow

More information

P R O D U C T S P E C I F I C A T I O N MSA Ultima X Series Sensor/Transmitter Specification

P R O D U C T S P E C I F I C A T I O N MSA Ultima X Series Sensor/Transmitter Specification P R O D U C T S P E C I F I C A T I O N MSA Ultima X Series Sensor/Transmitter Specification 1.0 This specification details the attributes and operating characteristics of the MSA Ultima X Series sensors/transmitters.

More information

107-13-1 Acrylonitrile 1 53-96-3 2-Acetylaminofluorene 1 92-67-1 4-Aminodiphenyl 1 7440-38-2 Arsenic 1

107-13-1 Acrylonitrile 1 53-96-3 2-Acetylaminofluorene 1 92-67-1 4-Aminodiphenyl 1 7440-38-2 Arsenic 1 A hard copy of this document may not be the document currently in effect. The current version For concentrations less than 1 % (Wt.), the banned and restricted material requirements do not apply, except

More information

Chemistry Unit 7 Objectives Stoichiometry I By the time we finish this unit, you should be able to these:

Chemistry Unit 7 Objectives Stoichiometry I By the time we finish this unit, you should be able to these: Chemistry Unit 7 Objectives Stoichiometry I By the time we finish this unit, you should be able to these: 1. Review Concepts: a) Determine the molar mass of a substance and use it to convert between the

More information

Chapter 5 - Molecules and Compounds

Chapter 5 - Molecules and Compounds Chapter 5 - Molecules and Compounds How do we represent molecules? In pictures In formula In name Ionic compounds Molecular compounds On the course website, you will find a list of ions that I would like

More information

Chapter 16: Tests for ions and gases

Chapter 16: Tests for ions and gases The position of hydrogen in the reactivity series Hydrogen, although not a metal, is included in the reactivity series because it, like metals, can be displaced from aqueous solution, only this time the

More information

Writing and Balancing Chemical Equations

Writing and Balancing Chemical Equations Name Writing and Balancing Chemical Equations Period When a substance undergoes a chemical reaction, chemical bonds are broken and new bonds are formed. This results in one or more new substances, often

More information

Moles, Molecules, and Grams Worksheet Answer Key

Moles, Molecules, and Grams Worksheet Answer Key Moles, Molecules, and Grams Worksheet Answer Key 1) How many are there in 24 grams of FeF 3? 1.28 x 10 23 2) How many are there in 450 grams of Na 2 SO 4? 1.91 x 10 24 3) How many grams are there in 2.3

More information

Pennsylvania Marcellus Shale Short- Term Ambient Air Sampling Project

Pennsylvania Marcellus Shale Short- Term Ambient Air Sampling Project Pennsylvania Marcellus Shale Short- Term Ambient Air Sampling Project Marcellus Shale Conference November 16, 2011 Nick Lazor Chief, Air Quality Monitoring Division Bureau of Air Quality PA Department

More information

SAMPLE CHAPTERS UNESCO EOLSS PETROCHEMICALS. William L Leffler Venus Consulting, Houston, Texas, USA

SAMPLE CHAPTERS UNESCO EOLSS PETROCHEMICALS. William L Leffler Venus Consulting, Houston, Texas, USA PETROCHEMICALS William L Leffler Venus Consulting, Houston, Texas, USA Keywords: Petrochemicals, ethylene, propylene, butylene, butadiene, ethane, propane, butane, olefin, cracking, distillation, extraction,

More information

Solution. Practice Exercise. Concept Exercise

Solution. Practice Exercise. Concept Exercise Example Exercise 9.1 Atomic Mass and Avogadro s Number Refer to the atomic masses in the periodic table inside the front cover of this textbook. State the mass of Avogadro s number of atoms for each of

More information

DEPARTMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY DIVISION 246. Oregon State Air Toxics Program

DEPARTMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY DIVISION 246. Oregon State Air Toxics Program DEPARTMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY DIVISION 246 Oregon State Air Toxics Program 340-246-0090 Ambient Benchmarks for Air Toxics (1) Purpose. Ambient benchmarks are concentrations of air toxics that serve

More information

Thermoplastic Polyurethane Elastomers (TPU)

Thermoplastic Polyurethane Elastomers (TPU) Thermoplastic Polyurethane Elastomers (TPU) Elastollan Chemical Resistance Acids Solvents Alkalis Alcohols Grease, Oils Water Technical Information Introduction The resistance of plastic materials against

More information

Coimisiún na Scrúduithe Stáit State Examinations Commission

Coimisiún na Scrúduithe Stáit State Examinations Commission 2015. M33 Coimisiún na Scrúduithe Stáit State Examinations Commission LEAVING CERTIFICATE EXAMINATION, 2015 CHEMISTRY ORDINARY LEVEL TUESDAY, 16 JUNE AFTERNOON 2.00 TO 5.00 400 MARKS Answer eight questions

More information

Appendix D lists the Field Services Standard Operating Procedures. Appendix E lists the Biological Monitoring Standard Operating Procedures.

Appendix D lists the Field Services Standard Operating Procedures. Appendix E lists the Biological Monitoring Standard Operating Procedures. Page 16 of 87 3.3 Sample Collection, Storage and Preservation Figure 3 details required containers, sample volumes, preservation techniques, and holding times for proper sample collection. A discussion

More information

Learning Guide 3A Salts Chem 1010. If you could look at them more closely, here's what you would see.

Learning Guide 3A Salts Chem 1010. If you could look at them more closely, here's what you would see. Introduction Learning Guide 3A Salts Chem 1010 Look at the samples in the two bottles you were given. What observations can you make about them? A: B: If you could look at them more closely, here's what

More information

Chemistry Department. Standard Grade Homework Exercise Booklet

Chemistry Department. Standard Grade Homework Exercise Booklet Chemistry Department Standard Grade Homework Exercise Booklet Instructions The purpose of this booklet is to help you revise previous work and improve your knowledge & understanding, to maximise your success

More information

Unit 10A Stoichiometry Notes

Unit 10A Stoichiometry Notes Unit 10A Stoichiometry Notes Stoichiometry is a big word for a process that chemist s use to calculate amounts in reactions. It makes use of the coefficient ratio set up by balanced reaction equations

More information

Chapter 7: Chemical Energy

Chapter 7: Chemical Energy Chapter 7: Chemical Energy Goals of Period 7 Section 7.1: To describe atoms, chemical elements and compounds Section 7.2: To discuss the electromagnetic force and physical changes Section 7.3: To illustrate

More information

Compounds (structure and naming)

Compounds (structure and naming) Compounds (structure and naming) Compounds Ionic (made of ions) Composed of a Metal (left side) and a Nonmetal (right side) One element from the left side and one from the right side of the Periodic Table

More information

Chapter 6 Assessment. Name: Class: Date: ID: A. Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.

Chapter 6 Assessment. Name: Class: Date: ID: A. Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. Name: Class: Date: ID: A Chapter 6 Assessment Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. When an atom loses an electron, it forms a(n) a. anion. c.

More information

TECHNICAL REPORT HOLLOW POLYCARBONATE

TECHNICAL REPORT HOLLOW POLYCARBONATE TECHNICAL REPORT HOLLOW POLYCARBONATE A Brief Introduction Polycarbonate is a very well-known engineering thermoplastic, as clear as glass and as resistant as steel, it is a carbon derivative that gathers

More information

Chemical Equations & Stoichiometry

Chemical Equations & Stoichiometry Chemical Equations & Stoichiometry Chapter Goals Balance equations for simple chemical reactions. Perform stoichiometry calculations using balanced chemical equations. Understand the meaning of the term

More information

Chemistry Post-Enrolment Worksheet

Chemistry Post-Enrolment Worksheet Name: Chemistry Post-Enrolment Worksheet The purpose of this worksheet is to get you to recap some of the fundamental concepts that you studied at GCSE and introduce some of the concepts that will be part

More information

AP Chemistry Pre-Course Packet

AP Chemistry Pre-Course Packet AP Chemistry PreCourse Packet AP Chemistry, Fall 2015 Get excited (and ready) for AP Chemistry! Name: Included in this packet is information about the exam and information you should KNOW (memorize or

More information

Shutting Off Power to EZTouch Panel

Shutting Off Power to EZTouch Panel Shutting Off Power to EZTouch Panel Removing power from the EZTouch Panel does not normally cause a loss of the user program that is stored in the panel unless the battery voltage is low or the battery

More information

Hazardous Waste Training. University Environmental Health & Safety

Hazardous Waste Training. University Environmental Health & Safety Hazardous Waste Training University Environmental Health & Safety Overview What is Hazardous Waste? Identification of Hazardous Waste Characteristic Waste Listed Waste What is RCRA? Review RCRA Regulatory

More information

How to Utilize this Chemical Resistance Guide

How to Utilize this Chemical Resistance Guide How to Utilize this Chemical Resistance Guide Three categories of data are provided for each product and corresponding chemical: 1) breakthrough time; 2) rate, and 3) egradation resistance rating. Color

More information

Test 3 Formula and math of formula review. 2. The oxide of metal X has the formula XO. Which group in the Periodic Table contains metal X?

Test 3 Formula and math of formula review. 2. The oxide of metal X has the formula XO. Which group in the Periodic Table contains metal X? Name: Sunday, November 04, 2007 Test 3 Formula and math of formula review 1. Which is an example of a binary compound? 1. acetic acid 3. potassium hydroxide 2. nitric acid 4. potassium oxide 2. The oxide

More information

ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION

ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION Infrared Technology for Fail-To-Safe Hydrocarbon Gas Detection Authors: Dr. Shankar Baliga is Manager of Research & Development at General Monitors. He has a Ph.D. in Physics from Ohio State University

More information

PROCEDURES FOR LABORATORY CHEMICAL WASTE DISPOSAL

PROCEDURES FOR LABORATORY CHEMICAL WASTE DISPOSAL PROCEDURES FOR LABORATORY CHEMICAL WASTE DISPOSAL In an effort to create a more effective, cost efficient and environmentally friendly waste management system on campus, we are proposing the following

More information

HAZARDOUS CHEMICAL WASTE DISPOSAL SECTION 7

HAZARDOUS CHEMICAL WASTE DISPOSAL SECTION 7 HAZARDOUS CHEMICAL WASTE DISPOSAL According to Ontario environmental legislation, generators of hazardous waste are responsible for properly packaging and labelling such wastes. The University of Toronto

More information

Unit title: Chemical Laboratory Techniques

Unit title: Chemical Laboratory Techniques Unit title: Chemical Laboratory Techniques Unit code: H/601/0355 QCF level: 4 Credit value: 15 Aim This unit gives learners the opportunity to practise and become proficient in a range of practical skills

More information

INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE COLLECTION OF HAZARDOUS WASTE IN BIOCENTER OULU LABORATORIES

INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE COLLECTION OF HAZARDOUS WASTE IN BIOCENTER OULU LABORATORIES INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE COLLECTION OF HAZARDOUS WASTE IN BIOCENTER OULU LABORATORIES All research groups and core facilities in Biocenter Oulu laboratories at Aapistie 5A have a person in charge of hazardous

More information

Summer Assignment Coversheet

Summer Assignment Coversheet Summer Assignment Coversheet Course: A.P. Chemistry Teachers Names: Mary Engels Assignment Title: Summer Assignment A Review Assignment Summary/Purpose: To review the Rules for Solubility, Oxidation Numbers,

More information

Oxidizer(s) Management and Use Guidelines

Oxidizer(s) Management and Use Guidelines Facilities and Campus Services EHS/RMS 3101 Science Circle CPISB Room 102B Anchorage, AK 99508 Oxidizer(s) Management and Use Guidelines This document provides information concerning the handling, storage,

More information

Gas Detection. Selection Guide. Dräger Tubes Dräger CMS Dräger Sensors. Draeger Safety, Inc.

Gas Detection. Selection Guide. Dräger Tubes Dräger CMS Dräger Sensors. Draeger Safety, Inc. d Dräger Tubes Dräger CMS Dräger Sensors Gas Detection Draeger Safety, Inc. 101 Technology Drive Pittsburgh, PA 15275-1057 Tel: 412-787-8383 Fax: 412-787-2207 Customer Service Tel: 1-800-858-1737 Fax:

More information

Application Requirement

Application Requirement Hazardous Gas Monitors Sensor Selection Overview Safety Monitoring (LEL) Toxic Limit Detection (PEL) Leak Detection Personal Safety Application Requirement Exposure Assessment (TWA) Ambient Air Quality

More information